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NATURAL RESOURCE ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN MOLDOVA

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AGRICULTURE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

Legislation has been enacted to reduce the use of fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture. The legislation relates to the production, sale and use of pesticides, mineral fertilizers, bio-stimulators of growth of plants in agriculture and forestry. A significant reduction has been achieved.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available.

Status 

In 1991, the Parliament approved the Concept of the Agrarian Reform and Social Development in Rural Areas which includes environmental protection demands to a great extent. Legislation has been provided to implement the Concept which calls for afforestation, maintaining natural pedologic processes, the introduction of crop rotation, minimization of soil processing, optimal use of mineral nutrients and an integrated system of plant protection. The extent of irrigation and land drying is to be reduced.

The privatization of land is the core of the reform. A land inventory has been carried out, prices for land plots have been set and land distribution was initiated. The right to land distribution and management was given to local authorities. By July 1996, local authorities had received 53,000 applications for farming land; of this, land has already been distributed to 36,000 persons. However, many farms have not been registered properly and the established plans have not always been respected in the process of land distribution. The reform process is also hindered through lack of technical, material and financial support. Furthermore there are no consulting or training facilities, especially for new and inexperienced farmers and there is a lack of technical equipment for small-scale farming. Since then only urban plots have been subject to privatization. The question of transforming agricultural land was discussed by Parliament in December 1996.

Moldova is considered to be one of the top-ranking agricultural nations in the world, due to the chernozem soil which is rich in humus and constitutes 75% of the land. However, the integrity of the soil has been compromised after years of intensive, chemically-supported agriculture. Disregard for crop rotation and a high degree of agricultural specialization and concentration resulted in the application of large amounts of fertilizers and pesticides and in soil degradation. It is estimated that the quality of the soils has declined by 25% to 30% during the last decades. Further problems result from livestock production: there is a lack of technologies for waste water treatment and for the treatment of offal.

Challenges

The effects of erosion cause additional problems. It is estimated that about 80% of the country's territory is affected by erosion and that the country loses 20 to 25 million tons of its most fertile top soil annually. Apart from natural causes, unsound agricultural practices are the main causes of soil erosion, e.g. the exploitation of low-productive areas.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information is based on Moldova's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: April 1997.

For country reports on Plant Genetic Resources, click here.
For general national information on the agriculture sector in the Republic of Moldova, click here:
To access the FAOSTAT Data Base for information by country, item, element and year, click here:
Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to link to Country and Sub-regional Information on Plant Genetic Resources of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
Click here to go to Web Site of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, which includes information on the Codex Alimentarius and the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme.
Click here to access the Web Site of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).
Click here to access the sixteen international agricultural research centers that are members of the CGIAR.

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ATMOSPHERE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Responsibility is the Ministries of: Environment and Territorial Development; and Health.  At the District level there are established Environmental Protection and Natural Resources Use Sections and Health Divisions (under the District Council).

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The general objective of protection of environment in our republic is defined by the Constitution of the Republic of Moldova (art. 37, art. 46, art. 59 and etc.).

For example:

   Art. 37 (1) requires that:

“ Each person has a right for the ecologically safe environment as well as for safe food and other goods for house use”.

                            Art. 37 (2) requires that:

“ The country guarantees for each person the right for free access to environmental information, conditions of life and labor, quality of food and goods of house use and for distribution of this information“.                            The main activities for atmospheric air pollution prevention are included in the range of laws, prepared and entered in force after the Republic of Moldova became independent. The following legislative acts were developed and introduced:

 \\On a base of the Law on Licensing Certain Tips of Activities, no. 290, June 17, 1999, Ministry of Environment delivers licenses for:

§         production, import-export and consumption inside the republic of the ODSs,  controlled by  the Montreal Protocol, and the products, which contain these substances.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

In the National Strategic Action Program for Environmental Protection, approved by the Decree of the President of the Republic of Moldova in 1995 and National Environmental Action Plan, approved by the Decision of the Government in 1996 the “Polluter pays” principle was included. Realization of this principle was established in new legal and normative acts:

The main goal of the Law on the Payment for Environmental Pollution is the implementation of the “Polluter pays” principle and stimulation of environmental activities at industrial enterprises in the process of restructuring and privatization.

