Economic Aspects | Natural Resource Aspects | Institutional Aspects | Social Aspects |Macedonia

NATURAL RESOURCE ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

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AGRICULTURE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management is responsible for agricultural and rural development in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. The Ministry of Urban Planning, Construction and Environment and the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management also plays a contributing role.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The national legislative basis related to agriculture includes the following acts: (1) the Act on Agriculture Land Protection and Use; (2) the Act on Agriculture Development Promoting; (3) the Act on Weeds and Planting Material; and (4) the Act on Protection of Plants Against Diseases and Living Beings Jeopardizing Agricultural Output in the Country. This legal basis was derived from the former Yugoslavia. Currently, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia is preparing new acts which will be altered and adjusted to meet the requirements of sustainable development.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Plans have been approved for rural settlements to identify development areas with special emphasis given to the development of agriculture and the economy. The principles of sustainable development, rational use of agricultural land and healthy food production, and development trends have been taken into account in the formulation of these plans.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

Agriculture is the major economic sector providing healthy and high-quality food in Macedonia. To promote agriculture, the Government has passed regulations regarding the manner in which comparative advantages of food production will be achieved. With the country in transition, efforts have been made in the field of agriculture to identify the way in which reform measures are to be implemented in the most efficient way. International financial organizations, such as The World Bank, the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and the European Union Phare Program have played a major part in this development process by providing grants and technical assistance to increase agricultural output and promote rural development.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

For country reports on Plant Genetic Resources, click here.
To access the FAOSTAT Data Base for information by country, item, element and year, click here:
Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to link to Country and Sub-regional Information on Plant Genetic Resources of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
Click here to go to Web Site of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, which includes information on the Codex Alimentarius and the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme.
Click here to access the Web Site of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).
Click here to access the sixteen international agricultural research centers that are members of the CGIAR.

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ATMOSPHERE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Ministries responsible for decision making in the protection of atmosphere are: Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Transport and Communications, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management and Ministry of Economy.

The cooperation with other ministries is progressing in accordance with legal responsibilities, and mutual issues are solved by establishing mixed working groups.

As long as the process of decision making means adopting legal and sublegal acts, the procedure is the following:

The lowest level of public authority is the Council of the local self-government and other bodies of the local self-government, which, on the basis of the Law on Local Self-Government, makes decisions concerning the territory they control. 

As far as the inspection over atmosphere pollution is concerned, the local self-government does not have mandate to carry out supervision over the sources of pollution.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Due to specific circumstances, certain legal acts can be adopted through shortened procedure, in which, actually, the draft version is omitted, while the procedures concerning Proposal for law adoption and Proposal of the law are carried out in a procedure as described below.

     - Ordinances are adopted by the Government.

     - Books of regulations, as sub-legal acts, are adopted by the competent ministry.

     - Decisions can be adopted by the Government, ministry or minister.  

There is legislation in the Republic of Macedonia regulating the pollution of the atmosphere (emission of gases). The following legal acts and regulations regulate this area:

-         Act on Environment and Nature Protection and Promotion;

-         Act on Protection of Air against Pollution (Act on Amending the Act on Air Protection);

-         Book of Regulations for Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPC) and quantities and other harmful matters that may be released into the air from individual sources of pollution;

-         Order for obligatory attest of diesel engines and motor vehicles regarding gas pollutants;

-         Book of regulations on the methodology for monitoring and identification of harmful matters in the air;

-         Book of regulations on the manner and terms, control and recording of measurements of released harmful matters in the air from facilities, plants and devices that could pollute the air above the MPC;

-         Book of regulations on the manner and conditions for notification of competent bodies regarding the performed systematic monitoring and examination of the level of pollution of the air on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia;

-         Book of regulations on the required professional staff, equipment, devices, instruments and premises that need to be possessed by organizations of associated labor authorized to carry out control of the air pollution and measurements of released harmful matters into the air.

In accordance with penalty provisions of the Act on Environment and Nature Protection and Promotion, fines are collected from all those that in any way pollute the atmosphere. Resources collected as fines go to the Fund of Environment (Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning) and after that such resources are invested in the environment protection, including the atmosphere. Importers of equipment serving directly to the environment protection (filters) are released from customs duties payment.

Major polluters are released from customs duties and the import of environmentally sound technologies is supported.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The general strategy is incorporated in the NEAP (National Environmental Action Plan) financed by the World Bank, as well as in the Development Strategy of MANU (Macedonian Academy of Science and Arts). General directions are also indicated by the NEHAP (National Environmental Health Plan) supported by the World Health Organization. 

National Strategy for Elimination of Substances Depleting the Ozone Layer has been developed in the Republic of Macedonia (there is an Office with the Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning).

