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Economic Aspects | Natural Resource Aspects | Institutional Aspects | Social Aspects |Malaysia

NATURAL RESOURCE ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN MALAYSIA

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AGRICULTURE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

In agriculture, Malaysia gives priority to integrated pest management.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement     

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

No information is available.

 

 

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This information is based on Malaysia's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

For information on agro-based prescribed premises, click here:
To access the FAOSTAT Data Base for information by country, item, element and year, click here:
Click here to link to biosafety web sites in Malaysia.
Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to link to Country and Sub-regional Information on Plant Genetic Resources of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
Click here to go to Web Site of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, which includes information on the Codex Alimentarius and the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme.
Click here to access the Web Site of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).
Click here to access the sixteen international agricultural research centers that are members of the CGIAR.

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ATMOSPHERE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

A National Steering Committee on the Protection of the Ozone Layer has been set up to oversee the implementation of the National Plan and Country Programme on CFC and Halon. Such policies and strategies include monitoring of the import and consumption of controlled substances and encouragement of the use of non-CFC. An Action Plan comprising activities and investment projects is being implemented to phase-out the use of CFC by the year 2000. Representative from seven industrial working groups play major roles for the implementation of the CFC phase-out programme in Malaysia.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

The cost to Malaysia of phasing out chlorofluorocarbons and halons and switching to alternatives has been estimated at US$ 270 million. As of February 1997, 86 projects and activities amounting to US$27 million were approved by the Multilateral Fund for Malaysia. Out of 70 countries which received assistance from the Fund, Malaysia is leading the list in terms of number of projects completed and phase-out of CFCs and halon. According to a report by UNDP, Malaysia ranks highest in CFC project completion score, and its once CFC-dependent industries are thriving on new technologies and their competitive edge. On the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the Vienna Convention for the protection of the ozone layer, UNEP bestowed the 1995 Global Ozone Award to Malaysia. In 1996, Malaysia received the Stratospheric Ozone Protection Award from USEPA.

Challenges

Lack of technical knowledge related to the conversion process to using CFC-free technology, is a hindrance, particularly to small or medium industries.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation

The Montreal Protocol was ratified in 1989, the London and Copenhagen Amendments in 1993. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was signed in 1993 and ratified in 1994.

Technical and financial assistance from the Multilateral Fund of the Montreal Protocol has been a catalyst for conversion to non-CFC technologies. Regional cooperation activity include ODS NETWORK/SEAP which established since 1993 as well assistance from CIDA, JICA and UNEP.

 

 

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This information is based on Malaysia's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

For information on agro-based prescribed premises, click here:
Click here for national information from the Web site of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

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BIODIVERSITY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

Local communities participate in the conservation of biological and genetic resources by highlighting for the government any illegal and unsustainable development that is carried out at sites known to contain valuable biological resources.

Programmes and Projects   

Key activities being undertaken at the national level include the strengthening of government ministries and departments and research institutes through increased staffing and training. Collaboration with international bodies focuses on training and funding for projects. Biotechnology has been accessed through international cooperation, notably in the area of agricultural waste processing (to useful end-products) technology, product development from marine, microbial and plant material and to combat parasitic diseases.

Status   

The main causes for loss of biodiversity in Malaysia are habitat destruction, over-harvesting and pollution. As of early 1995, the National Policy on Biological Diversity was in the final phase of formulation before being endorsed by the Cabinet. The aim of this national strategy is to maintain plants and animals in their original habitats as well as outside of their original habitats in facilities such as botanical gardens. The purpose is to ensure long-term food security and preservation of the unique biological heritage of Malaysia.

Various areas are designated as national/state parks, wildlife reserves, sanctuaries and forest reserves. There are plans to expand the network of conservation areas to ensure full representation of ecosystems and all ecological processes therein. The capacity and role of ex-situ facilities in conservation activities and research are strengthened with a view to complementing in-situ conservation activities. Efforts are underway to expand ex-situ conservation sites, giving particular attention to threatened plant species for breeding and as a source of germplasm.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation

The Convention on Biological Diversity was signed in 1992 and ratified in 1994. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora was signed in 1977 and ratified in 1978.

 

 

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This information is based on Malaysia's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

For access to the Web Site of the Convention on Biological Diversity, click here:
For access to the Web Site of the CITES Convention, click here:
For the Web Site of the CMS Convention, click here:
For the Web Site of the Convention on the Protection of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage, click here:
For the country-by-country, Man in the Biosphere On-Line Query System, click here:
Click here to link to biosafety web sites in Malaysia.
Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to go to the Web Site of UNEP's International Register on Biosafety.

