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SOCIAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN MOLDOVA

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POVERTY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

Moldova's standard of living has faced significant decline since independence. In 1992, 79% of the population lived below the poverty level. In 1993, more than 50% of the population could not afford a minimum basket of goods. This situation was exacerbated by the complete price liberalizations of previously subsidized foods which took place in June 1994. While in 1990, food expenditures were 38.3% of all expenditures, they increased to 60% in 1994. The economic transition process has led to a serious growth of unemployment. While the official figure at the beginning of 1995 was equal to 25,000, unofficial estimates refer to 250,000 or even 350,000 unemployed people when "hidden" unemployment is taken into consideration.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

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This information is based on Moldova's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.


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DEMOGRAPHICS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available.

Status   

During the last years, Moldova has faced a declining population growth rate resulting from a declining birth rate and an increasing death rate. Economic difficulties and lack of social and medical services during the transition period are seen as the underlying reasons for the declining birth rate. Between 1989 and 1991, Moldova's birth rate dropped by 33%.

Challenges

The increase in mortality includes increases in maternal, child and infant mortality, increases in murder and suicide, decreases in labor security regulations, increases in alcohol-related illness and mortality and an overall reduced capacity of the medical system.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

No information is available.

   * * *

This information is based on Moldova's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: April 1997

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HEALTH

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry of Health is responsible for health care in Moldova.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

In 1993, legislation was adopted on the sanitary and epidemiological insurance of the population, and, within the Ministry, the Sanitary-Epidemiological Division was founded. Due to lack of financial resources, however, programmes envisaged could not be implemented. In 1995, the Law on Health Protection was approved. Special legislation was adopted to reduce fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The Ministry of Health has set forth the following key strategies in order to address the most urgent medical needs and halt the decline of the health care system:

The Ministry also supports the country's sustainable development policy in order to eventually eliminate environmentally-induced health problems.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 


The Government adopted a National Programme for Health Protection 1995-1997. Under the socialist system of the Soviet Union, health care was guaranteed to the population and provided free of charge. Now, under the free-market economic system, health care is expected to come largely under the control of the private sector.

Status 

The Moldovan health system, like other facets of the social system, has been seriously affected by the economic transition process. Currently, Moldova has only 30% of the medications it requires and a huge deficit of anesthetics, analgesics, antibiotics and other medical supplies. Preventable malnutrition, hypovitaminosis and anemia are increasing.

The Ministry of Health initiated several activities to specifically address the women's health care crisis, including maternal and reproductive health. A National Family Planning Conference was held and called for a coordinated and multilateral approach to the resolution of the problems associated with reproductive health. At present, women in Moldova have the shortest life expectancy of all European women (71.0 years); the maternal mortality rate is four times higher than the European average; and the infant mortality rate is three times higher. Due to the public's limited familiarity with and access to family planning methods and services, abortion serves as a common means of family planning. Moldovan women average 2.5 abortions in their lifetime; 20% of maternal deaths are caused by abortion-related complications.

Environmental pollution, particularly the extensive chemical pollution of water resources and air, have serious consequences for the Moldovan population. The most important environment-health problem is the nitrite pollution of groundwater (more than 60%) which are the main sources for drinking water supply for more than half of the population. The overuse of agricultural chemicals, pesticides and fertilizers, and their remnants in food and water, result in abnormal rates of gastrohepatic pathologies. Regions with waters polluted with said chemicals suffer from 380% higher infant mortality rates, 120% higher adult mortality rates and 570% higher hepatic morbidity than unpolluted regions. Measures have been taken to reduce the use of chemicals in agriculture, e.g. through the use of biological methods for plant protection; as a result, the use of chemicals has decreased significantly during the last years. An Interdepartmental Council was established to certify chemical products used in agriculture.

Challenges

The Moldovan population also suffers from environmental accidents and hazards occurring in neighboring nations, particularly from the effects of the meltdown of the nuclear reactor in Chernobyl. Cancer rates in the north of the country are 40 times higher than in the south. The Ministry of Labor has reported increased trauma and mortality in the workplace due to increasingly dangerous work conditions. The official rate of alcoholism in Moldova in 1994 was three times the rate recorded in 1986. The increased availability of alcohol, combined with high rates of unemployment and overall social decline, create an environment for the abuse of alcohol and illegal drugs.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

Two family planning training sessions for regional health practitioners have been held.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

Within the Ministry of Health, the Institute of Clinical Medicine and Preventive Inspection is undertaking research on health topics, e.g. on the health effects through fertilizers and pesticides. The National Center of Medical Genetics is also undertaking research in the field of health and the environment. Analytical laboratories have been established throughout the country in order to collect data and monitor the health sector.

Financing 

The national health care budget, at US$ 20 per person per year, is only 35% of that required for minimal health care services. The Ministry of Health has determined that it requires a total of US$ 200 million to halt the decline in the nation's health care system and achieve reform based on international health care standards.

Cooperation

In 1994, Moldova received international assistance in the health sector valued at US$ 3.4 million. UNFPA, WHO, UNICEF and the IPPF support the Ministry of Health's activities.

Due to higher salaries in the private sector, many physicians and health personnel have left state-run hospitals and health organizations to join private sector institutions.

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This information is based on Moldova's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update:  April 1997

To access the Health for All On-Line Database (WHO): Europe and CIS countries, click here:
Click here to go to the Health and health-related statistical information from the World Health Organization.

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EDUCATION

There is not yet any information available on this topic.

For general national information about education in the Republic of Moldova, click here:

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HUMAN SETTLEMENTS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Legislation specifically addressing sustainable development of human settlements has not been adopted, but general legislation addresses some issues related to human settlements. Thus, the Law on the Sanitary-Epidemiological Protection of the Population calls for sanitary norms in construction projects and for the protection of human health in general. The Law on the Protection of the Environment requires ecological expertise in construction projects. The Law on the Priorities of Social Development stipulates a 10-year period for the implementation of the State Program of gasification and water supply in rural localities.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available.

Status   

No information is available.

Challenges  

The economic and political crisis of recent years has seriously affected the development of human settlements. Of most concern is the decrease in the volume of housing construction and in the maintenance of infrastructure such as sewerage, water pipelines and gasification. Although the Government developed some settlement programmes, only a few of them could be implemented. Attention is being given to ensuring the supply of gas and fresh water. Housing construction will be handed over to the private sector, with the exception of the supply for vulnerable social groups. Moldova provided more complete information in its National Report to HABITAT II of June, 1996.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation

The Government presented a project proposal to HABITAT in order to attract international assistance for the development of human settlements.

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This information is based on Moldova's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update:  April 1997

For information related to human settlements and refugees, you may access the UNHCR Country Index by clicking here:


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