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INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN MOLDOVA

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INTEGRATED DECISION-MAKING

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The establishment of a Central Coordinating Mechanism for Sustainable Development is foreseen in the National Programme for Strategic Action in the Environment. A Department for Environmental Protection was established in 1990. Several specialized institutions and agencies were founded to cooperate with the department in the implementation of environmental polices. The administrative structure for environmental management and the structure of the Department for Environmental Protection now need better coordination and consolidation.

Within the Department for Environmental Protection, an Inspection of Environmental Quality has been established to examine violations of ecological legislation, to control the ecological consequences of economic activities and to put forward the polluter pays principle. Environmental quality standards have been developed. Several state associations have been established to control environmental protection and to monitor the use of resources. "Moldsilva" is responsible for the protection of fauna and forests, "Aceom" is monitoring mineral resources and underground waters, "Acva" is controlling the water resources.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The Constitution guarantees the right to a favorable environment and free access to environmental information. In the general process of renewing legislation over the past few years, comprehensive legislation has been introduced to implement and support environmental management and protection:

- the Law on Environmental Protection (1993);

- the Waters Code (1993);

- the Underground Code (1993);

- the Land Code (1991);

- the Forest Code (1996);

- the Law on Sanitary and Epidemiological Protection of the Population (1993);

- the Law on the Protection of Consumers (1993);

- the Law on Fauna (1995);

- the Law on Ecological Expertise and Environmental Impact Assessment (1996).

Several Government and Parliamentary decisions amend this legislation and further legislation has been submitted to the Parliament on the state fund on protected areas and on waste control. Along with legislation, charges have been introduced for the use of natural resources like water, soil, flora and fauna as well as fines for environmental pollution.

Environmental Impact Assessments are mandatory for all projects and programs that might have an impact on the environment. EIAs are carried out through the Ecological Expert Evaluation Unit. The control of the implementation of ecological legislation is carried out through the procurator's office of ecology.

The Law on Environmental Protection determines the rights and responsibilities of local governments and individuals in environmental protection, e.g., it ensures the right of the public to participate in decision-making concerning activities which might influence the environment. Since 1995, NGOs like the Ecological Movement, which is the largest environmental NGO in Moldova, participate in decision-making processes.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The government has formulated the political, economic and social priorities to overcome this situation and to shape the country's development process, and it has integrated environmental issues into these priorities. The Programme of Privatization is one of the fundamentals of present policies. In it two-thirds of all state-controlled property is subject to privatization.

With the support of the World Bank, the National Programme for Strategic Action in the Environment and the National Environmental Action Plan were elaborated and approved in 1995. They provide strategic guidelines to the year 2020 and an Action Plan for the years 1996 - 1998. The National Programme and the Action Plan support environmental conservation, resource protection, ecological monitoring, rural development, forest conservation, biodiversity protection, potable water supply and protection and technology transfer and calls for financial support for this national effort. The national programme also addresses the impact of the national transition, including the privatization of land and industry, on the environment. This is particularly important as the state will lose direct control over these units, and without regulations, the drive for profit could lead to environmental disregard. The Government recognizes that the transition to a market economy does not automatically guarantee the pursuit of sustainable development. The National Programme and the Action Plan therefore work to promote the integration of economic and environmental decision-making. The programmes also call for the creation of laws, the establishment of an Environmental Code and the licensing and/or prohibition of negative environmental activities. A licensing system for the use of natural resources has been implemented already.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

In February 1995, Moldova held its first National Conference on Sustainable Human Development with the participation of the President of the Republic of Moldova, high level governmental and ministerial officials, scientists and academicians and with the support of UNDP. The conference reviewed Moldova's development and resulted in the First National Human Development Report.

Programmes and Projects 

Environmental issues were considered before UNCED. In 1987, the Parliament adopted the Complex Program for Environmental Protection and Rational Use of the Natural Resources until 2005. In 1994, the Territorial Scheme for Environmental Protection and Natural Resources until 2010 was carried out. The Territorial Scheme calls for measures to ensure an ecological equilibrium in Moldova, especially through the establishment of a system of protected areas. Annual plans of measures for protection of the environment are being carried out. In 1993, the Government approved a decision calling for the development of a new national ecological program adjusted to the economic transition process.

