INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN LEBANON

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INTEGRATED DECISION-MAKING

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry of Environment (MOE) is responsible for policy planning and setting laws and regulations. Line Ministries, local authorities and other national authorities are responsible for implementation, including the following among others: from the Government: the Ministry of Public Health, the Ministry of Hydraulic and Electrical Resources, and the Council for Development and Reconstruction; para-statal bodies such as the National Council for Scientific Research, the Chamber of Commerce, and the Lebanese and American Universities; and more than fifty NGOs working in the social, health, development, business fields, etc., among which are the Lebanese Environment Forum, the Green Forum, the Association for Forest Development and Conservation, the Green Line, the Society for the Protection of Nature, and the Lebanese Businessmen Association.

The Council for Development and Reconstruction (CDR) is a planning body and ensures coordination of foreign funding. NGOs have influenced policies on some occasions, and the private sector can be mobilized to play a major role.

Because of the impact of war on administrative structures and human resource abilities, environmental management suffered from grave problems: inappropriate qualified personnel, inefficiency, low salaries and overlapping responsibilities. The Government recognized the urgent need for reform and rehabilitation and considered the institutional strengthening as a significant component of the recovery program. This recognition was translated in the creation of several ministries mainly the Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of Administrative Reform.

In 1997, an agreement was signed between the Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of Administrative Reform, in order to:

The Council is still in a preparatory phase.

Ministry of Environment

The Ministry of Environment was created by Law 216 (April 1993) and is empowered to study, propose and implement national environmental policies. It is considered the only regulatory environmental agency in the country. The Ministry is committed to ensuring good implementation and enforcement of environmental legislation, acts and regulations. The ultimate long-term objectives of MoE are summarized as follows:

Among the most important responsibilities of the MoE in the field of environmental management is the identification of permitting conditions for new industry, agriculture, quarrying and mining, and the enforcement of appropriate remedial measures for installations. The necessary environmental management schemes that can support MoE to fulfill this particular obligation are essential at this stage of reconstruction and development of the Lebanese economic sectors.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Since September 1994 the Ministry has initiated a Capacity 21 programme, with UNDP's support, to assist Government efforts to integrate sustainable development within national plans. This programme has led to the development and updating of the following laws:

The review of legislation is ongoing and planned to continue until 1999. Lebanon has a large body of environmental laws, some dating back to the 1930s. However, these laws are characterized by obsolescence, lack of clarity and lack of coherence.

MoE also enacted emission and ambient quality standards for air, water and noise pollution in 1996. However, the standards are difficult to enforce because of the fragmented and small-scale nature of industry and the lack of institutional capacity. More recently, an interministerial committee, constituted by the Ministry of Industry and Petroleum, the Lebanese Norms Institute (LIBNOR) and MoE have further reviewed industrial emission standards, however the capacity of this committee to set new emission standards with a clear enforcement schedule is also inadequate.

Lebanon Inter-agency Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development

The Inter-agency Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development (ICESD), established in 1993, resumed its activities on February 6, 1996, in response to the urgent need to coordinate various activities undertaken by UN agencies.

The committee agreed on the following Terms of Reference:

The first task of the Committee's Secretariat was the compilation of a directory of the activities of UN agencies related to environment and sustainable development, which can assist in establishing a strategy for the Committee. The Directory was compiled following a series of meetings with project managers and Government focal points working in environment related projects in various UN funded activities.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Despite all these obstacles, MoE has set priorities on the national level for the year 1997-1998, and these can be summarized as follows:

  1. Organization: restructuring the MoE in an attempt to clearly define the role and objectives of the Ministry.
  2. Solid Waste Management: MoE has prepared a strategic plan for rational and effective management of solid waste.
  3. Toxic waste: Decree 22/1 (January 1997) prohibited the import of all plastic waste according to the list provided by the European Union. Also, toxic waste (from Belgium, Canada and Germany) is being returned to country of origin.
  4. Industries: A study about industrial waste management is in its last stages. A National Plan will be declared and implemented.
  5. Quarries: Closed quarries will be technically and aesthetically rehabilitated in collaboration with all concerned parties where construction debris will be treated and filled in. There are 710 quarries in Lebanon, 246 of which have sand extraction. From the existing quarries, 45% hold a license, 70% are considered impossible to rehabilitate.
  6. Environmental education and awareness: A national awareness plan has been established, but it has not yet been implemented. Re-enforcement of the Protocol between MoE and the Ministry of Education will be updated soon.
  7. Protected areas: A GEF project was launched in 15/11/96 at the MoE for the protection and management of three protected areas. An additional three coastal and marine areas are on their way to be included within the same project.
  8. Information System: MoE is working on creating its own information network, using among other projects, the Sustainable Development Networking Programme (SDNP), a UN project currently implemented at MoE.
  9. Revision of the National Environmental Code.
  10. Wastewater treatment: Working in collaboration with the Ministry of Electrical and Hydraulic Resources on preparing studies.

