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INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN MALAYSIA

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INTEGRATED DECISION-MAKING

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The National Development Council works with Malaysia's development planning process. 

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Efforts are underway to strengthen the legislative framework through continuous review, updating and amending where practical to meet future needs. In addition, Malaysia is developing expertise and tools such as environmental auditing and natural resources accounting to help quantify impacts on the cost of environmental regulation. In particular, a system of Natural Resource Accounting is being developed within the framework of the National Conservation Strategy and is geared to illustrate the effects of economic development on the natural resource base and the refinement of economic indicators.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The process is well-defined and is based on the long-term Outline Perspective Plan (OPP), which helps concentrate efforts in achieving well-defined long-term national objectives. The second OPP was for the period 1991-2000 and is concerned largely with promoting social and political stability as well as efficient management of the economy to provide a favourable environment for pursuing growth with equity to achieve the objectives of our National Development Policy. The promotion of a balanced, broad-based, resilient and internationally competitive economy is paramount in order to provide a stronger foundation for the attainment of sustained growth and development, particularly in the process of transformation towards becoming a developed nation by the year 2020.

Malaysia also uses five-year plans, which seek to implement strategies and programmes and allocate funds to realise the objectives and commitments of the National Development Policy and its OPPs. The results of the Rio process generally, and of Agenda 21 particularly, were incorporated and, where appropriate, integrated into the national planning process when the Sixth Malaysia Plan (1991-1995) was reviewed in 1993. They were also used to input into the planning process of the current Seventh Malaysia Plan, covering the period 1996-2000.

Overall, environmental and natural resource management under the Seventh Plan period will be guided by the National Policy on Environment, which is being formulated to ensure the long-term sustainability and improvement in the quality of life. The policy aims at promoting economic, social and cultural progress through environmentally-sound and sustainable development. In addition, a National Conservation Policy has also been finalised to provide the framework for a comprehensive approach to natural resource development.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available.

Status 

Overall, in the period 1991-1995, the Malaysian economy recorded an average GDP growth of 8.7 per cent per annum. This rapid growth resulted in Malaysia's per capita income rising from RM 6,099 in 1990 to RM 9,786 in 1995. This remarkable performance of the economy has contributed to increasing prosperity for all Malaysians, and the incidence of hardcore and general poverty has been reduced markedly. The primary challenge for the Malaysian economy is now that of transforming the economy from one that is investment-driven to one that is productivity- and quality-driven, through enhancing the efficiency of labour and capital, skills upgrading, capital deepening and improving management and entrepreneurship.

Challenges

Concomitant with this will be the need to accelerate the shift towards higher value-added activities that are labour-saving as well as capital- and technology-intensive. Such a shift requires the strengthening of the science and technology base and enhancing research and development capability. Besides this, it is necessary for Malaysia to realise the full potential of communications technology.

However, in the quest for continuing high growth, steps are also taken to ensure that environmental and social considerations are not neglected in line with the philosophy of balanced development and that of sustainable development as envisaged in Agenda 21. As such, Malaysia will continue to take appropriate action to ensure that development is sustainable and balanced. Towards this end, environmental and conservation considerations will increasingly be integrated with development planning.

These efforts are being supplemented and complemented by investments from the private sector in the field of environment and natural resource management. Efforts are also being undertaken to create niches in environmental products and technologies in which Malaysia has a comparative advantage to cater to growing international demand. 

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

Environmental education and public awareness programmes have been stepped up in cooperation with NGOs and the private sector, to educate the public on environmental and conservation issues to realize the goal ofsustainable development.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

No information available.

 

* * *

This information is based on Malaysia's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

For the Web Site of the Department of the Environment, click here:
For information on the Environmental Quality Council, click here:
For information on legal action taken for pollution abatement, click here:
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MAJOR GROUPS

Women

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Curricula and educational material are being revised to promote dissemination of gender-relevant knowledge. Policies and strategies will be in place by 2000 to eliminate obstacles to full participation of women in sustainable development. Mechanisms are being developed to assess implementation and impact of development and environment policies and programmes on women.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available.

Status   

No information is available.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women was ratified on 5 July 1995. 

 

 

* * *

This information is based on Malaysia's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997.

Last update: 1 April 1997

For information on Women Watch in different countries, click here:
For information on national plans of action in the follow-up to the Beijing Conference, click here:

 

CHILDREN AND YOUTH

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available.

Status 

The goal set in Agenda 21, that more than 50% of youth -- gender balanced -- have access to appropriate secondary education or vocational training by year 2000, has been reached.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

No information is available.

 

 

* * *

This information is based on Malaysia's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

INDIGENOUS PEOPLE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available.