Status 

All policies and all activities in Moldova are determined from the continuing economic and political crisis resulting from the transition process since the country became independent in 1991. All economic parameters indicate an economic collapse since 1990. Production of all sectors decreased significantly; total industrial production in 1995 was 60% less than in 1990; agricultural production in 35% less in 1995 than in 1990. Capital investments in the first quarter of 1994 amounted to 14% of the investments in the same period in 1989.

It was ensured that, apart from land, natural resources are state patrimony and are not supposed to be privatized. The problem of compensating environmental damages resulting from entities that are subject to privatization has not fully been solved. As a part of the re-industrialization efforts, the improved use of local raw material sources is envisaged and energy-saving technologies are being promoted.

Challenges

The non-availability of Agenda 21 in the Russian or Romanian language is a serious constraint to the implementation of sustainable development and reduces the number of people working on this issue at the national level to a small circle of government employees and experts.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing 

The annual social and economic costs of environmental pollution and degradation are estimated at US$ 130 - 216 million. Environmental expenditures in 1995 were less than 1% of GDP.

Cooperation

Moldova seeks to revise its environmental standards in accordance with European Union standards, and cooperates with the United Nations to pursue sustainable development. The Government has signed the Plan of Actions for Central and Eastern European Countries. Agreements have been established with the Ministry of Environment of Romania (inter alia on the protection of the river Prut) and with the Ministry for Environmental Protection of Ukraine (e.g. on the management of the rivers Nistru and Danube).

* * *

This information is based on Moldova's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997 .

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MAJOR GROUPS

WOMEN

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Moldova actively participated in global activities addressing gender issues, e.g. in the Fourth World Conference on Women 1995. Moldova hosted a Regional Conference on Women in 1995 in cooperation with Moldovan NGOs and adopted additional legislation further promoting the equality of women in society. However, this could not stop the decline of women's involvement in decision-making since independence. While women held 36.3% of the seats in the former Moldovan Supreme Soviet, they only hold 4.9% of the seats in today's Parliament. There are no women in ministerial positions and they hold only 7% of positions as government department heads.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women was ratified on 1 July 1994. 

 

 

* * *

This information is based on Moldova's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

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CHILDREN AND YOUTH

There is no information available on this topic.

 

INDIGENOUS PEOPLE

There is no information available on this topic.

NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

Mechanisms exist already promoting and allowing NGOs to participate in the conception, establishment and evaluation of official mechanisms to review Agenda 21 implementation. These NGO inputs are on an ad hoc basis. A non-governmental Association on Ecological Management and Sustainable Development was established in 1993. There are 42 ecological NGOs. Since 1994/95, the participation of NGOs in decision-making has become more significant. In 1997, a National Office for New Regional Environmental and Ecological Centres will be established which will coordinate NGO activities.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information is based on Moldova's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

LOCAL AUTHORITIES

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

The Government does not support local Agenda 21 initiatives.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information is based on Moldova's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.


WORKERS AND UNIONS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

Workers do not yet participate in National Agenda 21 discussions or implementation.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information is based on Moldova's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.


BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

There are governmental policies encouraging increasing the efficiency of resource use, including reuse, recycling, and reduction of waste per unit of economic output. A few enterprises of various sizes have adopted sustainable development policies.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information is based on Moldova's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.


SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

Not much has changed in the area of improving exchange of knowledge and concerns between the science and technology community and the general public.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information is based on Moldova's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 199.

 

FARMERS

There is no information available on this topic.

 

SCIENCE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

One of the highest research priorities is the elaboration of new technologies for reducing energy consumption and for the use of non-traditional and renewable sources of energy production. The Government each year approves the State Programme for Scientific Research, which is financed from the State Budget and contains a special environmental component that amounts to approximately US$ 250,000 per year.

In 1991, the National Institute of Ecology was founded under the auspices of the Department of the Environment to perform scientific and applied studies in the field of environmental protection and to coordinate research in this area. Research is also undertaken through the institutions of the Academy of Sciences, e.g. through the Institutes of Chemistry, Geography, Geology, Botany, Genetics and Plant Protection and other bodies like the Institute of Pedology and Agro chemistry.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information is based on Moldova's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

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INFORMATION

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

Responsibility is with the Ministries of:  Transport and Communications; Environment and Territorial Development (Environmental Information Center); Economy and Reforms; Internal Affairs; Culture; Department of Statistical and Sociological Analyses; and the National Library       

Public Relation Division in the Municipal Primaries; and Culture Municipal and District Divisions.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Information networks are a key element of the infrastructure of modern society. In Moldova, the flows of international communication, whether economic, human, political, etc. will be impossible without a national information system connected to regional and international networks.  The main objectives are:

Actions:

Preservation and capacity building of information related to traditional and indigenous knowledge.  