In 1995, a METAP/World Bank project helped the Government establish a State of Environment Report and a Strategy Framework, which was later approved by the MoE. The framework needs to be further updated and consolidated into a national strategy. The World Bank also supported the set up of a Planning and Programming Unit at MoE with the following tasks:

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

Outside the on-going efforts by MoE and CDR, the National Administrative Rehabilitation Programme can be considered as a new national mechanism within the scope of the Ministry of Administrative Reform that can be drawn upon for ensuring a broad national intervention at the Government level. This programme is constantly looking into the following:

NGOs are also making an effort to better network and coordinate their activities and share experiences. These efforts need to be assisted by the international community, since the national efforts are proving not capable of moving forward at the required pace.

In 1992, the CDR prepared and launched the National Emergency and Reconstruction Program (NERP). This $2.25 billion program was aimed at restoring basic infrastructure services such as electricity and telecommunication sectors in the country. The plan was essential to allow proper functioning of the private sector, which would be mobilized to increase economic activity.

The first phase of rehabilitation is nearing completion and some major benefits have already being experienced: 24 hour electricity supplies are provided to most users, telecommunication systems are functioning better, some 1,200 public schools have been rehabilitated. Garbage collection has been put in place in Beirut and is gradually being extended to other regions. Renewing of roads and services in the northern and southern suburbs of Beirut is taking place.

The second phase of work (HORIZON 2000) has been launched, with more attention to physical as well as social infrastructure: education, health, water supply, waste water, and solid waste sectors. Projects are being prepared to the value of $840 million. Work is progressing in the rehabilitation and re-building of educational facilities. The Government has also embarked on construction of a number of major new development projects, such as new power generating facilities, the new Beirut University Hospital, the Beirut International Airport, expansion of the Lebanese University and some urgently required roads projects.

National Decision-Making Structure

1. National Sustainable Development Coordination Body: No
2. National Sustainable Development Policy: No
3. National Agenda 21/other strategy for SD: No
4. Local/Regional Agenda(s) 21: In process
5. Environmental Impact Assessment Law: In process
6. Major Groups involved in Sustainable Development Decision-Making: No

National Instruments and Programmes

1. Sustainable. Dev. or environmental education incorporated into school curricula: In process
2. Sustainable Development Indicators Program: In process
3. Ecolabel Regulations: No
4. Recycle/Reuse Programs: No
5. Green Accounting Program: No
6. Access to Internet: Yes
7. Access to World Wide Web: Yes
8. A national World Wide Web Site for Sustainable Dev. or State of the Environment: address: www.sdnp.org.lb.

 

Policies, Programmes, and Legislation

Does your country have either a policy, programme, and/or legislation consistent with Agenda 21 in:  
1. Combatting poverty: No
2. Changing consumption and production patterns: No
3. Atmosphere: In process
4. Land Use Planning: Yes
5. Forest and Deforestation: Ad-hoc
6. Desertification and Drought: In process
7. Sustainable Mountain Development: No
8. Sustainable Agriculture: No
9. Biological Diversity: Yes
10. Biotechnology: No
11. Oceans and Coastal Areas: In process
12. Freshwater Management: Ad-hoc
13. Toxic Chemicals: Yes
14. Hazardous Wastes: Yes
15. Solid Wastes: Yes
16. Radioactive Wastes: No
17. Energy: No
18. Transport: No
19. Sustainable Tourism: No
 

Challenges

All of the enacted laws need to be further ratified by Government, and enforcement mechanisms established. The enforcement of environmental regulations and monitoring compliance remains inadequate due to weak inspection and enforcement capacity of the Ministry of Environment and the overlapping of responsibilities in MoE's mandate with other government agencies concerned with environmental issues. Coordination mechanisms for sustainable development are also weak; no institutionalised mechanism for coordination exists. It is difficult to establish clear roles and lines of communication. Yet the management of cross-cutting environmental issues requires clear and defined means of communication and allocating responsibilities between Ministries.

The limited staffing at MoE is another major constraint. The Ministry has only 13 employees including the Director General, and most of these have administrative rather than technical duties. After the Ministry was allowed to contract staff with salaries commensurate with skills, technical work is now performed by 20 engineers employed on fix-term contracts. National expertise usually cannot be attracted by low salary rates at the MOE and other public institutions. EIAs for instance are only carried out in the case where donors supporting a specific project impose an EIA to be produced prior to the approval of such funds.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

A Monitoring and Reporting Strategy for environmental programs in Lebanon is being developed by UNDP.

Environmental education and awareness: A national awareness plan has been established, but it has not yet been implemented. Re-enforcement of the Protocol between MoE and the Ministry of Education will be updated soon.