In general, strategies related to greenhouse gas emissions are incorporated in the NEAP. Within the Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning, there is UNDP Office (United Nations Development Programme), the goal of which is development of Project to prepare the Republic of Macedonia to develop its first National Communication on climate change. MANU is responsible for development of the strategy for reduction of gas emissions.

In 1996, the National programme for ODS replacement was developed, representing basic doctrine providing basic guidelines for implementation of activities aimed at ozone layer protection in the Republic of Macedonia.

As far as trans-boundary air pollution is concerned, directions of acting are in accordance with international conventions concerning air protection in international context (LRTAP, Long Range Trans-boundary Air Pollution) with EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) with CCC (Climate Change Convention).

By the end of 2000, once Macedonia received the first information from the strategy currently under development by MANU, abatement and mitigation analysis and strategies will be initiated.

As far as the ozone layer depletion is concerned, short-term objectives are for instance implementation of investment projects in industry using ODS, control of export and import and consumption of ODS in accordance with the principles of the Montreal Protocol, while long-term objective is full elimination of substances depleting the ozone layer.

The objectives concerning trans-boundary air pollution can be summarized in the following areas: 

Economic and Fiscal Policy                                     short-term

User and Pollution Charges                                     short-term

Legislation                                                              short-term

Education and Training-Promote Public Awareness short-term

Monitoring and Information                                     long-term

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

With reference to the adoption of laws: the initiative for law adoption can be raised by the competent ministry, citizens, NGOs and Representatives in the Assembly, etc. A law is elaborated by the responsible ministry and, in a form of draft version, it is let for public discussion (to the relevant institutions of the system, NGOs, industrial sector and other competent and professional institutions and organizations). Once the opinions are collected, the competent ministry or the Government determines the Proposal of the law and submits it to the Assembly for adoption. The Assembly accepts the Proposal of the law as such and it is let for public discussion again, after which the procedure is repeated (as in the draft stage) and the Proposal of the law is accepted. The Proposal of the law is adopted by the Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia, after which it enters into force.    

The Republic of Macedonia agreed to establish National Committee on Climate Change, aimed at policy management, composed of representatives of relevant ministries, members of MANU, representatives of NGOs, representatives of the private sector, etc.

The assessment for determination of the most affected groups is underway

Programmes and Projects 

Measures aimed at fuel substitution (heavy oil to natural gas) have been undertaken, and high number of different projects for bilateral and multilateral cooperation in this area are underway.

In the Ozone Office, demonstration project for alternative uses of methyl-bromide in the agriculture is in the process of implementation. This project provides basis for submission of proposals for projects aimed at methyl-bromide elimination.

The process of land use planning by means of Physical Plan also incorporates measures for environmental protection (including atmosphere protection).

Substitution of technology in the production of refrigerators, solid and soft foams has taken place, as well as alternative methods for substitution of methyl-bromide in agriculture, recycling and recovery of cooling media (refrigerant).

In the framework of the UNDP/GEF project on climate change (aimed at developing the First National Communication as an obligation deriving from UNFCCC), all areas, mainly forests, representing sinks of those gases will be recorded. Once we obtain complete presentation of gas emissions, specific measures for sinks enlargement will be proposed. In the framework of the UNDP project Clean and Green MacedoniaE each involved municipality decides individually on environmental issues, including those concerning enlargement of forest and green areas. 

The Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning participates in financing of projects for re-cultivation of areas around major industrial polluters.

In the framework of the Project for the First National Communication of the Republic of Macedonia on Climate Change, activities have been carried out with regard to the development of inventory of polluters, vulnerability and adaptation analysis. In this process, MANU and the Republican Hydrometeorological Institute (RHMI) are involved. 

Also, in accordance with the Act on Environment and Nature Protection and Promotion, the Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning prepares Inventory and Map of polluters for air, water, protected parts and items of nature, soil contamination and degradation, which is expected to become basis for the polluter paysEprinciple implementation. 

The Project Refrigerant Management Plan envisages introduction of training for cooling media collection and recycling into the curriculum of technical faculties in the country, and one of the tasks of the institutional strengthening is public awareness increase.

Status 

There is a significant phenomenon in Veles, where the number of respiratory diseases are increased due to industrial pollution, and ultra-violet radiation is increased due to the ozone layer depletion, leading to suppression of the immunity system, cataratct, skin cancer. 

Concentration of smog and smoke increases especially in winter, thus making traffic, communal activities etc. functioning difficult. 

Ecosystems are endangered because part of polluting particles sediments and penetrates into the soil, water, etc.