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DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available.

Status   

No information is available.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

The International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa was signed in 1995 but has not yet been ratified.

 

 

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This information is based on Malaysia's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

For access to the Web Site of the Convention to Combat Desertification and Drought, click here:

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ENERGY

No information is available.

 

 

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FORESTS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

In Malaysia, each state is empowered to enact laws on forestry and to formulate forest policy independently. The executive authority of the Federal Government only extends to the provision of advice and technical assistance to the states, training and the conduct of research and maintenance of experimental and demonstration stations.

A National Committee on Sustainable Forest Management in Malaysia was formed in early 1994 to formulate the Malaysian criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management (MC&I) required to ensure the sustainable management, conservation and development of Malaysia’s forest resources, taking into account the ITTO Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management. An independent third party assessed the forest management practices based on the MC&I over three states in Peninsular Malaysia in 1996, namely Pahang, Selangor and Terengganu. As a result of the assessment, audit statements were issued attesting to the practices of sustainable forest management in these three states.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Malaysia is committed to sustainable forest management and her commitment is reflected in the progress made on forest matters since UNCED. Among others, post-UNCED progress includes the revision of the National Forestry Policy (revised 1992) and the amendment of the National Forestry Act, 1984 (amended 1993) to take into account the worldwide concern for the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable utilisation of genetic resources, as well as the role of local communities in forest development. In line with her commitment to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the National Policy on Biological Diversity was developed in 1998 to provide the direction for the nation to implement strategies, action plans and programmes on biological diversity for the conservation and sustainable utilisation of its resources.

Regarding public initiative on forest certification, the Malaysia Government had established the national Timber Certification Council (NTCC) on 1 January, 1999 to plan and operate the national timber certification scheme in Malaysia. Among others, NTCC would undertaken to develop and implement standards related to timber certification; established and implement a system to oversee and monitor the certification scheme, including appeal mechanisms; and to established networked and co-operation with national and international bodies related to timber certification to facilitate co-operation and mutual recognition arrangements.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

In Malaysia, national forest programme is part and parcel of the national sustainable development strategy, as well as an integral component of the national integrated land management strategy. Effective mechanisms are in place to harmonise cross- sectoral policies related to forests through the formation of consultative councils such as National Forestry Council (NFC) and the National Land Council (NCL). The NFC, established in 1971 under the NLC and chaired by the Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia. Is empowered to promote and control the use of land for mining, agriculture and forestry. All decisions of the NFC must be endorsed by the NLC and are to be implemented by State Governments unless the decisions are within the authority of the Federal Government. Their implementation is monitored by the Ministry of Primary of Industries, Malaysia.

Management prescriptions have been formulated for rattan and naturally-occurring bamboo forests, mostly in Peninsular Malaysia. However, the inventory of non-wood forest produce is often problematic and tedious, making it difficult to implement these prescriptions (particularly for rattan). The Industrial Master Plan 2 (1996 - 2005) gives priority to processing industries producing higher value-added timber products. Export performance of these industries, particularly for furniture, has exceeded targets. While consultative committees exist at various levels to deliberate and resolve forest resource management issues, public awareness on forestry issues needs to be improved. In many cases, public consultation is required by law.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

The bulk of all forested lands is owned by the government. Hence, the issue of provision of compensation for forest owners who provide non-market environmental benefits to society do not arise. However, customary and traditional rights, including the right to land and land tenure of indigenous people, local communities, forest dwellers and forest owners are being addressed within the Malaysian legal framework and has been incorporated into the Malaysian Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Forest management (MC&I).

To promote investment and involvement of the private sector in plantation forestry, full tax exemption is granted under the Pioneer Status for ten years, or 100 percent tax exemption under the Investment Tax Allowance for five years. Privatization of existing forest plantations is also encouraged, particularly in Peninsular Malaysia. The forestry sector also provides gainful employment for over 160,000 people and contributed to 4 percent of the country's GDP for 1992.

Representatives of major groups participate in open discussions and consensus-building meetings. Afforestation efforts have been impeded by native customary rights, particularly in Sabah and Sarawak.