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

Local and central authorities and Scientists

Programmes and Projects   

The Republic of Moldova is connected to international network.  The main objectives include: UPU; ITU-PTEC-EUTELSAT; and TERENA.

Status   

The main goal of computerization is the implementation of such information means that would allow the operative access of state, public enterprises, and the population to selective, on valid information needed for a variety of activities. Over the next 10-15 years the Republic of Moldova could attain an information system similar to one medium-developed countries.

It is necessary to implement modern information network and technologies that will cover both the country territory and different spheres of activity.  

National newspapers and magazines, Local news agencies INFOTAG, Mold Press,  BASA Press,  Info Prim, Flux, TV and Radio Services, and Internet Services (Internet Cafes).

Challenges  

The elements of the informational system in the Republic of Moldova are all either nascent or not existence. Technical processing means (computers, information recording and reading devices, communication means, network) are limited and outdated, software program system for PC are neither tested nor licensed, regulations in this field are at the beginning of their elaboration, and the databases needed for decision-making and argumentation in the majority of socio-economic sectors have not been created. The lack of a definite strategy and of a specific computerization programme negatively effects staff training processes and the inclusive informing of users.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

Cultural Municipal and District Divisions.

Information   

In 1997 the Indicators for the National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP) were developed. These indicators serve as the tool for the evaluation of the progress of NEAP and will be used in the process of NEAP Update.

Indicators for Sustainable development are prepared for the process of implementation of the National Strategy for Sustainable Development.  These indicators will be used in the formulation of the national policy in different fields of economic and social activities.

Research and Technologies   

Financing   

No information available

Cooperation  

The Republic of Moldova was the first country, to ratify the Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (Aarhus, 1998), ratified by Parliament Decision Nr. 346-XIV from April 7, 1999.

The first steps for implementation of Aarhus convention include:

-         In October 2000 was created the Environmental Information Centre;

-         Organization and holding workshops, supported by REC-Moldova, on Aarhus convention implementation: access to information, public participation in decision-making and access to justice in environmental matters in all districts of the country.

-         Ministry of Environment and Territorial Development and Pronatura Foundation and National Institute of Ecology organized two conferences on theme: public participation on problems of environmental protection for local authorities in two commune: Carpineni and Lapusna;

-         Ministry of Environment and Territorial Development maintains permanent relations with population through press conferences, round tables etc. Within the Ministry of Environment and Territorial Development was created the division: Public Relation, Mass media and Ecological Education, which is responsible for Arhus convention implementation. It includes such responsibilities as, public information, ecological education, and cooperation with NGOs. In collaboration with NGOs this division is responsible also for drafting the law regarding population's ecological education;

-         Is important to mention NGO`s contribution in this field of activity: there are about 70 active environmental NGO`s, 40 of them are working in ecological education field. These activities include TV programs, films about environment, ecological tourism oriented to sustainable development, training for local public authorities, expeditions on scientific goals.

Programmed supported by USA/SOROS:

·        Publishing - support book publishing for promotion of critical thinking and encourage the development of a viable, diverse and independent publishing industry; and

Programmes supported by UNDP:

Other programes include:

·        Project “Citizens participation”  (USA/USAID) – To improve the capacity of local governments in democratic governance, financial management, administrative practices, service delivery, to strength the Association of mayors and NGOs involved in local government training and advocacy.

   

* * *

This information is based on Moldova's submission to the 9th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update:  March 2001.



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INTERNATIONAL LAW

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available.

Status   

No information is available.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

In addition to those mentioned elsewhere, Moldova acceded to the following international agreements:

The Convention on the River Danube (1994) has been signed but not yet ratified.

In 1994, Moldova joined the Interstate Ecological Council of CIS countries.

* * * 

This information is based on Moldova's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update:  April 1997



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