According to sources of emission of pollutants analyzed so far (SO2, CO, NOx and dust) at national level, the following results have been obtained:

 - annual emission of SO2                                               105 082 t.

- annual emission of CO                                                   25 789 t

- annual emission of NOx                                                 15 223 t

- annual emission of dust                                                   25 699 t

 The above figures do not include emissions from traffic in all cities and roads in the Country (the estimate is that NOx for example increases for 30%).

 The covered area in the Republic of Macedonia having a treatment of forest land, amounts 1 million hectares.

The consumption of ODS in Macedonia has decreased for 80% with the implementation of three investment projects for substitution of CFC 11/12 in refrigerators, solid and soft foams  production. Implementation of a project aimed at substitution of methyl-bromide in the Country (tobacco fields and early vegetables production) is expected to reduce the consumption of methyl-bromide for 42,5 t or 100% of the consumption.

Challenges

According to the data obtained, processed and calculated so far and referring to urban environments, we can conclude that the level of pollution is high, especially with SO2 in Veles, Skopje, Tetovo and Bitola, with sediment particles (in Skopje and Bitola). Major polluters are industrial facilities and means of transportation, and in Skopje heating boilers as well. In other towns the level of pollution is low. With reference to rural areas, although they are assumed to have certain degree of pollution with volatile organic matters, there are no measurable data. However, it is assumed that there is no pollution because in such areas (80%), there are no industrial facilities.  

According to the analyzed data, the Republic of Macedonia belongs to the group of fairly polluted countries, so that the pollution is not continuous in the whole Country, but in given areas only.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

The public is informed on the activities carried out in the framework of the Projects for the First national communication via radio, TV and press, and journalists have shown great interest, asking for more information by themselves. 

As far as the atmosphere protection is concerned, there is a Public Communication Office within the Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning, which distributes information in this area.

The Project GLOBE (Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment) initiated in 1998 includes 10 primary/secondary schools through the Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning, Ministry of Education and Peace Corps. In the schools, there are specially trained teachers working with the students in 4 major areas: climate, water, soil and land cover.

In the framework of the workshops related to the Project on the First national communication on climate change, technical professionals from universities and relevant institutions are involved. 

About 250 serviceman and facilities have been trained with RPM in collection/recycling of cooling media. With regard to the data base, separate software for monitoring and control of import/export and ODS consumption has been developed.  

The GLOBE Project provided training of GLOBE instructors.

Information 

Automatic monitoring stations are interconnected with telemetric system, and data from manual stations (of RHMI and RIHP) are transmitted via fax/mail. Database is developed after the receipt of data. Indicators used are the concentrations of SO2, smoke, CO, NOx, suspended particles in the air, dust, ozone, radiation, moisture, temperature, wind velocity and speed.

The above information are distributed in tow ways: through the Public Relations Office functioning within the Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning and through press conferences held each month in the Ministry.

From the central government, 12 million denars are allocated for air protection, which is insignificant. There are no private sources, and currently two projects are going on, partially financed by USAID aimed at substitution of crude oil to natural gas, in an amount of DEM 80.000 and $US150.000. Co-financier of projects is the Fund of Environment (Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning).

Development of map and inventory of polluters is underway, and specification of the level of charges payable depending on the level of pollution will follow up. At present, fee at vehicles registration is charged, and part of funds collected in this manner is invested in projects aimed at atmosphere protection. Development of map and inventory of polluters is underway, and specification of the level of charges payable depending on the level of pollution will follow up. At present, fee at vehicles registration is charged, and part of funds collected in this manner is invested in projects aimed at atmosphere protection.

Research and Technologies 

The Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning collects information from three sources: automatic air pollution monitoring system, composed of 4 stations positioned in the capital, connected with the main display in the center of the city, providing access to information on air pollution to each citizen, the operation of which is automatic. Data are obtained on hourly basis. The next one is the system of the Republic Hydro-Meteorological Institute (RHMI), which is manual, and the system of the Republican Institute for Health Protection (RIHP), which is manual, too. Data are obtained on daily basis. RHMI and RIHP are obliged to transmit data to this Ministry, after which such data are processed and transmitted to the European Environmental Agency (EEA).

By means of investment made by the Fund of Environment, the project in the factory for conditory products has been implemented, related to substitution of crude oil with gas. Similar projects are under implementation in other facilities as well, in which energy resource in the heating system is replaced  - crude oil to gas. The implementation of the project for desulphurization of the lead and zinc smelter in Veles is in the stage of negotiation with the Slovenian Government (through technical assistance).

The Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning, through the Cleaner Production Center, performs staff training in the implementation of the cleaner production concept, as a first stage. Replacement of old technologies with technologies producing less pollution at the exit of the production process is envisaged, through intervention at the entry, as well as in the course of the production process. 

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

The Department of Euro-integration comprises Division for bilateral and Division for Multilateral cooperation. 

The present level of activity in this context is rather low. Activities are related mainly to building of structures and capacity strengthening in governmental bodies, scientific institutions and industry. For the purpose of the above, workshops are organized with the aim of introducing issues connected with climate change and combat against it. In terms of ozone layer protection, the cooperation is the highest level, resulting in implementation of several projects by which new technologies for CFCs substitutions have been introduced.

The Republic of Macedonia ratified the CCC in 1998 and at present the development of the First national communication on climate change to the convention is underway. After that, more specific steps towards project implementation will be undertaken.  The Kyoto Protocol has not been ratified by the Republic of Macedonia. Final decision will be reached once we collect and analyze enough information.

In, 1994, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia ratified the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer. The Ministries of Urban Planing, Construction and Environment; Health Care; and Economy are primarily responsible for protecting the atmosphere. The country has developed a National Program for Hazardous Substances Substitution in cooperation with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

Conventions related to the prevention of trans-boundary air pollution are ratified and the Republic of Macedonia takes an active part in some of the activities concerning LRTAP, which is ratified.

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This information was provided by the Government of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to the fifth and ninth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 2001.

Click here for national information from the Web site of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
For access to the Web Site of the Ozone Secretariat, click here:

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BIODIVERSITY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The Convention on Biological Diversity and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora have not been signed and ratified by the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as the country has not been a UN Member until recently. However, since the country's independence, the Government has initiated action to implement international agreements and conventions or integrate them into the national legal system. In this context, the Ministry of Urban Planning, Construction and Environment, in cooperation with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has initiated a procedure to pass the legislation required to ratifying the above conventions through the Macedonian Parliament.

These agencies, under the leadership of the Ministry of Urban Planning, Construction and Environment, have produced a special development document on the integrated protection of environment and nature, entitled the National Ecological Action Program (NEAP). The NEAP covers the maintenance and management of biodiversity in protected areas in Macedonia.

Recently, existing development documents relating to space and biodiversity have also been updated. As a result, several alterations and amendments have been introduced to existing legal instruments, in particular to acts related to environmental protection and nature maintenance. Within the past four years (1992-1996), the Macedonian Parliament has passed the following acts: (1) the Act on the System of Spatial and Urban Planning; (2) the Act on Alterations and Amendments to the Act on Natural Rarities; (3) the Act on Alterations and Amendments to the Act on National Parks Protection; (4) the Act on Alterations and Amendments to the Act on Protection of the Ohrid, Prespa and Dojran Lakes; (5) the Act on Establishing a Strict Natural Reserve at "Ezerani"; (6) the Act on Hunting; (7) the new Act on Forests; and (8) the new Act on Waters. In addition, a new Act on Environment and Nature Protection is currently in draft and under parliamentary procedure.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

The National Ramsar Committee of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia has been actively engaged in the implementation of the provisions of international conventions for environmental protection. The Committee is currently working within the framework of the Society for the Study and Protection of Birds in Macedonia. Representatives of state bodies, scientific and expert institutions, and the V3 NGO are members. Part of its activities are conducted under the auspices of the Forum on Biodiversity of The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FOBIDEM).

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

Maintaining biological diversity has been one of the most important tasks of the Macedonian Government. A national body to monitor the current status of biodiversity in the country has not yet been established. However, activities in this area are being completed by the Ministry of Urban Planning, Construction and Environment, and the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management. In addition, several scientific and expert state institutions support biodiversity research, such as the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, the Museum of Nature and Science of Macedonia, the Hydro-Biological Agency from Ohrid, the National Agency for Natural Rarities Protection, the Main Office for Natural Parks and Hunting Reserves in Macedonia, the Biology Institute at the Skopje University of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, the Forestry Institute at the Skopje Forestry University, and the Institute for Cattle Breeding.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

At the national level, capacity-building and technology issues have been covered by the Sector for Environment and Nature Protection at the Ministry of Urban Planning, Construction and Environment. The Sector has, for example, developed a paper on land and natural rarities protection. At the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management, the Forestry Sector has an expert team engaged in wildlife conservation which has produced two papers on hunting (Wild Animals Protection) and forestry (Forest Plant Species Protection).

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing 

To date, the maintenance of biodiversity has been financed from the state's budget. The budget supports projects and programmes to maintain biodiversity in protected areas; scientific and research work (surveying specific areas that are outside protected areas); genetic engineering development; and projects to raise the level of ecological awareness on the importance of biodiversity among the population. However, funds from the state's budget have not been sufficient.