Programmes and Projects 

To ensure the security of the forest base, a total of 14.28 million hectares or 43.5 percent of its total land area was designated as Permanent Forest Estate (PFE) to be sustainably managed, for protected, production, amenity and research/education purposes. A manual for the preparation of Forest Management Plan at the forest management unit (State) level had been prepared to assist the various State Forestry Departments in Peninsular Malaysia in the preparation of a comprehensive forest management plan. The Manual, among others, included new sections taking into account the need for the conservation of biological diversity, forest protection, and in particular fire management, as well as the protection of the environment.

Malaysia and the Netherlands through its Foundation Keurhout had also undertaken an assessment on current forest management practices in the states of Pahang, Selangor and Terengganu based on a phased approach in accordance with MC&I for forest management certification at the Forest Management Unit (FMU) level. The assessment was conducted by an independent third party, SGS (Societe Generale de Survellance) Malaysia in 1996. As a result of the assessment, Audit Statements on Forest Management were issued by SGS Malaysia certifying the practices of sustainable forest management in these three States. A reassessment exercise for the three States was conducted by SGS Malaysia in August 1998 and the analyses indicated an overall improvement in the practice of sustainable forest management in all the three States. Effort is being taken to extend the assessment exercise to five other States in Peninsular Malaysia namely, Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Perak dan Negeri Sembilan.

Status 

In Malaysia, forestry issues have a very high priority. Progress since UNBED includes the approval of the revised National Forestry Policy and the amended National Forestry Act. The latter increased fines and enabled greater enforceability, in particular by the Police and Armed Forces. Among other accomplishments are:

Challenges

There is an urgent need for additional financial resources as well as environmentally sound technology for sustainable forest management. Moreover, institutional strengthening and capacity building would also be required to ensure that there are adequate institution and trained professional and technical personnel at all levels to implement sustainable forest management, and for the periodic monitoring, evaluation and feedback on its progress.

Weaknesses in human resources lie in the general shortage of trained staff, lack of management, planning and implementation skills, as well as lack of knowledge on industrial applications related to forestry.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

Human resource development and training is an on-going activity of the various forestry agencies, carried out with both domestic funding and foreign aid. Malaysia is also active in regional and international collaborative projects. These projects have as a particular focus the aim to enhance transfer of technology, technical cooperation and forest resource monitoring. Malaysia is formulating a national policy and reviewing the adequacy and appropriateness of current legislation to govern the collection of genetic resources and protect farmers' rights, as well as to safeguard plant breeders' intellectual property rights.

Information 

As a producer member country of International Tropical Timber Organization and in line with her commitment to achieve sustainable forest management in consonance with the ITTO Year 2000 Objective, Malaysia is fully committed to achieve sustainable forest management in the overall context of sustainable development. In this regard, since 1994, Malaysia has taken various actions to develop her own set of Criteria and Indicators (MC&I) based on the elaboration and operationalisation of the ITTO Guidelines for the Sustainable Management of Natural Tropical Forests and its Criteria for the Measurement of Sustainable Tropical Forest Management for the management of its natural forest.

In line with the newly adopted ITTO’s Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Management of Natural Tropical Forests in 1998, the MC&I is currently being revised to ensure conformity, practicality, and to keep abreast with latest development in forestry. In fact, the NTCC is spear-heading the revision exercise through a consultative process involving both the relevant government agencies, private sector, as well as the Non-governmental Organisations. It is envisaged the revised MC&I would be finalised by the end of 1999.

In Malaysia, the MC&I is used as a tool for monitoring and reporting the progress of sustainable forest management to international organisation, especially ITTO, and contributes to policy development by identifying specific forestry activities and research needs that are crucial to achieve used to report and assess progress towards sustainable forest management at the international level, while those developed at the FMU level would be used to assess sustainable forest management practices at the operational level.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing 

In line with Malaysia’s commitment to the ITTO Year 2000 Objective, the Government has allocated additional fund through the Timber Export Levy to help the various State Forestry Departments in Peninsular Malaysia in undertaking forestry activities that would contribute to sustainable forest management, as well as in the establishment of a Regional Centre for Forest management located at the Forest Research Institute of Malaysia in January, 1998. A national timber Certification Council was also established as an independent organisation to plan and operate the national timber certification scheme in January, 1999.

Most programmes and activities carried out in the area of sustainable forest management are funded domestically. International financing is sought for activities requiring technology transfer and technical cooperation. Key regional and international organizations active in forest programmes include the Danish Cooperation for Environment and Development Programme (DANCED), the UK Overseas Development Administration, the European Union, the Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), ITTO and the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). External assistance has amounted to approximately US$ 14.5 million for the 1994-1995 period (not including in-kind contributions.

