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NATURAL RESOURCE ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN MALTA

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AGRICULTURE

No information is available.

 

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ATMOSPHERE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Ministry for Environment is responsible for making the decisions for protecting the atmosphere.  Main coordination lies with Environment Protection Department and the Department of Public Health.  The Environment Protection Department also coordinates with the University of Malta on issues relating to research.

Delegation is carried out at all levels.  Initiatives usually commence from the pollution control Co-ordinating Unit, an organ of the Environment Protection Department which are then approved at higher levels and translated into legislation.                                                             

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Currently the main piece of legislation is the Clean Air Act 1967 which is relatively out dated.  However, EU directives are now being transposed into national legislation.  To this end both WHO and EU standards will soon be in force. 

Legislation issued, namely LN 133 of 95 Control of ODS Regulations which are rigorously enforced.                                                                                                                                            

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

A study had been processed on "Air Pollution in Malta" which was financed through UNCP funds in 1998.  A National Air Monitoring programme was initiated in 1999.

With respect of ODSs, we are following phase out schedule as required under Art 5 of the Montreal Protocol.

With respect to transboundary air pollution, EU directives will be in near future enforced locally.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

Business and industry plus NGOs are usually invited to participate.

Programmes and Projects   

Conditions are being set in operating licences in order to reduce green house gas emissions and concentrations in your country.

Currently the UOM has a remote station in Gozo (to the North of Malta) to monitor transboundary movement of ozone in the central Mediterranean region.

Since 1993, the EPD has had collaboration with US NOAA to monitor greenhouse gases as part of the WDGG progressions.

Status 

There is minimal proportion of land that could be considered as greenhouse gas sinks in Malta .

There has been substantial clearance in the use of ozone depleting substances during the past ten years from 300 tons per annum circa 90 tons per annum.  Methylromide use had dropped to circa 40 tons per annum in recent years.  In this regard it is very likely that we will be following EU strategy.

Challenges  

From preliminary data it seems that ozone is potentially high to the North of Malta, possibly due to transboundary movement from the central Mediterranean area.

SO2 is particularly high in the vicinity of the Power plant which are located to the Southern and Central points of the islands.  Problem related to Nox and particulates are attached to high traffic density.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

In 2000, a public awareness activity was conducted, and a pamphlet was issued and the air monitoring equipment was on display for about 1 week at the Trade Fair Grounds.

Environmental science is on the national curriculum and is taught at post-secondary level.

Information 

In Malta, the country uses different methods in gathering information and maintaining a database related to atmospheric changes and they include:

State of the Environment Report published by EPD.

In 1995, a study on transboundary movement of heavy metals was carried out in connection with the University of Venice.                               

Research and Technologies   

Currently the Environment protection Department has

Combine cycle at power plants is a new technology that is being  developed or introduced to reduce greenhouse gases emissions.

Financing   

No information is available

Cooperation

N.B. Malta is party both to UNDP & LRTAP (+ EMEP)

LRTAP recently ratified.

 

 

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This information was provided by the Government of Malta to the 9th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: May 2001.

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BIODIVERSITY

No information is available.

 

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DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

No information is available.

 

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ENERGY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Ministry for Economic Services, Enemalta Corporation, Malta Transport Authority, and Malta Resources Authority have the coordinating responsibilities.

Decisions to-date regarding energy have been mainly taken Enemalta Corporation's and the Ministry for Economic Services.  In the near future the newly established Resources Authority will issue regulations and an Energy Policy, involving also the MCST (Malta Council for Science and Technology). 

Authority in Malta is centralised. 

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Apparatus such as, solar water heaters charges a lower VAT rate.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

At the moment none exist, energy production in Malta is not privatized, however, a new law has just been passed providing for a public Authority which will regulate the situation, with the immediate future. 

The goals of Enemalta are such that the increasing demand of electricity and fuel are met with maximum efficiency.  As regards environmental protection Enemalta intends to adhere to EU regulations e.g.. use cleaner fuels.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

Till now the state holds a monopoly on energy related entities and issues. 

Programmes and Projects   

All islands have access to electricity.

The one project completed is the substitution of Coal to Fuel Oil, and the introduction of Diesel run Combined Cycle Plant. 

Status   

Malta imports all its energy resources. 

Electricity is easily accessible to urban, rural households and also to Industrial Areas.  In the Transportation Section, electricity is still in its beginnings.

The rate of change of sales of transportation diesel fuels was always on the rise till 1997.  Following that year the rate of change started to decrease.  As regards gasoline no significant marked changed was noted in the rate of change for sales. 

It is expected that the effects of electricity liberalisation would be negligible.

Challenges  

Energy is produced from fossil fuels.  The environment is degradated mainly because of air emissions from fuel combustion at power plants (SO2/Nox/particulates) and transportation (Nox/Co/particulates) 

1. improvement in fuel quality/pollution abatement technology and

2. improvement in public transport to reduce private car usage

There are no barriers against usage of renewable energy sources and cleaner fossil fuel techniques.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

Regular information campaigns to promote energy saving appliances and the wise use of energy.  In 1996 an energy Fair was organised where a leaflet on energy conservation was distributed to all the customers. 

No formal policy, but there is an information campaign carried out by the Environment Protection Department in collaboration with Enemalta. 

Information 

Statistics are collected and analysed to prepare a program for the future. 

Information on energy and energy-related issues concerning atmosphere and transportation is made available to the public through popular articles in press and Radio programmes.

There are environmental studies which tackle the subject appropriately. 

Research and Technologies   

Solar photo voltaic or thermal could be feasible in Malta.  However electricity process still does not reflect the cost, and hence make solar energy expensive. 

Enemalta has a plan to invest in alternative energy depending mainly on Maltas accession to the EU.

Solar photovoltaic on thermal could be flexible in Malta.  However due to government regulated electricity prices, such form of energy is still not competitive. 

Financing   

No information is available

Cooperation  

Malta is party to UNFCCC, the Montreal Protocol and is awaiting a cabinet decision to ratify the Kyoto Protocol.  While no legislation is required to implement UNFCCC legislation exist to implement the obligations Malta has under the Kyoto Protocol. 

As an EU applicant country Malta is in the process of harmonizing its laws and policies with those of the EU on the subject. 

Major financial sources of funding for energy related projects and programmes - from outside the country - 100% - Syndicated Loans.

 

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This information was provided by the Government of Malta to the 9th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: May 2001.

 

 

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FORESTS

No information is available.

 

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FRESHWATER

No information is available.

 

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LAND MANAGEMENT

No information is available.

 

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MOUNTAINS

No information is available.

 

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OCEANS AND COASTAL AREAS

No information is available.

 

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TOXIC CHEMICALS

No information is available.

 

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WASTE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

No information is available.

 

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