Also, strategic directions of environmental protection, including atmospheric air protection were included in the following documents:           

 Presently the following documents are under development: 

-         Total exclusion of use of leaded petrol;

-         Supplying the auto vehicles with neutralizers and catalysts;

-          Reduction of sulphur in fuel; and

-         Enhance the use of gaseous fuel for transport. 

Greenhouse gas emissions - Presently the following document is under development:

First National Communication in the framework of UNDP project “Enabling Moldova to prepare its first National Communication in response to its commitments to the UN FCCC”.  Chapters “Inventory of greenhouse gases” and “Diminishing of greenhouse gases” are included in this communication, where the measures for reduction of priority greenhouse gases and other gases such as Nox, NMVOCs, CO etc. were developed.

Substances that deplete the ozone layer:  The Government of the Republic of Moldova started the implementation of the National Program on gradual submission of substances depleting ozone layer in Republic of Moldova, approved by Decision of the Government of the Republic of Moldova (nr.1064 from 11.11.1999).

The strategic goals of the Government are as follows:

Transboundary air pollution: Republic of Moldova is a party of the international conventions: on Long-range Transboundary Air       Pollution (Geneva, 1979).  In the framework of this Convention Republic of Moldova signed in 1998 two Aarhus Protocols: on Heavy Metals and on Persistent Organic Pollutants.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

On a base of the Provisional Agreement, July 13, 1999 closed between Ministry of Environment and Department of Standards, Metrology and Technical Supervision:

 §         Ministry of Environment delivers licenses on a base of technical examination and certificates of technical security, delivered by the Department of Standards, Metrology and Technical Supervision.

 According to the Action Plan of the National Programmer on Gradual Submission of Substances Depleting Ozone Layer in the Republic of Moldova were fulfilled:

§         Elaborated Government Decision regarding the Regulation on Commercial Regime and Settlement of Use of Halogenated Hydrocarbons Depleted Ozone Layer;

§         Prepared Government and Parliament Decisions regarding the ratifications of the London and Copenhagen Amendments to the Montreal Protocol, both Decisions are sent to all interested ministries and departments to be coordinated;

§         Delivered, in collaboration with National Committee for Ozone Problems, the annual quotas for import of the ODSs and products, which contain controlled substances.

Status   

No information is available.

Challenges  

Moldova also suffers from the effects of transboundary air pollution. It is estimated that air pollution resulting from other countries, particularly from Ukraine, Romania, Czech Republic and Slovakia, contributes four to five times more pollution to Moldova's air than national sources.  It is quite evident that worldwide policy on the reduction of GHG emissions should be obligatory and uniform for all the states. Large majority of generally coordinated activities should exhibit favorable results.

Moldova has only two hydroelectric power stations and is forced to import almost all its energy resources. Given this situation, the potential of renewable energy sources has been explored. It has been found that solar energy is particularly applicable to the country and that there is also a potential for the use of wind energy. Biogas is relatively unexplored in Moldova, but the agricultural base presents a strong potential for biogas production and utilization. Tax exemptions have been introduced for the installation of energy-saving technologies. The energy supply system also suffers from a high degree of energy losses due to inappropriate technologies and lack of control.

The economical blockade in 1990, organized by Russia, inevitably caused the necessity to find out new means and unofficial ways of fuel supply for our industry, transport and population. Not all the fuel resources imported have been registered, evaluated and published. There are still a lot of doubts, concerning the reliability and accuracy of the  statistical data for 1990.

It should be mentioned that unofficial fuel import resources that have appeared during the blockade remained, were perfected and became illegal resources of imported fuel. Such type of fuel is not included in the official statistical data and causes inadequacies in UN-DOWN calculation method for energy consumption. Especially it was obvious in recent years when statistical data do not coincide with the submitted data from the governmental institutions, consuming primary energy resources.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

Moldova does not manufacture any substances under Montreal protocol. The successful implementation of the various components of the Refrigerant Management Plan (trainings, and implementation of legislation, regulations and economic instruments) will lead to the effective phase out of CFC in the refrigeration sector (approximately 49 ODP tons).