Cooperation

See also under Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations.

At the micro-regional level, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia has initiated the establishment of the Union for Studying and Protecting the Balkan Flora and Fauna (Bitola, Macedonia, 1992). It currently holds the chair for the Union. At the regional level, the country has been active in the work of the Regional Environmental Center of Central and Eastern European Countries and has initiated the creation of a special department for the study and protection of the regional biodiversity of Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC).

In addition, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia has played an active role in the activities of the European Center for Nature Conservation, the European Union's work for the protection of biodiversity in Europe, and the Council for the Implementation of the Pan-European Strategy for Biological and Landscape Diversity (at the Council of Europe). Since 1994, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia has been an active member state of the International Union for Nature Conservation (IUCN) and of United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP); and since 1995, of the World Center for Biodiversity Monitoring.

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This information was provided by the Government of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

For access to the Web Site of the Convention on Biological Diversity, click here:
For access to the Web Site of the CITES Convention, click here:
For the Web Site of the CMS Convention, click here:
For the Web Site of the Convention on the Protection of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage, click here:
For the country-by-country, Man in the Biosphere On-Line Query System, click here:
Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to go to the Web Site of UNEP's International Register on Biosafety.
Click here for the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Biosafety WebPages

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DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information available

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information available

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information available

Programmes and Projects 

No information available

Status 

No information available

Challenges

No information available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information available

Information 

No information available

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia has not yet signed the International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Drought and/or Desertification Particularly in Africa.

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

For access to the Web Site of the Convention to Combat Desertification and Drought, click here:

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ENERGY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry of Economy is responsible for making decisions concerning energy issues.  The Ministry of Economy-Energy and Justice Departments within their respective competences make proposals and send them to the Government Cabinet for adoption. 

In the decision-making process, the local-level representatives are included and consulted for some energy issues if necessary or appropriate.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Relevant laws and regulations concerning energy are:

-Law on energy

-Tariff structure system for certain energy types

-Resolution on establishing general conditions for supply of related to energy power systems.

-Methodology on pricing certain energy types

There is National Energy Efficiency Programme adopted by the Government, which includes regulations that are to be prepared in the next period.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Main elements of Macedonias sustainable energy strategy are:

-Energy demands, especially the demands of natural gas as a natural environmental fuel.

-Available energy resources and energy facilities with its technical, energy and economy characteristics.

-Requirements for construction of energy projects.

-Funding required and resources to provide them.

-Possibility for energy efficiency use.

-Protection of environment and nature against harmful influence in operation of power facilities, devices and installations

The preparation of the programme for construction of energy objects for year 2015 is underway and this programme will establish short-term and long-term activities. In the future period it is expected more intensive construction of hydro power plants and generative thermo plant, connection of the transferring network with Republic of Bulgaria and Republic of Albania and revitalization and finishing of the distributive network. 

Also underway is the preparation of the Strategy for complex development of the energy sector where other segments of energy will be defined. In the future period the usage of natural gas and the geothermal energy will be intensified.

A Programme for Energy Efficiency has been passed which anticipates several activities, such as:

1. Strategy on Energy Efficiency

2. Legislative and other incitement advantages

3. Financial Support Fund

4. Investments and Technology Documentation

5. Realization of Concrete Projects

6. Regulations, Standards and other Acts

7. Information and Education Activities

8. Publications and Brochures

9. International Activities

A Programme for Energy Efficiency has been passed which anticipates several activities, such as:

1. Strategy on Energy Efficiency

2. Legislative and other incitement advantages

3. Financial Support Fund

4. Investments and Technology Documentation

5. Realization of Concrete Projects

6. Regulations, Standards and other Acts

7. Information and Education Activities

8. Publications and Brochures

9. International Activities

With donations from several countries (Austria, Netherlands) underway is the realization of several projects for rational usage of energy in the economy. Also: enhancement of natural gas usage, hydro energy and renewable energy sources, and intensive researches for increased usage of the sun energy, bio energy, etc.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

Many scientific, academic, and non-governmental associations are also active in this issue area holding seminars and consultations promoting sustainable development principles. The major active groups include the Association of Energy Workers of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and the Board of Energy Development of the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and the Arts.

All business and non-business subject as well as the scientific institutions are included in the decision-making process through the Chamber of Commerce, Consumers' Organization of Macedonia, professional councils, commissions, etc.

So far there is no private capital invested in the energy production: this activity is performed by public enterprises and joint stock companies, at  state and local level. With the new Concession Law to be passed, the process of inclusion of the private capital in the energy sector will be enhanced, facilitated also by the new Law on energy.