Cooperation

Malaysia has participated fully in the IPF Process since 1995 to pursue a consensus and formulate options for further actions to promote the management, conservation and sustainable development of all types of forests; combat deforestation and forest degradation; promote international cooperation; and to facilitate international trade in forest products.

A preliminary assessment on the relevance of the IPF proposal for action was undertaken by comparing them against forestry projects and activities that are currently being carried out in Malaysia. Further assessment on the IPF proposals for action would undertaken based on the Practitioner’s Guide to the Implementation of the IPF Proposals for Action prepared by the Six-Country Initiative in Support of the UN-Ad-Hoc Intergovenmental Forum on Forests (IFF). Special emphasis would be placed on examining in more detail the IPF proposals for action for: traditional forest-related knowledge; impact of airborne pollutants on forests; assessment of the multiple benefits of forests. The relevant IPF proposals for action would be given further consideration and be incorporated when formulating forestry development projects under the Eight Malaysia Plan (2001-2005) for implementation.

The issuance of the Audit statements on Forest Management has resulted in a moderate increase in the export of timber and timber products to the Netherlands. However, it is still too early to indicate if forest certification has promoted sustainable forest management as the linkage is unclear, and the increase in the export could well be due to the current demand and supply situation, as there is a general lack of certified timber in the global market.

See also under Financing.

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This information was provided by the government of Malaysia to the 5th and 8th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: February 2000.


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FRESHWATER

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

States are responsible for land use and water resources. Water resource management is becoming increasingly complicated due to inter-State commitments on the production, transfer and sale of water. The federal government plays an advisory role, which may be enhanced with the formation of a National Water Council (NWC). The formation of an advisory body on water supply and management (the NWCl) is being refined. A more comprehensive and detailed monitoring system for catchment areas is needed. The Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID) is the main agency involved in surface water assessment and the Geological Survey Department assesses groundwater resources, receiving information from the DID. State water departments collect information on potable water supply, production, treatment and usage. A network of stations exist for monitoring rainfall and stream flow, with this system being automated progressively.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

There are a number of projects on flood mitigation, hydroelectric power, water supply and irrigation. Many urban water supply projects are under construction. A special rural water project is focused on improving the networking of distribution to rural households, as well as the rehabilitation and upgrading of water supply systems.

Status 

Water resources assessment and monitoring programmes are generally in place. High population pressures may require greater coverage by hydrometric networks. Surface and groundwater resources have been fully identified and quantified and various programmes (at the national and state levels) are in place for their protection. A number of water-borne diseases are virtually absent from Malaysia and activities are underway to reduce those that still persist. Water quality criteria for all water bodies have been developed, but not as yet promulgated into law.

It is expected that almost the entire population will be equipped with acceptable facilities for centralized sewerage systems by the year 2000.

Challenges

Rapid development has created gaps in the prevention of pollution and enforcement of water supply standards. There is a need for greater efficiency in water use, including in the area of water re-use for irrigation and improved water management practices and infrastructure. Water conservation measures have more potential than cloud seeding and similar techniques. Conservation measures include reducing non-revenue water losses and the use of mass media to increase awareness on proper use.

Increasing urbanization and industrialization should be streamlined with the identification of new water resources. Water management problems and capabilities differ in different parts and States of Malaysia, requiring different emphases.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

A campaign was launched in 1993 with the aim of improving awareness among the general public and school children on the need to preserve rivers. This was a joint effort by government agencies, NGOs, the private sector and the general public (including school children). The campaign included: river adoption, river watch, river expeditions, educational talks, river beautification and an international symposium. Various media campaigns are also held on water conservation. River restoration projects are being undertaken to rehabilitate polluted rivers, including the ten-year programme started in 1992 to clean the Klang River, which runs through the most urbanised part of the country.

Privatization is considered an important means of capacity building, taking advantage of the flexibility and expertise of the private sector and relieving government of training and human resource constraints.

Training agencies are being encouraged to increase training within Malaysia (as opposed to overseas training courses). The DID cooperates with the International Irrigation Management Institute in Sri Lanka in irrigation management training. The Public Works Department has regional training centres and also sends staff for overseas training (e.g., in water treatment, dam safety design and treatment plant design). NGOs participate in capacity-building activities such as seminars, training courses and international conferences. Information technology is emphasized with respect to technology transfer and capacity-building.