 

           COMPONENT                         !                   EXPECTED IMPACT

_______________________________!___________________________________________

  Institutional Strengthening                 !  Effective monitoring and coordination of all phase-out

                                                              ! activities

 Training of Trainers in Good               ! By 2000:

Refrigerant Management Practicies     ! – Elimination of 1.9 ODP tonnes CFC-11

                                                             ! – Reduction of 12.5 ODP tonnes CFC-12

                                                             ! – Reduction of 0.042 ODP tonnes CFC-113

                                                             ! – Reduction of 0.028 ODP tonnes CFC- 22

                                                             ! Further:

                                                             ! – Containment of refrigerant during service

                                                             ! and retrofitting.

Development and application              ! – Reduction of imports

of economic and policy                       ! – Consumption controlled to the freeze level

instruments                                           ! requirements

_____________________________________________________________________________

Training on selection and                     ! – Effective development and implementation of

establishment of economic and            ! proposed legislation/regulations/economic

policy instruments                                ! instruments

Training in Monitoring and Control     ! – Appropriate implementation of revised harmonized

 Of CFC and CFC equipment               ! customs code for better record keeping

                                                              ! – Accurate data for reporting purposes

National Recovery and Recycling        ! – Termination of imports of refrigerants by 2008 or

Project                                                   ! earlier, through use of recovered  and recycled

                                                              ! refrigerants, particularly for domestic equipment until

                                                              ! end of their economic life.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation

The Ministry of Environment and Territorial Development of our country developed a draft of the New Concept of Environmental Policy of the Republic of Moldova and one of the items of this concept is international cooperation.  The Republic of Moldova is party of the international conventions:

            -         on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (Geneva, 1979);

-         on Climate Change (New York, 1992);

-         for the Protection of the Ozone (Vienna, 1985) and Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (1987);

-         on the Transboundary Effects of Industrial Accidents (Helsinki, 1992);

-         on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (Espoo,1991); and

-         on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal Basel),  -  and other conventions.

The stipulations of the national legislation established the procedure of international cooperation, exchange of the information, access to information and other stipulations. Cooperation in the CIS framework:

§    The Republic of Moldova has ratified its accession to the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), except for all political or military agreements. Only the economic union agreements were accepted in April 1994, when Moldova became a member of the Interstate Economic Commission. The Republic of Moldova is also a member of the Interstate Ecological Council (IEC) of CIS. This organization was created in 1992. Its main functions are:  Coordinating environmental policies;

Cooperation with Ukraine:

The Republic of Moldova signed the Cooperation Agreement between the Ministry of Environment and Territorial Development of the Republic of Moldova and the Ministry for Environmental Protection of Ukraine in the different fields of environmental protection: air, soil, water, flora and fauna, chemical contamination in soil, processing and utilization of industrial and household waste and other fields.

Cooperation with Romania:

In March 1997 the cooperation agreement on environmental protection and the sustainable use of natural resources was signed between Moldova’s Ministry of Environment and Territorial Development and Romania’s Ministry of Water, Forests and Environmental Protection.  The main areas of cooperation are:

Cooperation with Belarussia:  In December 1994, an agreement was signed with the Belarussian Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection. The two partners committed themselves to coordinating the drafting of legislation, methodologies, energy- and resource-saving technologies, to protecting soils and fertility, to using mineral and forest resources rationally, to protecting the genetic fund of rare animal and plant species, as well as to sharing information and experiences.

In framework of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution the Republic of Moldova signed in 1998 two Aarhus Protocols:

-         on Heavy Metals;

-         on Persistent Organic Pollutants.

Also, the Republic of Moldova participated in preparing of Gothenburg Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone. In this Protocol Republic of Moldova included our obligations regarding the emission ceilings for sulphur, nitrogen oxides, ammonia and volatile organic compounds for year 2010. Our country signed this Protocol in conformity with art. 14 of mentioned Protocol.

The plans regarding all the Protocols to Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution:

 The Republic of Moldova participates in the work of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for an International Legally Binding Instrument for Implementing International Action on Certain Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) – New Global Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. The Republic of Moldova plans to adopt and sign further documents of New Global Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants.

In 2000 The Gothenburg Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone. In this Protocol Republic of Moldova included its obligations regarding the emission ceilings for sulphur, nitrogen oxides, ammonia and volatile organic compounds for year 2010.