NGOs, consumer groups, scientists and other major interest groups are timely informed and engaged in relation to the development and current issues regarding energy, energy balance etc.

Programmes and Projects 

The programmes for transfer of energy to urban and rural areas are prepared by ESM and are realized through annual investment programmes.

Macedonia has a programme to introduce the natural gas in the consumption of urban and rural areas and heating systems.

All consumers have the same treatment in providing them with energy and  there are no special programmes for the low-income households. In respect of the payment, the low-income households have the option of delayed payment.

With the construction of the planned co-generative objects and enhanced usage of the renewable energy sources the emission of greenhouse gases will be reduced.

The preparation of new quality standards for the liquid fuels is underway.

The Government has adopted a Programme for Energy Efficiency and preparation activities for making special Strategy for Energy Efficiency are underway.

Status 

Overall, the future direction for energy use includes: (1) increasing the proportion of natural gas as an energy source and its introduction for household consumption; (2) greater reliance on hydro energy through the construction of hydroelectric power stations; (3) increasing the share of renewable energy sources; and (4) implementing the approved National Program of Energy Saving, Substitution and Rational Use By 2000. Efforts have been made in recent years to join the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to the gas pipeline from Russia. This would certainly improve the national energy structure from an environmental aspect. The construction of hydroelectric power plants represents a second priority.

In the past five years, the consumption of electricity in industry has considerably decreased. Thermo-electric power plants produce some 70% of the total electricity while hydro-electric power plants generate the remaining 30%. Fifty-five percent of the national demand for electricity is met through domestic production and 45% through imports.

In Macedonia, coal, fuelwood, hydropower and geothermal energy are produced domestically, while natural gas, cole and crude oil have to imported.

Tthe current status of access to electricity are as follows:

-  Urban households -         total electrification

-  Rural households -           total electrification

-  Industrial complexes (agriculture, manufacturing, etc.) - total electrification

-  Transportation -                       only railway

Trends and changes in the consumption patterns of energy are as follows: 

    Natural gas-slight increase

    Oil-constant

    Fuel woods-constant

    Coal-constant

    Hydro-increase

    Geothermal - increase

The determinations of EU in the energy field are to be institutionalized in our country, too, which entered the Energy Charter. In present situation, part of the legislation has been adjusted and the rest will be accorded in the period to come by institutionalization of competitive electricity market in the region and by implementation of the privatization process of the public enterprises and ESM. The effects from the trade liberalization and privatization in the energy sector are yet to be assessed in details when the process is completed.

Challenges

The energy production has the most dangerous influence on the environment in the areas where the electricity is produced from coal (Bitola, Kicevo) as well as heat production-the central heating system, from masut (Skopje). The elimination of the dangerous maters of this production is under the allowed level as a result of the filter existence.

The existing regulations in the energy field doesn't create barriers regarding the usage of the renewable energy sources and pure technologies. The level of usage depends on the supply of financial means and their competitiveness.

In the Energy Efficiency Programme a Fund for Energy Efficiency is anticipated in whose framework all activities for the field of energy efficiency will be financed, which also means usage of environment friendly energy.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

The Programme for Energy Efficiency passed by the Government of Republic of Macedonia contains these activities and their realization should follow in the coming period. In that direction adequate activities will follow after the completion of the "Energy Policy in the EU Countries concerning Environmental protection and Energy Efficiency: Possibilities for Implementation in the Republic of Macedonia" project.

Designing primary and secondary school education curriculum for promoting an early awareness of energy-environment-related issues will follow in the future period, according to the conditions that will provide its realization.

In the construction filed there are standards related to the construction of buildings in function of greater energy efficiency and environment protection.

With realization of the measures in the Programme on "Regional Network for Efficient Use of Energy resources (RENEUER) where Republic of Macedonia is included, conditions will be created for consumers' education in the energy field.

Information 

In accordance with the Energy Law, the Ministry of Economy-Energy Sector provides and analyses the data regarding the energy issues in our country.

At domestic level there are complete information regarding the energy production and consumption per producers and consumers. At international level the data are given at concrete study projects.

In the Ministry of Environment there is a Center that registers the data regarding the energy influence on the atmosphere and the transport.  

Research and Technologies 

One of the important determinations in the energy field is also the increasing of the participation of the renewable sources in the energy consumption.

For greater usage of the hydro potential there's currently underway the construction of new hydro power plants (big and small) that are expected to increase the usage, which at present is 24%. In the direction of using the biomass in Republic of Macedonia the preparation of study is underway as well as realization of the pilot-project for its usage in the agricultural complex.

