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ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN MOLDOVA

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INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Responsibility is with the Ministries of: Economy and Reforms; Foreign Affairs; and  Environment and Territorial Development.

Governmental Action  Program with the proposals from the Ministries of: Foreign Affairs;  Environment and Territorial Development; Economy and Reforms; Internal Affairs; and Other ministries.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

Republic of Moldova gets technical and financial assistance for environmental projects and international conventions from the following international organizations: 

European International Cooperation

Ministry of Environment and Territorial Development participate actively in the following programs:  

The Government of Finland gave assistance to the Republic of Moldova for several years in wood management. Also, it was elaborated a Strategy of Sustainability Forest Development in the Republic of Moldova.

The Netherlands supplied to the Republic of Moldova information and resources for agricultural program elaboration. A specialist in sustainability development came from Avalon Foundation to offer consultation at 3 seminars on the same theme, organized by State Ecological Inspectorate in common with Ministry of Agriculture. This process will continue with collaboration for elaboration of agricultural sustainable program in the future.

The Government of Denmark assist the Republic of Moldova in the implementation of Aarhus Convention, through the setting up of the Environmental Information Center and the Environmental library.              

Status   

The public information campaign is conducted by the following methods: a range of TV programs, ecological lessons in schools,  introduction of environmental disciplines in all Moldavian high education institutions, publications: newspapers, bulletins etc., which reflect environment issues.

Ministry of Environment and Territorial Development maintains permanent relations with population through press conferences, round tables etc. Within the Ministry of Environment and Territorial Development was created the Division: Public Relation, Mass media and Ecological Education, which is responsible for Aarhus convention implementation. It includes such responsibilities as, public information, ecological education, and cooperation with NGO. In collaboration with NGO this division is responsible also for the drafting of the law on ecological education.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

NGOs’ contribution - there are about 70 active environmental NGO`s, 40 of them are working in ecological education field. These activities include TV programs, films about environment, ecological tourism oriented to sustainable development, training for local public authorities, expedition on scientific goals.

Information   

Environmental Informational Center was created in October, 2000.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

International cooperation at global and regional level based on International environmental conventions ratified by the Republic of Moldova.

Republic of Moldova signed 16 and ratified 15 environmental conventions:

Convention on Biological Diversity (Rio de Janeiro, June 5, 1992), ratified by Parliament Decision Nr. 457-XIII from March 16,1995;

Within this convention was developed the first National Report, Strategy and Action Plan on biological diversity conservation, which was approved by the Government and is submitted to the Parliament of the Republic of Moldova. Ranges of new appropriate laws for the period of transition to market economy were approved. These laws practically regulate most aspects of utilization, protection and regeneration of biological and human resources:

Convention on Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Waste and Their Disposal (Basel, March 22 ,1989), ratified by Parliament Decision Nr. 1599-XIII from  March 10, 1998;

There were concluded materials and documents concerning the activity of respective institutions for Convention's implementation, were accomplished coordination and prepared drafts documents for adhesion to:

The legislative base, which regulates the order of waste administration, was improved by modifying some clauses of following laws on:

For a strategic prospective, there was started the work on elaboration of "Regulation on transboundary transportation of dangerous waste", which is supposed to be concluded by the end of year 2000. In context of international collaboration in the frame of Basel convention will be concluded several documents for ratification:

Convention on Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern, September 19, 1997), ratified by Parliament Decision Nr. 1546-XII from  June 23, 1993;

Report concerning invertebrate conservation in the Republic of Moldova was prepared.

Republic of Moldova takes active part in elaboration and establishments of Smarald Network, contributes to the elaboration and establishment of Pan-European Ecological Network. There is a plan to create the National Ecological Network.

At present moment the general report for 2 years of activity regarding convention implementation is under preparation.

There were organized seminars on transboundary cooperation regarding the role and objectives of local public authorities in natural conservation problems. It was elaborated the Agreement regarding establishment and mutual management of transboundary natural protected area in Danube river and Lower Prut between the Republic of Moldova, Romania and Ukraine.

Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (Geneva, 1979), ratified by Parliament Decision Nr. 399-XIII from  July 9,1995;

In the Republic of Moldova were elaborated and applied many normative acts concerning pollution of atmospheric air:

These normative acts established the regulatory frameworks of atmosphere conservation, air on soil level, stratospheric ozone and averting of clime changing. There were created instruments of implementation of these laws:

 

To implement the legislative and rate-setting, stipulating of above-mentioned convention, in the Republic of Moldova take place general activities for air protection:

Taking into consideration the special impact of transport on air pollution, in the Republic of Moldova have been recommended several concrete measures for diminishing emission of harmful substances, especially of lead, which is contained in exhaust gases.             

In order to perfect the air protection activity, will be elaborated and suggested for the examination and adoption to the Colleague of the Ministry of Environment and Territorial Development the perfected Concept of air protection.

In 1998 in Aarhus, Republic of Moldova signed two protocols:

In 1998, the Republic of Moldova was involved in negotiation for protocol elaboration on control of acidulation, eutrophycation and ozone at the soil level. In this protocol were included dates concerning national emissions of ammoniac, sulfur, oxide of nitrogen and persistent organic components for 1990 year, limiting the substance emission for 2010 year in quality of principal obligations. Goal of this protocol is to minimize the above mentioned emissions to atmospheric air, control of acidulation, eutrophycation of environmental components and ozone elaboration at the soil level, protection of people health, conservation of flora and fauna.

Convention on Protection of the Ozone Layer (Vienna, 23 March 1995), Montreal Protocol concerning substances which are destroying the ozone layer (Montreal, 16 September 1979), ratified by Parliament Decision Nr. 966-XII from 27 July 1996;

It was established the National Committee for Ozone Problem through Decree of President of the Republic of Moldova "On setting-up of a National Committee for Ozone problem" (Nr.208 from 26.07.96).

Through Government Decision of the Republic of Moldova "Concerning application on territory of the Republic of Moldova provisions of Vienna Convention and Montreal Protocol regarding protection of ozone layer" (Nr. 300 from 18.03.1998), were determined the principal directions of activity in our country for implementation of international documents precautions:  

By Government Decision of the Republic of Moldova "Regarding several regulating activities in Republic of Moldova", (Nr. 859 from August 13, 1998), have been established concrete precaution for licensing of several kinds of activities including production import-export and consume of SDO and PDO. According to Montreal Protocol and Vienna Convention, first of all article 5 (1), the Republic of Moldova is considered as a developing country and have to reduce the use of materials, which destroy the ozone layer. For implementation of these directives and control measures, stipulated in Montreal Protocol and Vienna Convention (art. 5.1), following laws were elaborated and approved:

-         Law regarding licenses granting for some kind of activities (Nr. 332 from March 26, 1999);

-         National Program for suppression of phased substances that destroy the ozone layer in the Republic of Moldova was approved by Government Decision of the Republic of Moldova (Nr.1064 from November 11, 1999).

 

In the third chapter of mentioned program "Starting of the process of suppression of phased substances that destroy the ozone layer", are included the  principal Strategy in field of ozone layer protection and the Action Plan in the Republic of Moldova. According to above-mentioned plan, several activities are planed till 2005.This plan includes legislative-normative mater, institutional mater, researches and monitoring, public training and information. Activity concerning recovering and recycling of refrigeration agents, is regulated with precaution of fourth chapter "Implementation of recovering and recycling program of refrigeration agents". According with article 1 of fourth chapter is stipulate suppression of phasing SDO for the year of 2000.

"Ozone" office of the Ministry of Environment and Territorial Development, created in accordance with action plan mentioned above, is responsible for a number of activities for the implementation of the Montreal Protocol and Vienna Convention.

Project started in the Republic of Moldova to implement the Montreal Protocol.

Following projects were launched in the Republic of Moldova as support for the implementation of Montreal Protocol.

Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (Aarhus, 1998), ratified by Parliament Decision Nr. 346-XIV from April 7, 1999;

The Republic of Moldova is the first country, which ratified this convention. The first steps for implementation of Aarhus convention have been done already:

-         In October 2000 was created the Environmental Information Center;

-         Organization and holding seminars, supported by REC-Moldova concerning Aarhus convention implementation: access to information, public participation in decision-making and access to justice in environmental matters in all districts.

-         Ministry of Environment and Territorial Development in common with Pronatura Foundation and National Institute of Ecology organized two conferences on theme: public participation on problems of environmental protection for local authorities in two commune: Carpineni and Lapusna;

-         Ministry of Environment and Territorial Development maintains permanent relations with population through press conferences, round tables etc. Within the Ministry of Environment and Territorial Development is the division: Public Relation, Mass media and Ecological Education, which are responsible for Arhus convention implementation. It includes such responsibilities as, public information, ecological education, and cooperation with NGO.

Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in Transboundary Context (Espoo, 1991), ratified by Parliament Decision Nr. 1546-XII on  June 23, 1993;         

 The Republic of Moldova participated at working group activity for reporting arrangements of countries part to the Convention, for the second meeting of Environmental Ministries in Sofia in February 2001.

United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in countries affected by dryness, ratified by Parliament Decision Nr. 257-XIV from  December 24, 1998;

             -         In 2000, Government of the Republic of Moldova adopted the National Action Plan (decision Nr. 367, April 13, 2000);

-         In May 2000, Ministry of Environment and Territorial Development approved the National report, which have been presented to the Secretary of UN convention to combat desertification;

-         Was organized the workshop "Social-economic development of regions that are under desertification process";

-         Was published the popular-scientific monograph named: "Droughts and territory degradation in the Republic of Moldova";

-         Maps publishing on territories with desertification problem;

-         Organizing a database concerning on droughts, territory degradation and water resources;

-         Preparing the draft for the regional project "Sector monitoring (Hungary, Romania and the Republic of Moldova";

Other Conventions that were signed and ratified by the Republic of Moldova:

1.      Convention on the Transboundary  Effets of  Industrial Accidents (Helsinki, 1992), ratified by Parliament Decision No. 1546-XII from  June23, 1993;

2.      Convention on Protection and Use of Transboundary Water Courses and International Lakes (Helsinki, 1992), ratified by Parliament Decision No. 1546-XII from  June 23, 1993;

3.      United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Rio de Janeiro1992), ratified by Parliament Decision No. 404-XII from  June12, 1995;

4.      Convention on Cooperation for the Protection and Sustainable Use of the Danube River (Sofia, 1994), ratified by Parliament Decision No. 323-XIV from March 17, 1999;

5.      Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as a habitat of aquatic birds (Ramsar, 1971), ratified by Parliament Decision Nr. 504-XIV from July 14, 1999.

6.      Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS), Bonn, 1979; Agreement on the Conservation of the Bats in Europe (EUROBATS); African-Eurasian Water Birds Agreement (AEWA), ratified by Parliament Decision No 1244-XIV from September 28, 2000.

7.      Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), Washington, March 3, 1973, ratified by Parliament Decision No. 1246-XIV from September 28, 2000. 

 8.      European Landscape Convention, Florence, Italy. Signed on 20.10.2000  

 Collaboration within the bilateral cooperation agreements:

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This information is based on Moldova's submission to the 9th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update:  March 2001.

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TRADE

There is no information available on this topic.

 

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CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The State Department for Energy Resources and the organisation Apele Moldovei (Moldovan Waters) are responsible for activities concerning consumption and production patterns.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Legislation was adopted to reduce water, legislation on energy saving was drafted and a concept for industry development was prepared which provides for the reduction of raw material consumption.

In 1988, legislation was introduced to reduce water consumption. It promotes closed water circuits and low-water-consuming technologies in industry, reduced water consumption through irrigation in agriculture, and the reduction of water losses in the sewerage system. The Government also introduced taxes for water utilization in agriculture, for the use of underground water and for water pollution. Due to these measures and the economic situation, water consumption and discharges of waste water have been reduced in recent years.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

Academic institutions are involved in the development of non-traditional energy sources, and NGOs are involved in policy-making for energy conservation.