* * *
This information is based on Moldova's submission to the 9th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update:  March 2001.

Click here for national information from the Web site of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
For the access to the Web Site of the Ozone Secretariat, click here:

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BIODIVERSITY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The Convention on Biological Diversity was signed in 1992 and ratified in 1995. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora has not been ratified. Moldova ratified the Convention on Wildlife and Natural Habitats Conservation in Europe (Bern, 1979).

The elaboration of a strategy and policy for biodiversity conservation is the responsibility of the Department for Environmental Protection. The management of protected areas is carried out by the Association Moldsilva (State natural preservation, protected forest areas) and by local governments (natural monuments). A new and comprehensive draft of the Law on the Foundation of Protected Areas was elaborated and submitted to the Government in 1996. In 1996, the Department for Environmental Protection also prepared the "Concept on Biodiversity Protection in the Republic of Moldova".

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available.

Status 

Several protected areas have been created through the past years (the number of State Natural Reservations increased from 1 in 1990 to 3 in 1993 and to 5 in 1995), and there are plans to establish some more national parks and reservations. Protected areas then would cover 2.7% of the national territory. Two hundred five species were included into the national red list for protected species.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

* * *

This information is based on Moldova's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: April 1997

For access to the Web Site of the Convention on Biological Diversity, click here:
For access to the Web Site of the CITES Convention, click here:
For the Web Site of the CMS Convention, click here:
For the Web Site of the Convention on the Protection of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage, click here:
For the country-by-country, Man in the Biosphere On-Line Query System, click here:
Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to go to the Web Site of UNEP's International Register on Biosafety.
Click here for the International Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Biosafety WebPages

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DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

In 1994 and 1996, Moldova was subject to droughts affecting agricultural production. Scientists consider that drought might become an annual to biannual event in Moldova.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

The International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa has not been signed.

 


* * *

This information is based on Moldova's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

For access to the Web Site of the Convention to Combat Desertification and Drought, click here:

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ENERGY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Responsibility is with the Ministries of: Industry and Energy; Transport and Communications; Environment and Territorial Development; National Agency for Energy Conservation ; Scientific Support: Institute of Energy of Academy of Science; Department of Energy and Energy Resources

The establishment of a Central Coordinating Mechanism for Sustainable Development is foreseen in the National Environmental Strategic Action Program. The Ministry of Environment and Territorial Development (METD) was created in 1999. Several specialized institutions and agencies are involved in the  cooperation with the METD in the implementation of environmental policy. In the administrative structures for environmental management and in the structure of the METD nowadays is proposed to introduce the natural resources management.

Within the Ministry of Environment and Territorial Development, State Ecological Inspectorate has been established to examine violations of ecological legislation, control the ecological consequences of economic activities and put forward the polluter pays principle. Environmental quality standards have been developed. Several state associations have been established to control environmental protection and to monitor the use of resources. State Forest Service is responsible for the protection of fauna and forests, "Ageom" is monitoring mineral resources and underground waters, "Apele Moldovei" is controlling the water resources.

1.      National Agency for Energy Conservation:

-         energy production licenses

-         establishment of the energy tariffs

2.      Ministry of Environment and Territorial Development

-         sets up admissible emission levels.  

3.      Department of Energy and Energy Resources

-         co-ordinate activities in the field of energy with environment and transport authorities.

Energy divisions in the District (Judet) level; District Offices of the National Agency for Energy Conservation; and Territorial Ecological Agencies (in the Districts).

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The following legislation regarding atmospheric air protection is in force:

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

                   - Stabilizing the supply of energy;

       - Increasing the use of electricity and heat;

       - Increasing the use of non-conventional energy;

       - Reducing energy consumption per unit of production;

       - Creating of independent joint stock companies;

      - Energy conservation, reduce pollution from energy sector;

By 2005 to reducing with 10% the energy intensity of the GDP (2-3% per year) and use of renewable sources of energy 2,5-3% of total energy amounts.

Strategic goals of the energy policy for the Republic of Moldova for 2000-2010:     

-         Increasing of the energy efficiency and energy conservation;

-         Supporting of the energy safety;

-         Protecting of the environment.