Some lessons have been learned about capacity-building, including:

Capacity-building principles can be applied to development programs through the following tools and mechanisms:

Reports on Capacity-Building for Sustainable Development are submitted to UNDP's CAPACITY 21 Program, on the scope of work of the national Capacity 21 program.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

Lebanon is a member of:

An exchange of experience on sustainable development activities takes place through the following bodies:

 

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This information is based on Lebanon's submissions to the 5th, 6th and 7th Sessions of the Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: November 2000.

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MAJOR GROUPS

WOMEN

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

As a result of the Beijing Conference, a National Commission for the Advancement of Women was established by Governmental decree.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

UN agencies and EU are supporting the development of a national strategy in cooperation with concerned NGO committee.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

The percentage of women in parliament in 1992 and 1996 was 2%. The number at the local government level is negligible. Policies or strategies are being drawn up for achievement of equality in all aspects of society. Two laws were changed due to NGO pressure. Curricula promoting dissemination of gender-relevant knowledge are planned.

Programmes and Projects 

In 1996, the Ministry of Social Affairs launched the project Strengthening Institutions for the Development of Women Enterprises. The project now has a core of 20 trainers and business counsellors and has conducted 9 training courses for women potential entrepreneurs, with 230 women and two men graduating.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

The Arabsalim Women's Association started a solid waste collection and recycling campaign in the South Lebanon. They began with composting organic wastes and training local community groups to sort plastic and glass for recycling.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women was signed and ratified in 1996 with major reservations.

 

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This information is based on Lebanon's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: June 1997.

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CHILDREN AND YOUTH

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

Children and youth are ad hoc participants in the national sustainable development process. Regional and international cooperation in the form of youth fora does exist. One Parliamentary session was held where the Speaker of Parliament chaired a session in which children were given the opportunity to "act" as deputies.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

Children and youth influence environmental awareness and sustainable development through school clubs and CBOs. Local NGOs provide youth fora and summer camps.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

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This information is based on Lebanon's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: June 1997.

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INDIGENOUS PEOPLE

Not applicable.

 

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This information is based on Lebanon's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

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NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

In 1994, eight NGOs established the Lebanese Environment Forum (LEF), which now undertakes projects such as reforestation, establishment of sanctuaries, restoration of old churches and mosques, in addition to awareness campaigns for protecting the environment. Member organizations hold monthly coordination meetings with the Minister of Environment and workshops and seminars are set up by the MoE and NGOs to disseminate environmental information and increase public awareness.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

NGOs have played a major role in the creation of the MoE, through lobbying and enhancing pressure. Since its early creation, the MoE sought for a lon-term strategy of coordination among NGOs. It also realized the need for networking between NGOs and the Ministry. Several seminars were offered to provide NGOs with knowledge on lobbying, mobilizing funds and formulating projects to the MoE. Seminar objectives were identifies through a Capacity 21 project.

NGOs are always invited to participate in decision-making regarding public awareness, strategy plans and urgent issues such as hazardous wastes, quarries, and the protection of monumental and natural sites.

Programmes and Projects 

Some success stories:

The House of Environment of Mount Lebanon aims at the collection and dissemination of environmental knowledge and know-how on eco-efficiency among schools, community groups and NGOs. The project was launched through the Association Liban Nature Environment and is in the process of construction.

The Association for Forest Development and Conservation (AFDC) initiated the Tree Nursery and Environmental Training Centre Project in Aley Caza in 1993. The tree nursery provides 25,000 pine trees a year. The Environment Training Centre will be the first of its kind in Lebanon.

Status 

Since the early 1970s, several NGOs have been established by researchers and scientists. Their main role has been to increase environmental awareness amongst the general public and to draw attention to pressing environmental problems and human health issues. In the early 1980s, NGO activities were rather theoretical, covering research and case studies on wild life, forests, rivers, flora and fauna as well as the marine environment. However, during the war, environmental concerns were inevitably considered to be a luxury. As the fighting decreased, public concern for the environment began to reappear and environmental NGOs were reformed. By the late 1980s, there were about 40 institutions and societies throughout the Lebanon, which were concerned with environmental issues. Their activities focussed primarily on urgent local issues.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

In 1996, the local NGO SPNL established the Environment Information Centre in Beirut which provides different sources for environmental education such as books and training sessions for environmental educators.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

 

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This information is based on Lebanon's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: June 1997.