Programmes and Projects 

The Ministry of Architecture and Construction was assigned to develop energy-saving projects and do research on the installation of individual gas thermogenerators for heating systems. The Government Program 1994 - 1997 also gives special attention to the reduction of energy consumption. It envisages restructuring of the energy sector, research on energy efficiency and the implementation of new energy sources. Energy consumption audits were carried out in several factories in order to estimate energy conservation opportunities.

Status 

The Government has set as a national priority attaining energy costs of production which are characteristic for developed countries and reducing the raw material consumption in industry to the level possible through best available technology. At present, changes in production and consumption patterns are primarily a result of the economic crisis. But the Government also initiated some activities to reduce the consumption of energy and natural resources, to recycle waste and to introduce environmentally-friendly technologies. Tax reductions and exemptions are in place for investments in environmentally sound technologies. An increase of prices for water and energy also resulted in reduced consumption of natural resources.

In the energy sector, the economic crisis resulted in a decrease of energy production. The Government decided to take measures to promote energy saving. In 1993, in the process of industrial conversion, enterprises begun to produce electric, thermic, gas and water meters to enable people to better control their use of natural resources.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation

The EBRD has provided a loan for the improvement of heating systems in Chisinau-City. Through the TACIS programme, the EU supports activities of the National Agency for the Efficient Use of Energy.

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This information is based on Moldova's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: April 1997.

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FINANCING

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Charges have been introduced for the use of natural resources such as water, forest resources, soil, fauna and flora and for environmental pollution. Tax reductions have been introduced for environmentally sound and non-polluting technologies, especially in the field of waste and waste water management and the production of environmentally sound energy, for new technologies and ecological equipment. A pricing policy has been introduced to promote "clean products".

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available.

Status 

In 1990, 0.59% of GNP was spent for environmental protection measures. Due to the economic and financial crisis, investments in ecological projects have decreased over the last years. An extrabudgetary fund coordinates environmental protection expenditures. Forty to fifty percent of all capital investment from the State budget is related to drinking water supply and the pipeline for natural gas supply. In 1992 and 1993, practically all subsidies for energy resources were eliminated.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing 

Financial assistance from the international community has been provided primarily to stabilize the economy and the financial system and to purchase food products, medicines and fuel. The GEF supports projects to develop the basins of the rivers Prut and Danube. USAID provided technical assistance amounting to US$ 2.5 million for environmental policies and technologies. Switzerland sponsored Moldova's participation in the European Environmental Ministers Conference in Lucerne, in 1993. UNDP, UNEP and the EU have also supported the participation of governmental experts in several seminars and have organized training courses on Improving Project Preparation Capacity and Harmonisation of the Legal Basis of Environmental Protection of EU and Moldova.

Cooperation

Further assistance is needed in many fields, inter alia, in the energy sector to develop a rational system for the use of fuels, to reduce releases of nitrogen oxides, sulphur and carbon dioxide and to develop new energy sources, especially from biomass. International assistance is also needed to control environmental pollution resulting from the excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides, to establish a system for environmental monitoring, for the reform of the legislative system and for training of personnel.

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This information is based on Moldova's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update:  April 1997.

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TECHNOLOGY

Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technology

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The National Institute of Ecology is the national focal point of INFOTERRA.

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Legislation has been enacted and tax reductions and exemptions have been introduced to promote the implementation of environmentally sound technologies, especially low-waste producing and low water-consuming technologies, energy-saving technologies and alternative energy technologies (see Changing Consumption and Production Patterns).

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available.