Status 

Policies and legal instruments are in place to empower indigenous people and their communities. Indigenous people participate fully in appropriate national processes and mechanisms for involvement in resource management strategies at the national and local level strategies are being discussed.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

 

* * *

This information is based on Malaysia's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

Mechanisms already exist to promote and allow NGOs to participate in the conception, establishment and evaluation of official mechanisms to review Agenda 21 implementation. There are four NGOs which participate in the Inter-Agency Planning Group: The World Wide Fund for Nature Malaysia, Malaysian Nature Society, Environmental Protection Society of Malaysia and ENSEARCH. NGOs are not included in national delegations to the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development but are adequately consulted at the national level. 

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

The government provides financial and technical assistance to support the role of major groups in the Inter-Agency Planning Group, through allocations from the relevant ministries.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

 

* * *

This information is based on Malaysia's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

LOCAL AUTHORITIES

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The Government supports Local Agenda 21 initiatives.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information is based on Malaysia's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

WORKERS AND UNIONS

No information is available.

* * *


BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

There are governmental policies encouraging the efficiency of resource use, including reuse, recycling, and reduction of waste per unit of economic output.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available.

Status   

No information is available.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

No information is available.

 

 

* * *

This information is based on Malaysia's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available.

Status 

The scientific community has already established ways in which to address the general public and deal with sustainable development.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

No information is available.

* * *

This information is based on Malaysia's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

FARMERS

No information available.

 

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SCIENCE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The National Council for Scientific Research and Development oversees the implementation of the National Science Policy and promotes research and development activities in both government and non-government sectors with the aim of facilitating industrial development. See also under Information.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

Educational twinning programmes such as the International Medical College have led to long-term capacity-building. 

Status 

Malaysia has a comprehensive network of legal, institutional and administrative structures, covering nearly all aspects of environment and development. The institutional framework for research and development includes over 30 bodies for research and higher education, as well as efforts by the private sector. Institutional coverage is greatest in the fields of medicine, agriculture and the primary resource-based industries.

Challenges  

In spite of efforts to improve endogenous capacity and capabilities, there has been a net loss of scientists in Malaysia for better opportunities in other fields and countries. Capacity-building for the assessment of alternative technologies is needed among government, the business community, small- and medium-size industries and NGOs.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

There have been various advances in building up endogenous capacity in technology development. The migration of scientists out of the country is an important problem, caused mainly by relatively low salaries, poor education facilities for children and better research facilities elsewhere. Also important is the move of scientists to more lucrative professions.

Information   

The Malaysian Science and Technology Information Centre (MASTIC: within the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment) develops, collects and disseminates information, statistics and indicators on science and technology. MASTIC and the technology transfer section of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry are addressing the problem of information flow about technology to small- and medium-size industries.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing 

Malaysia invested approximately US$ 440 million for the period 1991-1995 in research and development related to education, awareness and training. The funding programme for the Intensification of Research in Priority Areas aims to direct finances towards key areas to support development.

Cooperation  

No information is available.

 

 

* * *

This information is based on Malaysia's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.



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INFORMATION

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available.

Status 

Availability of sustainable development information at the national level is as follows:

Agenda 21 Chapters
Very good

Good

Some good
data but many gaps

Poor

2. International cooperation and trade

x

3. Combating poverty

x

4. Changing consumption patterns

x

5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability

x

6. Human health

x

7. Human settlements

x

8. Integrating E & D in decision-making

x

9. Protection of the atmosphere

x

10. Integrated planning and management of land resources

x

11. Combating deforestation

x

12. Combating desertification and drought

x

13. Sustainable mountain development

x

14. Sustainable agriculture and rural development

x

15. Conservation of biological diversity

x

16. Biotechnology

x

17. Oceans, seas, coastal areas and their living resources

x

18. Freshwater resources

x

19. Toxic chemicals

x

20. Hazardous wastes

x

21. Solid wastes

x

22. Radioactive wastes

x

24. Women in sustainable development

x

25. Children and youth

x

26. Indigenous people

x

27. Non-governmental organizations

x

28. Local authorities

x

29. Workers and trade unions

x

30. Business and industry

x

31. Scientific and technological community

x

32. Farmers

x

33. Financial resources and mechanisms

x

34. Technology, cooperation and capacity-building

x

35. Science for sustainable development

x

36. Education, public awareness and training

x

37. International cooperation for capacity-building

x

38. International institutional arrangements

x

39. International legal instruments

x

40. Information for decision-making

x


Computer networks which have access to international information services are generally available throughout the public and private sectors. Malaysia has established a comprehensive national computer network called JARING, which allows for Internet access.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

No information is available.

 

 

* * *

This information is based on Malaysia's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

To access the National Statistics Office, click here:

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INTERNATIONAL LAW

No information is available.

* * *



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