Information   

See under Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing 

Financial resources are generally adequate for the development of the water supply network, although large dams for power generation and flood control require foreign assistance. Most water development projects are financed by the federal government. Four current projects benefit from foreign aid. The federal government is reducing its reliance on foreign aid. Human resources and training are the main requirements and areas for international cooperation and financial assistance.

Cooperation  

No information is available.

 

 

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This information is based on Malaysia's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

For information on river water quality, click here:

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LAND MANAGEMENT


Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Under the provision of this Act, State Planning Committees (SPCs) have been formed, to advise the State Government on matters pertaining to the use, conservation and development of land within the respective State. All the decisions of the SPC are to be implemented by all planning agencies in the State.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Each State in Peninsular Malaysia has adopted Act 172.  On the development plan under Act 172, upon approval by the SPC, the plans will be gazetted and any development application should conform to the said plans and other material considerations. Preparation of development plans under Act 172 includes a public participatory mechanism which involves public consultation during the planning process.

Towards achieving sustainable development, Act 172 has been strengthened and updated in 1995 (Act A933) particularly in protecting the natural environment from the impacts of development. Amendments include the preservation and planting of trees, preservation of natural topography, provision of open spaces and a requirement for submitting development proposal reports in all planning permission application.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Land use planning is considered as an important instrument towards integrated planning and management of land resources through proper use, conservation and development of land regulated by the Town and Country Planning Act 1976 (Act 172). An advisory body, the Town and Country Planning Department of the Ministry of Housing and Local Government administers the Town and Country Planning Act of 1976. There is a need for further integration, education and training within existing institutions with a focus on technology transfer. Act 172 requires the local planning authority to prepare development plans (Structure and Local Plan). Since UNCED and by the end of 1996, all 96 local authorities in Peninsular Malaysia had prepared structure plans for their areas. Local Plans have been prepared for 62 main urban centres in 27 local authorities. In the Seventh Malaysia Plan (1996-2000), emphasis is on the preparation of local plans for the remainder of the local authority areas. It is envisaged that by the end of the Seventh Malaysia Plan, each local authority would have at least one (1) local plan.

Other than statutory development plans, non-statutory plans are also prepared which include 26 district development plans, 28 rural development plans and other special projects, including the development plan for Putrajaya, Islands, Multi-media Super Corridor and regional strategic plans.

To enhance the efficient use of natural resources and conservation of the built-environment, an Integrated Planning and Resource Management System has been adopted. The system emphasizes the integration of environmental management, spatial component of national strategies and policies and access to decision-support information in the process of development planning at all levels of government administration.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available.

Status   

No information is available.

Challenges

The main weakness in human resources is lack of expertise and knowledge in ensuring that land use planning integrates environmental aspects to the fullest to achieve sustainable development.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

No information is available.

Information 

On the physical planning information system, a Feasibility Study has been conducted and the programmes are proposed to be carried out in the Seventh Malaysia Plan. With the full operation of the system, the monitoring of the use, conservation and development of land can be carried out more effectively.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

Most programmes and activities carried out are funded domestically.

Cooperation

International financing is sought for activities requiring technology transfer and technical cooperation. The Danish Cooperation on Environment and Development (DANCED) programme has started working on the "Sustainable Urban Development Project in Sabah and Sarawak".

 

 

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This information is based on Malaysia's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997


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MOUNTAINS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available.

Status 

The forest area in the Main Range is protected to safeguard water supply. As no commercial logging is allowed, the biodiversity is also protected.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

Meetings are held for the general public on the importance of mountain ecosystems and watersheds as safeguards to the country's water supply. One area in need of strengthening is mitigation guidelines for environmental protection and watershed management.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation

A project on the preparation of a management and conservation plan for the Main Range in Peninsular Malaysia is being negotiated with the UNDP.

 

 

 

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This information is based on Malaysia's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.


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OCEANS AND COASTAL AREAS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available.

Status   

No information is available.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation

The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea was signed in 1982 and ratified in 1996.

 

 

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This information is based on Malaysia's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

To access the Web Site of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, click here:

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TOXIC CHEMICALS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Malaysia approaches the management of toxic chemicals and hazardous wastes in an integrated manner, involving various actors and agencies. These include the National Task Force on the Ozone Layer, various ministries, universities and research institutions, industry and NGOs. Three regulatory instruments have controlled the generation, distribution, treatment and disposal of toxic chemicals and hazardous wastes since 1989. A comprehensive act is being developed to consolidate all toxic chemical related rules and regulations, including proper use, storage, handling, transport, labeling and disposal. Malaysia actively participates in the UNEP/FAO Prior Informed Consent (PIC) procedure, among other similar notification mechanisms.