The usage of the geothermal energy is constantly increased and it is used in the agriculture, industry, schools, hotels and other public buildings.

Should the above-mentioned technological options are not introduced, the import dependence will increase as well as the environment pollution.

Inclusion of the natural gas in the energy consumption as well as increased usage of the renewable energy sources.

There is no organized transportation specially devised to provide for a cleaner environment.

Financing

The energy projects and programmes in our country are financed by:

-the current working of the energy enterprises

-commercial credits and

-grants form other countries' governments.

The new law on Energy from 1997 determines liberal conditions for working with energy in our country. More precisely domestic or foreign investors can invest in energy facilities without any limitations. With a view to provide more stable conditions for investments, including purchase and sale arrangements, in 1998 the Government adopted a methodology for setting prices of certain energy types. In the first part of it, the normalized costs for production, transfer and distribution of energy are defined, in the second part all taxes that should be paid to the state are defined, and thirdly the profile is established, which the Government is obliged to respect in giving consent for the prices of certain energy products. This methodology enables greater interest for foreign investments in the energy sector in the Republic of Macedonia. The new law on Energy from 1997 determines liberal conditions for working with energy in our country. More precisely domestic or foreign investors can invest in energy facilities without any limitations.

Cooperation

The aims of promoting international transfer of energy related technology are to increase the energy efficiency and environment protection from the greenhouse effects in the energy production and usage.

With the neighboring countries and the countries that Macedonia has more intensive cooperation with in the field of energy, the bilateral activities are implemented in the framework of the activities of joint commissions. Through bilateral cooperation with several countries, grants were provided for the realization of energy projects. The multilateral cooperation is carried out in the framework of SEECI, CEI, BSEC, Stability Pact, SBDI, UN-ECE - Division for Sustainable Energy, etc.

Responsible for the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol is the Ministry for Environment and Urban Planning. The determinations from the energy  field are gradually incorporated in our programmes thus creating conditions for their realization.

Macedonia became party to the Agreement for Energy Charter Treaty and Energy Charter Protocol on Energy Efficiency and Related Environmental Aspects.

 

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to the fifth and ninth sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 2001.

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FORESTS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The development policy and legal basis for forest management in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia is implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management, which is also responsible for several regional offices. The legal provisions related to forestry are implemented by the National Agriculture Inspectorate within the Ministry. Forest management is accomplished in accordance with previously prepared ten-year plans of the forestry-economic base. The implementation of these provisions is mandatory and any deviation is a general legal offense. These plans are approved by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management which ensures their implementation by the enterprises responsible for managing the forests.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The status of forests in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia has generally been specified by the Constitution. Forests have been defined as public goods and have been placed under special legislative care. They are still managed in accordance with the Act on Forests passed in 1974 (The Official Gazette of SRM Nos. 44/91 and 83/92) under which forests can be either publicly or privately owned. The new act on forests, currently being approved, will continue this state-private ownership duality. In addition, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia is actively preparing its National Ecological Action Program (NEAP) to contribute to world-wide efforts to protect forests as a crucial environmental factor.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

In the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, state forests cover 816,633 ha or 91.6% of the total forest area, while private forests cover 89,020 ha or 8.4%. Privately-owned forests are managed by their owners; while state ones are managed by 30 public enterprises, 3 national parks, and 5 enterprises responsible for protective or special purpose forests. The use of forests has been based upon the principle of durability; this allows for the production of at least equal wood stock for wood manufacture and other wood items from each forest.

It is important to state that the forest resource has been continuously increasing in volume year after year due to the protective components of forest management. Special attention has been given to afforestation which directly influences the forest stock and environmental protection. The increase in volume can be measured in the wood stock surface area and the increase (a permanent increase) in the production potential. In 1959, a total of 851,000 ha were under woods, with total wood weight established at 51,418,000 m3; these figures in 1979 amounted to 906,000 ha and 74,344,000 m3 respectively. In the past five years, the average annual production of wood has amounted to 848,800 m3; including 170,000 m3 of technical wood (raw wood pieces, round building materials, etc.) and 678,800 m3 of firewood. It is important to stress that the production of wood takes only 70.0% of the real production potential.

Most of the forestry output is used to meet national demands with only 1% of the total output exported. All over the world (and in Macedonia as well) forests play a decisive role in environmental protection. Forest functions include: air cleaning--forests absorb damaging substances from the air and produce oxygen (the share of forests in this particular function amounts to 90% of the total); cleaning waters harmed by chemical and other substances; soil protection; minimizing radioactive emissions; noise abatement, etc. In view these important forest functions and the hazards threatening forests (especially acid rain), great attention has been paid recently to the protection of forests, forest regeneration, and planting. The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia is contributing to global efforts through its NEAP.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia is preparing to join the work related to the X3 Resolution from the second Ministerial Conference for the Protection of Forests in Europe. The Forest Section of the UN Economic Commission for Europe Trade Division (UEN/ECE) coordinates this activity.