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LOCAL AUTHORITIES

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

Since independence in 1943, Lebanon has faced only two elections for local authorities, the first in 1953, the second and last in 1963. Elections were planned for June 1997, but they were postponed for one year by the Government. During the war, local authorities became very weak. In many cases illegal military forces replaced local authorities by imposing taxes on people. The decision to postpone elections further marginalized local authorities. At present there are only 107 active municipalities in Lebanon. The major problems, urban and rural municipalities face are those related to solid waste, sewerage, heritage, public health and urban planning. Rural municipalities also face problems with domestic and irrigation water and urban encroachment upon agricultural and forest lands. Nevertheless, some municipalities have initiated successful projects in the field of environmental management, particularly waste collection and recycling projects.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

 

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This information is based on Lebanon's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: June 1997.

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WORKERS AND UNIONS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

Workers do not yet participate in National Agenda 21 discussions or implementation.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

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This information is based on Lebanon's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

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BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

There are governmental policies increasing the efficiency of resource use, including reuse, recycling, and reduction of waste per unit of economic output and requiring recycling, etc. A few big enterprises have adopted sustainable development policies. MoE is preparing a national programme for this purpose.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

Since 1994, private sector organisations repeatedly called for privatisation of public infrastructure and services. It was argued, that the rehabilitation and operation of public utilities can be delegated to the private sector under agreed arrangements and strict supervision with clear policies for pricing and marketing. The Government has continued preparatory activities towards restructuring public services, particularly in the field of electricity and telecommunications.

To a large extend reconstruction works are now in the hand of private companies. The company ELYSSAR carries out the redevelopment of the Beirut Southern Suburbs, a redevelopment programme with a budget of US$ 2 billion, reconstruction of Beirut Central District was initiated through SOLIDERE, another privately owned company. Environmental Impact Assessments are urgently needed in these projects in order to ensure sustainable development.

Strengthening the private sector is a governmental priority. The Lebanese Investment Development Authority (IDAL) vigorously promoted Lebanon with a view to attract private investment. It commissioned a number of studies and developed its project portfolio.

The recent period witnessed the development of new bank products (personal loans, housing loans, etc.) aiming at the support of economic and social projects such as expansion, re-equipment and modernization of small-scale enterprises and the creation of micro enterprises and handicrafts by displaced.

Several small industries have started recycling of paper, glass and plastic. However, they suffer from lack of advanced technologies and finance to ensure the durability of their projects.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

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This information is based on Lebanon's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: June 1997.

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SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

There is some effort toward improving exchange of knowledge and concerns between the S&T community and the general public.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

 

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This information is based on Lebanon's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

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FARMERS

[Please refer to sections on Agriculture, Land Management and Mountains in the section on Natural Resources]

 

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SCIENCE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The National Council for Scientific Research (NCSR) is the main national body and is responsible for formulating the scientific needs and strategy and ensuring the best utilization of scientific resources for the public benefit.

The NCSR is directly linked to the Council of Ministers and includes the following departments:

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

The damage to the Lebanese scientific community that occurred from the war was great and it will take some time to replenish both human and financial resources needed in this sector.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

Many universities have developed expertise in the field of the environment and sustainable development and can be considered centres of excellence in the region. Research remains theoretical in many cases and lacks the backup of practical information which cannot be obtained in many instances due to the lack of sophisticated analytical instruments. Some researchers are also returning to the private university where rates are improving; however, many national experts have remained outside the country where salaries are higher.

Research is being conducted, e.g. on potable water and irrigation water. Extended research and data collection is taking place on major water bodies. The use and losses of water are also under study.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

Other support has been channelled towards specific areas, for example: Germany assisted the Remote Sensing Center; IEAE supported the NCSR; USAID supported the American University of Beirut; AUPELF supported Francophone Universities; and MEDCAMPUS assisted in training Lebanese University.

 

 

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This information is based on Lebanon's submissions to the 5th and 6th Sessions of the Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: december 1997.

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INFORMATION

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry of Environment is responsible for policy planning and setting laws and regulations pertaining to sustainable development.  As MoE has a consultative mandate, the decisions pertaining to enforcement and implementation are sent to the ministry in charge, with a copy to the Council of Minister’s Cabinet.

The Council for Development and Reconstruction (CDR) is a planning body that ensures coordination of foreign funding, including those attributed to environmental projects. 

The National Council for Scientific Research (NCSR) which is directly linked to the Council of Ministers is responsible to formulate scientific needs and strategies and ensure the best utilization of scientific resources for public benefit.

The Central Administration of Statistics (CAS) is a public institution affiliated to the Council of Ministers with the mandate to conduct statistical studies and figures. By-law, all governmental and non-governmental institutions should collaborate with this administration and provide it with data relative to economic, social, demographic (and now environmental) data.

Ministries are responsible to produce, manage, and disseminate data relevant to their mandates and tasks. For instance: the Ministry of Energy and Hydraulic Resources (energy and energy related issues), Ministry of Public Transport (management, construction and maintenance of classified road network, management of land occupation), Ministry of Transport (management of sea, air and land transport issues), Ministry of Interior (law enforcement, NGO registration), Ministry of Health (health and health related issues), Ministry of Social Affairs (social issues), municipalities (local management), and so on.