In the Indicative Plan of Activities in Energy Sector (Section V “Energy conservation”) of the National Strategy of the Republic of Moldova for 2000-2010 as activities for 2000-2001 were include:

-         Establishment of the National Fund on energy conservation;

-         Elaboration and implementation of the national programs on management of the energy consumption and its monitoring;

-         Increasing of the efficiency of the activity of the National Agency on Energy Conservation.

Between 2000-2005, Republic of Moldova will elaborate on: 

-         The standards of the energy consumption in the buildings, traffic and per unit of production, etc. and

-         The programs on education and awareness of population in the field of energy.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

Trade-unions (proposals); National Council for Energy (proposals for placement of energy enterprises, new equipment, etc, use mass-media for the promotion of their position in Government and Parliament) and consumer groups, scientists.

2/3 from the distribution lines are private; 1/3 in the process of privatization; Production (TEP-1 TEP-2, TEP-B from Chisinau) are  in the process of  privatization (till the end of 2000).

Programmes and Projects   

Plan for the demonopolisation  of the electricity sector:

Energy Sector Development Programmed and Energy Saving Programmed.  There are nominal compensations for energy supply to low-income households.

Main programmes undertaken to cut down emission of greenhouse gases and reduce GHG concentration in the atmosphere include:

Programme for Air pollution diminution from transport (1999):  According to this Programmed, a range of measures for reduction of toxic emissions into air is foreseen:

Status   

98-99%  of energy resources are imported (4758th tons/year):

        oil – 1326th tons                                                                

                             gas – 2436th tons                                                                              

                             coal – 427th  tons                                                                              

                             electricity energy – 569th tons 

National Agency for Energy Regulation allows the distributors to buy electric resources from the market.

Republic of Moldova is dependent  on imported energy resources from Russian Federation, Ukraine (gas,  coal, oil) and Romania (electric energy).

Challenges  

Air pollution caused by energy production:  emissions from TEP-Chisinau – 59,2%;

Investments are needed (no investments in the state budget for this purpose). 

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

National Agency for Energy Conservation – information works with population concerning energy conservation (using mass-media),  energy audit industry, agriculture, pilot-projects for energy conservation.  

Special courses on energy saving and energy resources are offered in Primary and Secondary school, Colleges,  Technical University, and Pedagogic University.

Information   

Energy enterprises reports, Statistical data, and Customs control. 

Mass-media

Research and Technologies   

Biogás; Solar energy; Wind energy; Coal – only in private use and small heating plants are being developed in Moldova.

Rail road transportation, Gas pipe lines, Oil terminal (Danube river, construction works are temporary stopped).

Financing   

 Biogás; Solar energy; Wind energy; Coal – only in private use and small heating plants are being developed in Moldova.

 Rail road transportation, Gas pipe lines, Oil terminal (Danube river, construction works are temporary stopped).

Cooperation

Secretariat of Energy Charter; Bilateral cooperation (NIS, Europe); and Collaboration with private companies in energy.

 UNDP UN FCCC Project funded by GEF

 Agreement with Secretariat of Energy Charter and Agreement with Black Sea Regional Energy Center. 

  * * *

 

This information is based on Moldova's submission to the 9th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development.  Last update:  March 2001.

No information was available under this topic.

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FORESTS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The state association, Moldsilva, is responsible for forest management. Legislation was enacted to address the issue of illegal logging and to establish prices for forest resources utilization. A new Forest Code was approved in 1996. A non-governmental organization - Forest Progress - was created in 1995 to ensure public participation in decision-making concerning forest policy.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

Reforestation and afforestation programs have been developed, but due to financial constraints, only part of the programs have been implemented so far. Illegal logging is increasing, due to rising prices for fuel and other energy raw materials, and has destroyed many protection belts in recent years, increasing the area in danger of erosion. Legislation was enacted in order to


In 1995, an annual National Day of the Green Tree was established to be held on the first Saturday of April. On this day, the whole nation is called to plant trees.

Status   

No information is available.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation

The Ministry of Forests, Water and the Environment of Romania provided technical assistance to the association Moldsilva in the field of forest management.

 

* * *

This information is based on Moldova's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: April 1997.