The Department of Environment established an inter-agency body called the Technical Committee on Banned and Severely Restricted Chemicals, as well as the PIC Working Group to provide support and policy guidance to implement PIC, the UNEP's London Guidelines for the Exchange of Information on Chemicals in International Trade and FAO's Code of Conduct on toxic chemicals.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

A top priority for Malaysia is the environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals and the enhancement of chemical safety with particular reference to banned and severely restricted chemicals. Emphasis is being placed on:

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information available.

Programmes and Projects 

The Ministry of Health is formalizing a system for the disposal of pathologically hazardous wastes from hospitals, medical centres and research institutions. The Ministry of Transport is developing guidelines for the land transport of toxic chemicals and hazardous wastes. Another government initiative was the establishment of the Environmental Law Review Committee which has identified areas for improvement in existing environmental provisions dealing with toxic chemicals and hazardous wastes. 

Various programmes are being carried out, including training on the environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals and hazardous wastes; education and awareness building for the general public; consultations with industry sectors (in particular for the formulation of guidelines and procedures); regional and international cooperation; and research and development, particularly with respect to the Intensification of Research in Priority Areas Programme.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

The insufficient number of trained personnel for environmental management and the need for high-level liaison between State and federal government are two constraints in managing toxic chemicals and hazardous wastes.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

Treatment and disposal facilities are being developed. 

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation

One of Malaysia's priorities is to centralize toxic chemical and hazardous waste storage and treatment facilities in partnership with foreign companies and agencies. This is being facilitated by international partnerships and cooperation for technology transfer and financial assistance.

 

 

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This information is based on Malaysia's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997


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WASTE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Solid Waste and Sanitation

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

Much of Malaysia's priority in this area refers to the implementation and centralization of sewerage and sanitation systems and schemes. Privatization is an important aspect of this activity. The implementation of these programmes provides almost all of Malaysia's population with acceptable facilities. More information may be found in the discussion on Freshwater (above) and on Human Settlements (in the document on Social Issues).

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

 

* * *

This information is based on Malaysia's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.


Hazardous Wastes

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Malaysia approaches management of toxic chemicals and hazardous wastes in an integrated manner, involving various actors and agencies. These include the National Task Force on the Ozone Layer, various ministries, universities and research institutions, industry and NGOs. 

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Three regulatory instruments control the generation, distribution, treatment and disposal of toxic chemicals and hazardous wastes since 1989. Environmental impact assessments are mandatory for activities involving hazardous wastes.

The government provides incentives to promote the recovery and reutilization of wastes. Various incentives are available under the Promotion of Investment Act of 1986, which grants pioneer status to companies for a five-year period to receive, store and treat hazardous wastes in an integrated and environmentally sound manner. 

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available.

Status 

Increased enforcement in hazardous waste management and the preparation of codes of practice for the handling of hazardous wastes are a national priority. A number of working groups have been established to address specific waste streams such as those from oil and petroleum, asbestos, paints and electroplating. Their focus is to adopt a wide range of initiatives on, among others, product stewardship and responsible care, supplementing the Environmental Quality Act of 1974.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

Treatment and disposal facilities are being developed. The government has approved a private venture to establish a centralized and integrated facility for receiving, treating and disposal of hazardous waste in various parts of the country.

Financing 

The provision and allocation of financial resources are constrained due to competing demands, e.g., health, sanitation and education.

Cooperation

The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was ratified in 1993.

Malaysia participates in various bilateral and multilateral agreements on hazardous waste management with neighbouring countries. An example is the Malaysia-Singapore Joint Committee on the Environment, aimed at controlling the transboundary movement of hazardous wastes (through recovery and reuse). The extension of this initiative to other neighbouring States is being explored.

 

 

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This information is based on Malaysia's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

For direct link to the Web Site of the Basel Convention, click here:

 

Radioactive Wastes

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available.

Status 

Treatment, storage and handling facilities are being developed, with privatization in mind, and additional legal and administrative control mechanisms are available for explosive, radioactive and pathological wastes.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

 

* * *

This information is based on Malaysia's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997



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