Until now, the Lebanese legal texts lack any article pertaining to the flow and management of information. In 1997, the first attempt to legalize this issue was made real through the Code of Environment (see below). The Code was commented and reviewed through the Environmental Parliamentary Committee in collaboration with concerned ministries e.g. Ministry of Health, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Transport, Directorate of Urban Planning, Ministry of Hydraulic and Electrical resources, and experts. It is still awaiting for the Parliament approval.

In the same context, and to enhance national collaboration in the field of information, the Ministry of Environment launched the Lebanese Environment and Development Observatory (LEDO) in early year 2000. The project financed by EC-LIFE THIRD Countries and administered by UNDP acts on gathering, processing and disseminating information related to sustainable development to all concerned ministries and institutions. In the same line, LEDO collaborates closely with the Central Administration for Statistics.

Municipalities are responsible for implementation of any law and decree promulgated by the Ministry in charge. This legal act is channeled to them through the Governorats (Mohafazats). However, it is worth mentioning that few municipalities are establishing now their own database through extensive surveys and studies pertaining to their own city/village.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

In 1997, the Ministry of Environment started working on the Code for the Environment that stipulates in Section 3- Chapter 1 all rules and regulations pertaining to flow and management of information. Article 3 in specific stated that an information management system would be established under the supervision of the Minister of Environment. The methods and means to organize environmental management data shall be defined in a statutory order issued by the Council of Ministers and upon suggestion from the Minister of Environment. This Code is currently in the Parliament for approval.

No other regulatory or legislative tool has been identified in this regard.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

All plans related to development and use of indicators, standardization of data, establishment of a comprehensive information network and information capacity-building, are part of the Ministry of Environment’s goal to be executed by LEDO during its two-year duration. Presently, sets of environmental indicators are under preparation. In addition, LEDO will publish an update version of the State of the Environment Report for Lebanon and an Environment Atlas, as well as the project will open access to reliable quantitative, qualitative and mapped environment and development data in Lebanon. Capacity building programmes have started to instruct national concerned participant on the use of indicators in their respective fields.

The Five Year Development Plan FYDP (2000 – 2004) prepared by the Council for Development and Reconstruction global indicators were used to determine present level of provision of public facilities in various Lebanese areas. These indicators have shown that Lebanon is below acceptable international standards in water, waste water, road traffic, environment and treatment of solid waste, while other sectors like education, electricity, telecommunications and housing have reached relatively acceptable levels. These indicators will be used for planning and prioritizing sectors.

The Common Cooperation Framework prepared by UNDP (used also by CDR for FYDP) pointed out to the continuing attention within programmes to be given to the responsiveness of the programmes to the (1) evolving environment, (2) resource requirements and appropriateness of the allocation of resources to priorities in view of financial constraints, and (3) capacity building for sustainable development.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

Mainly scientists and non-governmental organizations are involved in the collection, assessmnt, management and dissemination of information and data for decision amking for sustainable development. But it goes without saying that data is being collected and processed according to the needs of the concerned groups and institutions. For instance, data is collected by local authorities for project development, scientists and universities for research purposes, NGOs for establishing specialized database, formulating projects, and organizing capacity building programmes and awareness campaigns. However, the level of disseminated data depends on the institutions owning and managing this database.  

On the other hand, another type of promoting information on decision-making is the establishment of the Forum for Parliamentary Dialogue consisting of an equal number of members of Parliament and NGO representatives, modeled after the Canadian Parliamentary Center, was established in November 1999. The forum was the outcome of a series of workshops aiming at informing and promoting citizens’ participation in dialogue and communication on legislative development and national policies (financed by Canada and the European Union).

A third type of information sharing for decision making purpose is made possible through the Higher Council for Urban Planning, a coordinating body that encompasses all ministries to formulate decisions pertaining to land-use planning.

NGOs are constantly kept informed by the various decisions and activities undertaken by the Ministry of Environment through their participation in the activities carried out by MoE.

One outcome of the Capacity 21 Programme (funded by UNDP and executed at MoE) is the Local Agenda experience in four municipalities of Lebanon. This initiative enabled these authorities to set the plans for gathering and assessing local data relative to sustainable development. 

Finally, a series of seminars were organized on different aspects of municipal development, at the initiative of the Centre d’Etude et de Recherches sur le Moyen-Orient (CERMOC). These monthly seminars provided and discussed topics pertaining to the legal, regulatory, data availability and use, urban planning, environment and development, and political issues that are of crucial importance for the development of the municipalities in a sustainable way.