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FRESHWATER

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Department for Environmental Protection and the State-Association Acva are responsible for water management and water protection. The organization, Hidrometeo, and the Sanitary-Epidemiologic Division of the Ministry of Health carry out water quality analysis of surface waters. The state association Acva carries out construction work on water pipelines, sewerage systems and irrigation systems, undertakes water protection and decontamination measures and is assigned to develop water saving technologies. The state association AGEOM carries out the cadaster of underground waters and geological surveys and is responsible for the monitoring, use and protection of underground waters.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The Government adopted several decisions on fresh water protection and on the management and use of mineral water sources. Legislation has also been adopted to resolve water pollution resulting from military facilities of the former Soviet Union.

In the light of these difficulties, the Government approved the Waters Code in 1993 and established a water preservation policy calling for the following measures to ensure sustainable use of waters:

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

Several programs have been developed in recent years aiming to improve the water supply, but due to financial restrictions, they have not been fully implemented. Charges have been introduced for water consumption and payments for water pollution. Tax reductions have been introduced for water-saving technologies. In 1991, a system of payments was introduced for all types of water uses and for waste water discharges.

Status 

The total water resources of Moldova constitute 13,156 million m3, of which 12,910 million m3 are terrestrial waters and 246 million m3 are underground waters. The quality of Moldova's water resources is considered the poorest in Europe, primarily due to residues from agricultural chemicals. Most potable water resources are contaminated to some extent, with nitrites, nitrates, fluor and residues of pesticides. There are about 120,000 water wells in use, 60% of which show high nitrite concentrations. Another local source of water pollution, especially through fuels, are the military facilities of the former Soviet Union.

Moldova has more than 650 water treatment plants, including 35 complex systems in urban areas. In 1993, only 40% of them were in operation. About 70% of the population is connected to waste water treatment plants. In 1994, over 1.81 billion m3 of waste water, including 16 million m3 of unpurified residuals, and approximately 15 million m3 of insufficiently purified water were dumped into the water system. Industrial and agro-industrial plants sometimes do not operate their existing waste water treatment plants due both to high operation costs and to lack of resources for repairs and maintenance. Currently, 120 water purification systems are seriously deteriorated of which only 46 can be repaired. Broken waste water drainage systems are also a serious threat to water resources. In 1992, 294 cases of broken drainage systems were known.

Challenges

Moldova was subject to agriculturally devastating droughts in 1994 and 1996 and meteorologists consider that drought will become an annual to biannual event in Moldova. The situation is worsening because of the large amount of water consumed in industry and agriculture and the high rate of domestic water use.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

The Republic of Moldova signed an agreement with Ukraine concerning the rational use and protection of transboundary waters. The Republic of Moldova also signed the Danube Convention (1994) and the Action Plan for Environmental Protection in the Danube Basin (1995) and ratified the UN/ECE Convention on Protection and Use of Transboundary River Courses and International Lakes (Helsinki, 1992).

* * *

This information is based on Moldova's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update:  April 1997 .


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LAND MANAGEMENT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Within the Ministry of Agriculture and Food the Department for Land Resources is responsible for the planning and management of land resources. Many rights have been delegated to local government.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

A legal basis has been approved in the Land Code, the Law on Land Monitoring and Cadastre, the Law on Land Taxes, and others. With support from the European Union's TACIS programme, the National Association of Private Agricultural Farmers has been established. In the near future a special non-governmental Agency for Assistance in the Agricultural Private Sector will be established.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Recent political and socio-economic conditions require both new plans for local land use and the reform of the administrative-territorial division of the Republic. A new land use policy is needed which will allow the local public administration to benefit from municipal property taxes and fees. One of the first steps in this direction is reform of the system for land registration, which has already begun with the help of the World Bank.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

Under the National Program for Strategic Action in the Environment, the Government introduced new environmentally-conscious schemes for natural resources utilization (particularly the use of forests and land), fertilizer and pesticide control, and water, air and soil protection.

Status   

No information is available.

Challenges

The agricultural development policies of the former Soviet Union contributed to the environmental degradation of Moldova. The specialization of farms, the excessive use of pesticides and fertilizers and poor irrigation practices played havoc with soils and water. Poor economic policies in the industrial and agro industry sector resulted in further damage.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

No information is available.