Status 

As a result of the former industrialization process, Moldova has a pool of highly trained specialists, e.g. in the fields of microelectronics, production of electronic equipment and computers, agriculture and food processing, physics and biotechnology. This is an important basis for the implementation of sustainable development, and the Government has created funds to consolidate this potential. Due to the economic crisis, there is a serious lack of investments and, consequently, a lack of modern technologies. Most technologies in Moldova are on a level of the years 1970-80 and new, environmentally sound technologies are urgently needed. The Government is addressing these constraints with the program on "Conversion" that foresees the establishment of computer networks and the modernization of all technologies, including improvements in telecommunications. Plans include attracting foreign capital and the transfer of modern technologies. Environmentally sound technologies are only affordable with the support of the international community.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

No information is available.

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This information is based on Moldova's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: April 1997.

Biotechnology

No information is available on this topic.

 

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INDUSTRY

No information is available on this topic

 

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TRANSPORT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Ministry of Transports and Communication and Ministry of Internal Affairs.

Regional bodies from local authority of Ministry of Transport and Communication deal with problems of regional and local interest. 

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

·        Law on transport (1997);

·        Law on Air Protection (1997);

·        Law on Payment for Environmental Pollution (1998);

·        Code on Auto Transport (1998);

·        Law on Entreprenerial Patent (1998);

·        Law on Environmental protection (1993);

·        Law on Ecological Expertise and Environmental Impact Assessment (1996);

·        Law on Sanitary-Epidemiological Protection of the Population (1993);

·        Law on  Licensing Certain Tips of Activities (1999);

·        Regulation on auto-transportation of traveler and luggage;

·        Regulation on auto-transportation of goods;

·        Regulation on transportation of perishable goods;

·        Regulation on transport service and expedition;

·        Regulation on auto-station

Law on Payment for Environmental Pollution (1998) introduce the payment for pollution from transport and the economic incentives to decrease pollution

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Conception on development of national and urban transport.

Short-term (2-3 years) goals:

Long-term (5-10 years) goals:

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

90% from transport enterprises are private; public transport (trolleybuses and auto buses) is only available in the urban areas.  

Programmes and Projects   

Reducing emissions from transportation, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter and volatile organic compounds.  Program  for  emissions reduction from mobile sources.  According to this Program, a range of measures for reduction of toxic emissions into air are foreseen. Total exclusion of use of leaded petrol:

·        Supplying the auto vehicles with neutralizers and catalysts;

·        Reduction of sulphur in fuel;

·        Enhance the usage of gaseous fuel for transport.

Design  Institute of the Ministry of Transport and Communications  – drafts road network extension and supervises construction works.

Status   

Average availability is of 100% for all kinds of transportation means.

         Diesel-fuelled – 54,6%

              Diesel-fuelled – 61,3% 

              Trailer – 17,0%

(Department of Statistic, 1997)

Kg per kg of fuel

                                                                Petrol                        Diesel                        LPG                        CNG

Carbon monoxide (CO)                            0.4440                     0.1250                     0.440                       0.220

Hydrocarbons (HC)                                  0.0800                     0.0550                     0.085                       0.050

Nitrogen oxides (as NO2)                         0.0250                     0.0350                     0.025                       0.025

Particulates                                               0.0006                     0.0200                     -------                      ------

SO2                                                         0.0020                     0.0200                     -------                      ------

Pb                                                            0.0003                     --------                      -------                     ------

PAH, Benzo(a)pyrene                            0.232x10-6                0.312x10-6                 -------                    ------  

Emissions from road vehicles in 1999 was 111,5 thousands tons of which: 

Carbon monoxide (CO)                        74.75th tons

Hydrocarbons (HC)                            19.58th tons

Nitrogen oxides (as NO2)                     9.43th tons

Particulates                                           3.78th tons

SO2                                                     3.94th tons

Pb                                                        0.035th tons

PAH, Benzo(a)pyrene                        1x10-4 tons  

Emissions from road vehicles in 1998 was 190 thousands tons.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

There are signed bilateral agreement with European states and with a number of states from Asia.

Republic of Moldova is member of international transport organizations:    

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This information is based on Moldova's submission to the 9th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: March 2001. 

 

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SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

No information is available on this topic

 

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