The Sustainable Development Networking Programme (SDNP) organized several workshops to expose its objectives and activities. All ministries, NGOs and other institutions attended these workshops, and links were extended with the majority of them (lesson learned).

In the same line, The Lebanese Environment and Development Observatory (LEDO) and the Ministry of Environment organized a National Workshop entitled “The Lebanese Environment and Development Observatory: A National Ownership” on May 11-12, 2000. This workshop was attended by representatives of public institutions in Lebanon, as well as scientific and research institutions and civil society organizations. The aim of this forum was to activate the role of the Lebanese Environment and Development Observatory (LEDO) to monitor environment and development issues, using sets of corresponding indicators. This would ultimately aim at enabling these institutions and decision-makers to gear their planning towards sustainable development. As a result of this activity, a list of indicators (natural, human, economic, etc.) was discussed, prioritized and approved. Then a training course on indicators was held to enable national participants to use and perform indicators each in their respective sectors.   

Programmes and Projects 

In 1996, the Sustainable Development Networking Programme was launched at the Ministry of Environment and funded by UNDP (phased out in 19980. This project aimed at sharing information among the various stakeholders by linking them through efficient networks while providing the necessary training and capacity building for the human resources involved.

In early 2000, an another project was launched at MoE with the aim of providing information on sustainable development. The Lebanese Environment and Development Observatory (LEDO) is a project funded by the European Commission – LIFE Third Countries, managed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and hosted by the Ministry of Environment. Its general objective was to provide proper information and better understanding of the state of environment and development in Lebanon. This objective will be achieved through (1) partnerships with other ministries, agencies, academic and research institutions, as well as governmental and non-governmental organizations involved in environment and development issues, (2) pooling efforts to gather environment and development data, and (3) identify gaps and redundancies to establish a national information network.  LEDO entails a capacity building programme of partner organizations with a technical assistance component. A major and pilot achievement of this project is the formulation of indicators to assist institutions and decision-makers in monitoring and planning sustainable development issues.

In order to achieve its objectives, LEDO aims at promoting this observatory as a National Institution owned by all concerned stakeholders, to act as a platform for environment and development information gathering, sharing, analysis and dissemination, as well as a monitoring tool for proper planning and enhanced decision making.

The Implementation of the Institutional development Strategy for Lebanon is a project funded by UNDP and executed by the Office of State for Administrative Reform (OMSAR). The project aims at assisting the Government of Lebanon, through OMSAR, to implement an Institutional Development Strategy, to ensure the procurement and execution of office technology, information technology, technical assistance, training and other components of the National Action Rehabilitation Programme (NARP), and finally to develop a resource mobilization strategy to assist OMSAR in its public sector management reform efforts.

An Information System for Combating Desertification in Lebanon is put in place at the Ministry of Agriculture. Financed by GTZ, the project is currently working on creating essential data layers entailing variables on climate, vegetation, socio-economic data, land physical features and resources, and land-use.

Another project that has phased out from the Ministry of Agriculture is the “Global Result of the Agricultural Survey”. The objectives of this programme were to (1) provide structural and accurate data about the agricultural sector at national and local level, thus allowing a better knowledge of agricultural regions and fields’ specificity, (2) Acquire the evolution of the Lebanese agriculture, and (3) establish an exhaustive database of agricultural exploitations that could be used as a basis for surveys for various field studies pertaining to the agricultural sector. 

The Fayhaa Municipal Union Observatory was initiated a tool to help the municipal union (within the City of Tripoli, North Lebanon) in the management of environment issues. Its main objectives are to (1) present a better understanding of the current state of environment and development in the area, (2) identify gaps and provide information to fill these gaps, (3) avoid overlapping in information collection, disseminating and sharing gathered information and making it available to local authorities as well as (4) building a solid base to encourage partnership and collaboration among municipalities in the area and other organisations of the civil society. The Fayhaa Municipal Union Observatory launched the air-monitoring laboratory in April 2000, which is equipped to measure air emissions from mobile sources and industrial activities.

EUMEDIS Initiative, an EU programme that will create a network of Mediterranean Information Society Focal Points, will fund the internet-based interconnection between the European Research network and the Mediterranean research networks as well as pilot information society projects. The programme will tackle five key sectors: (1) Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), applied to education; (2) Electronic commerce and economic cooperation; (3) Networks for health; (4) Multimedia access to cultural heritage and tourism; (5) ICT applied to industry and innovation.

A survey is currently carried out by the Central Administration for Statistics and UNICEF on the health sector. This study incorporates a section on the relationship between health, environment and environmental degradation.

An Agricultural Planning and Policy Preparation (APP) will be established at the Ministry of Agriculture and financed by EU. This programme will establish the required information technology-systems, databases, management information systems, and will identify and formulate important sector programme packages and finance priority packages.