   * * *

This information is based on Moldova's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update:  April 1997


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MOUNTAINS

No information is available.



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OCEANS AND COASTAL AREAS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

Moldova is a land-locked country and the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea has not been ratified.

 

* * * 

This information is based on Moldova's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

For information on the status of ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, click here:

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TOXIC CHEMICALS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Department of Environment and the Ministry of Health are responsible for the control of toxic substances and have the authority to issue licenses for their production, transport and use. The Department of Civil Defense is involved in the prevention of possible accidents and the accounting of dangerous substances. The Ministry of Agriculture is in charge of the import, storage and use of fertilizers and pesticides. There is a lack of scientific capacity to deal with dangerous substances, except radioactive waste disposal.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The Law on the Protection of the Environment, the Law on the Protection of the Consumer, the Law on Noxious Substances and some general legislation refer to the production and utilization of toxic substances. Provision is made for the storage, usage and transport of dangerous substances, and the import of wastes is forbidden. But there is still a need for more specific regulations. At present, the legislation of the former USSR is being used until local standards and legislation is approved. Legislation needed to join the Basel Convention has been prepared. A Law on Wastes was drafted and submitted to the Government in 1996.

The Government is committed to cleaning up waste sites, particularly toxic ones remaining from the Soviet era, and establishing regulations to create and enforce waste management schemes, particularly in the fields of industry and agriculture. The Government is promoting the establishment of both recycling and waste minimization programmes and a national database to monitor waste sites and toxic substances. Moldova seeks to coordinate and implement programmes in accordance with European Union standards.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available.

Status 

Dangerous substances result from 67 production facilities which do not all have the possibilities to reuse this waste. In 1993, more than 30,000 tons of toxic wastes were stored in 69 storage facilities around cities and towns and in more than 1,300 places in rural areas. The total surface of these storage areas in 1993 was about 750 ha. Dangerous substances are often illegally deposited on these dump sites.

According to the Law on Environmental Protection (1993) the import of any type of waste into the Republic of Moldova is forbidden. A special waste dump was constructed for the safe storage of radioactive wastes for 15-20 years.

Challenges

The Government decided to build facilities to destroy dangerous substances and pesticides and to establish an institution for research and management of dangerous substances. Neither of these have been implemented due to the lack of financial resources. Funds for combating environmental pollution from wastes have been reduced over the last years, due to financial constraints and the economic crisis. The Government now seeks international assistance in this field.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

No information is available.

* * *

This information is based on Moldova's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: April 1997


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WASTE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Solid Waste and Sanitation

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

Approximately three million tons of solid wastes are accumulated annually in Moldova. Centralized and systematic collection of household wastes is only done in towns. There are no specialized agencies for waste recycling in Moldova. In 1987, construction plans were proposed for central waste incineration in Chisinau. Due to lack of funds, however, the construction was postponed (the cost of this project at the time was estimated at approximately 20 million US dollars). Thus, the issue of waste incineration is still pending.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *


This information is based on Moldova's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.


Hazardous Wastes

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The Customs Department is responsible for the prevention of waste import. According to the Law on Environmental Protection (1993) the import of any type of waste into the Republic of Moldova is forbidden. See discussion under Toxic Chemicals.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal has not been ratified.

 

* * *

This information is based on Moldova's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.


Radioactive Wastes

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry of Health, the Department of Standardization, Metrology and Technical Supervision, the Department for Environmental Protection and the Department of Civil Defense are in charge of the management of radioactive substances.

The Law on the Protection of the Population from Radiation was drafted and submitted to the Parliament.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Legislation has been prepared on the monitoring of radioactive substances and on nuclear safety.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available.

Status

Technical equipment is needed for measuring radiation.

Some 342 enterprises in Moldova are working with radioactive substances. A center for the storage of radioactive wastes  nis in operation east of Chisinau City. The Ministry of Health is responsible for the control of radioactivity and for the storage of radioactive waste. As the equipment of the Ministry is not up to date, the National Committee for Radiation Protection has been established.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

The International Atomic Energy Agency provided equipment for radiological monitoring and training courses.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

No information is available.

* * *

This information is based on Moldova's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update:  April 1997

For direct link to the Web Site of the Basel Convention, click here:

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