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

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FRESHWATER

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Water resources are the responsibility of the National Water Management Administration, a division of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The Act on Waters and the Water Management Basis of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia provides the legal instruments for national water management.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

With water as an integral element of the country's economy, water management plays an important role in human life and in the production of healthy and high quality-food. The first priority of national water management is to provide clean sanitary water for the needs of the population. Natural resources are almost exclusively used to meet the demands of the population and for the needs of specific food industries which require clean water.

Public water supply systems, which meet the population's demands during most of the year, have been constructed in all municipal centers (towns). At specific times, especially during the summer period, there may be a deficiency in the supply of water due to low water levels and increased consumption. Currently, urban water supply systems for connected towns and villages use a total of 251,000,000 m3 water from three different sources: natural freshwater sources 138,200,000 m3; underground water 43,500,000 m3; and surface water previously processed 69,300,000 m3. The total length of the water supply network is 2,945 million metres, while water plants supply 2.44 m3/second.

Existing water supply systems will have to be reconstructed and rehabilitated for the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to have access to high-quality water. The use and maintenance procedures also needs modernization through systematic monitoring of hydrologic conditions.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

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LAND MANAGEMENT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Land use planning is conducted in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia by the Ministry of Construction, Urban Planning and Environment in cooperation with a whole network of regional municipal offices throughout the country.

The Ministry of Construction, Urban Planning and Environment is responsible for overall coordination of a new Spatial Plan.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

During the transition period, land use has been rational organized and regulated by the new Act on Spatial and Urban Planning (1996) which gives special attention to sustainable development and natural resource protection.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

A new Spatial Plan, currently being prepared for the country, will also integrate sustainable development principles. The development of this plan is being completed by the expert agencies for spatial management.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia actively participated in the work of Habitat II and intends to integrate principles adopted at this conference in its land management decision making and implementation.

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

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MOUNTAINS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

In the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the Ministries of Development; Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management; and Urban Planning, Construction and Environment are responsible for sustainable mountain development. Within the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management, the Agency for Developing Economically Underdeveloped and Frontier Areas is a specialized group responsible for the development of economically underdeveloped and frontier areas.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

 Legislation defines special criteria to identify underdeveloped areas and necessary funding for activities is provided by the state's budget. Sustainable development principles have been integrated in the investment procedures for these localities.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

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OCEANS AND COASTAL AREAS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

Being a continental country, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia is not a signatory party to the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea.

 

 

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

To access the Web Site of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, click here:

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TOXIC CHEMICALS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

In the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the Ministries of Economy; Health Care; and Labour and Social Policy have responsibility for the environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals. In addition, the Agency for Labour Medicine and the Ministries of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management; and Urban Planning, Construction and Environment play a role in this issue area.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

The Republic has followed the toxic substances recommendations from Agenda 21 and is trying to adjust existing national regulations in this area. This particularly applies to the safe use of chemical toxic substances in industry, especially in the chemical industry. In addition, a special commission is responsible for training individuals engaged in the transportation of dangerous products.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

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WASTE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Solid Waste and Sanitation

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministries of Economy; Urban Planning, Construction and Environment; Health Care; and Interior are responsible for the environmentally sound management of solid wastes and sewage in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. In addition, housing and public utilities, state enterprises, and industrial and economic enterprises contribute to this issue.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

The management of solid wastes has been one of the major environmental issues in the Republic. Currently, these wastes are usually stored at sanitary disposal sites which are not sufficiently safe. The development of effective and efficient legal measures for solid waste disposal is one of the main tasks of the Ministry of Urban Planning, Construction and Environment, and the other involved agencies.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

  

Hazardous Waste

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia has not yet signed the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal. However, initial activities are underway for its adoption. The Republic does follows the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) recommendations integrating them into its own legal structure.

 

 

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

For direct link to the Web Site of the Basel Convention, click here:

 

Radioactive Waste

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

In the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the most competent body for radioactive waste management is the Ministry of Economy, supported by its technical facilities. In the area of science, radioactive emissions monitoring is completed by the Institute for Using Radiothopes in Science and Economy, and the Health Care Agency.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

The country does not produce radioactive wastes. However, such wastes may occur from the use of radioactive substances in nuclear medicine. This type of radioactive waste is disposed of in a safe manner.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.


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