The National Programme for Improving Living Conditions of the Poor in Lebanon is a project funded by UNDP and executed by the Ministry of Social Affairs. One of the objectives of this project is to reinforce the characteristics of the poor in Lebanon. In this respect, a “mapping of living conditions in Lebanon” was produced which identified regional disparities and priority needs and gaps for a national and comprehensive approach for reducing poverty. Moreover, around 26 information booklets were produced with the Social Science Department of the Lebanese University. Each booklet provide demographic, social, economic and other information concerning each Caza (district) in Lebanon.

Status 

The computer-mediated communication is very competitive now in Lebanon, and especially in the private sector. This communication is constantly subject to changes and competitiveness enabling the accommodation of the latest information technologies (availability of required infrastructures, reliability and competitiveness of services, cost-effectiveness of these services). Public at large is considered the beneficiary number one from the services provided by these commercial companies that provide internet connections and subscription, and services through launching internet-cafés that are increasing every day in terms of number and geographic expansion. The webpages of these companies expose various types of data (politics, social, weather, and others). One last point to mention is that the high competitiveness between electronic communication companies (counted to be 15 operational companies today) allowed an increase in rate of subscribers willing to connect for low prices, thus enabling almost more than 75% of the Lebanese population to get access to information on the national and international level.

As for the public sector, available databases and networks are inefficiently used due to shortage in staffing at the public institutions, the competitiveness between companies and mainly the consultancy firms, which makes hard the information gathering process, and most of all, the relative high ages among the public institutions’ staff, which is highly influencing the desire to learn and benefit from the use of new technologies. Local authorities are newly established, therefore, they are still under process of equipping their institutions with the necessary electronic communication systems.

Available information are managed or used as following:

-           Since 1995, a remarkable increase of interest was noted in media (mainly newspapers and TV news) regarding environment-related issues. Pointing out to major challenges facing environment and development has no doubt assist in quoting information and references especially from decision-making level, as well as increase awareness at public level. It is to note here that most newspapers have established web pages and archived their articles (including environmental) according to topics.

-           There is a tremendous package of information owned by private consultancy firms that are not disseminated and most of the time classified as confidential.

-           Information in ministries is available on almost all issues pertaining to sustainable development, however these are scattered in the Ministries in charge (water, energy, health, etc.) and hardly accessible. Some ministries activated their web page by including important data such as the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Environment, as well as the Council for Development and Reconstruction; however information is not always updated.

-           Many commercial web providers have (and still) established general data on Lebanon on their web page, but data remain basic and require a further in-depth.

-           The Ministry of Environment is working on filling this gap through LEDO, establishment of webpages relative to hosted international projects, its Services and Departments, its library, documents, and web site. Universities, research centers and NGOs are also engaged in this process to alleviate this gap.

-           The United Nations Development Programme, through the Environment Department and related web page;

-           The Council for Development and Reconstruction through the library, an information center and website;

-           Environmental NGOs and facilities provided (websites, libraries, newsletters, etc.).

-           The Environment Information Center and its library. 

Availability of sustainable development information at the national level:

Agenda 21 Chapters Very good Good Some good data but many gaps Poor
2. International cooperation and trade  

X

   
3. Combating poverty    

X

 
4. Changing consumption patterns      

X

5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability      

X

6. Human health    

X

 
7. Human settlements    

X

 
8. Integrating E & D in decision-making    

X

 
9. Protection of the atmosphere      

X

10. Integrated planning and management of land    

X

 
11. Combating deforestation      

X

12. Combating desertification and drought      

X

13. Sustainable mountain development      

X

14. Sustainable agriculture and rural development    

X

 
15. Conservation of biological diversity  

X

   
16. Biotechnology      

X

17. Oceans, seas, coastal areas and their living    

X

 
18. Freshwater resources  

X

   
19. Toxic chemicals    

X

 
20. Hazardous wastes    

X

 
21. Solid wastes  

X

   
22. Radioactive wastes      

X

24. Women in sustainable development      

X

25. Children and youth      

X

26. Indigenous people        
27. Non-governmental organizations  

X

   
28. Local authorities      

X

29. Workers and trade unions      

X

30. Business and industry    

X

 
31. Scientific and technological community    

X

 
32. Farmers    

X

 
33. Financial resources and mechanisms    

X

 
34. Technology, cooperation and capacity-building    

X

 
35. Science for sustainable development    

X

 
36. Education, public awareness and training  

X

   
37. International cooperation for capacity-building    

X

 
38. International institutional arrangements    

X

 
39. International legal instruments    

X

 
40. Information for decision-making    

X

 

Challenges

Despite of this administrative structure, a lack of coordination and information dissemination is highly noticed.

Ministries, UN agencies, universities and others are conducting yearly hundreds of studies that are mostly shelved without being disseminated to other concerned entities, although the dissemination of these references is crucial due to the fact that information management pertaining to environment and environment-related sectors is still in its early stages in Lebanon, in contrast with information relative to social, financial and commercial purposes that are gathered, processed and sometimes updated on a yearly basis.

All sectors are in urgent need to be assessed and updated based on an assessment of the current level of information availability, accuracy and quality. Water, air, energy, land-use, marine and terrestrial biodiversity are perfect examples for illustrating these needs. This improvement would also entail mapping and monitoring data using the available and adequate technologies.

 It is worth mentioning that a series on needs were expressed by ministries that assisted to the first workshop organized by LEDO in May 2000. For instance, the Ministry of Public Health expressed the need to generate data on the following issues, which could be done through the LEDO:

            Mapping of sea water quality

            Mapping of hotspots relative to air pollution in the different regions

            Cost of environmental degradation and rehabilitation

            Mapping of wastewater networks

            Mapping and monitoring of forests.

In the same workshop, the Ministry of Electrical and Hydraulic Resources pointed out to the importance of monitoring wastewater treatment plans and plants all over Lebanon with emphasis on the selection of criteria and levels of treatment.

The.  regions or groups that have the greatest  needs for improved access to information include:

-           Inhabitants of remote rural areas.

-           Municipalities (especially that they have been elected in 1998 after more than 25 years). These municipalities are in need for an oriented and intensive capacity building programmes on how to collect, store, manage and share data needed by all ministries to build integrated strategies.

-           NGOs to carry out a proper lobbying.

Indicators are currently in the process of being developed. Therefore a certain number of obstacles should be removed to ensure a better understanding and application of these tools especially on the decision-making level. These obstacles are:

-Shortage in technical staff in most of government agencies, which result in most cases in a weak coordination system among these institutions; and the need to build the capacity of existing staff;

-           The overlapping in the mandates of some government agencies;

-           The lack of a common nomenclature to standardize data on the governmental level;

-           The non-adoption of the Code of the Environment until this moment;

-           The lack of a national strategy for management information;

-     Lack of intensive capacity building programmes, these being restricted to the groups targeted by the implemented projects.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

In addition to LEDO which objectives are to provide a better management information system at national level, several projects/ activities are carried out by non-governmental organizations targeting the national level, but with a specific focus on population living in rural areas.

The Environment Information Center (EIC) is a project funded initially by UNDP-LIFE programme in 1995. Affiliated to the Society for the Protection of Nature in Lebanon, its mandate is to gather and disseminate data relevant to environment and development, mainly in the areas of environmental education. Its small library allows students and teachers to benefit from the available references. Also, EIC provides lectures, seminars and field sessions in all areas with a focus on remote rural areas.

The Arz Al-Chouf Society is responsible for the Barouk Cedar Reserve (500 km2). One tool to educate inhabitants living in the 13 villages forming the reserve as well as the Reserve visitors is the opening of an information center that provides services in presenting information on the reserve, the food products produced in the premises of the reserves and the neighborhood, as well as field visits.

The Association for Forest Development and Conservation (AFDC) inaugurated a permanent exhibition center where environmental NGOs expose their work and the inhabitants living in the neighborhood of the Association exhibit their food products that are pesticide-free. In addition, a library focusing on forestry and forest fires is available for public use.   

Finally, the UNDP- Lebanon Country Office organized a UNDP MEDIA Award for Sustainable Human Development, a contest open to all Lebanese Journalists. This contest was organized under the patronage of the Minister of Information and in cooperation with the Press Syndicate and the Journalists Association. The overall objective was to raise awareness and to promote SHD and to encourage media to become partners and allies for increased and positive reporting on development and allies for advocacy. The Media award was launched respectively in 1997 and 1999. This award was made possible by sponsorship of private sector.

Many national and local initiatives pertaining to sustainable development are usually organized to sensitize general public on a given subject for a definite duration (that might vary from one day to a week). The promotion for the use of information is indirectly targeted, being highlighted in the framework of the activity in question. For this purpose, all available tools are designed, used and disseminated, such as brochures, booklets, posters, models, etc. Also, exhibitions and workshops are quite frequent for that matter. Some examples on the type of activities using information promotion are the following:

-           National and international environment days, e.g., the Environment Day, the Arab Environment Day, etc. where posters, TV spots and interviews, newspapers, radio stations, public seminars, booklets and brochures are used.

-           Campaigns for clean-up, reforestation, campaigns organized by Ozone Office to protect from the sun negative impact on health, etc. accompanied by TV, radio and newspaper coverage, brochures, booklets and posters;

Newspapers dedicate an environmental page on a daily basis, or once or twice per week.

-           Manifestations to protest against a suggested law or decree, e.g. to promote green cover in urban areas, where petitions, TVs, radio stations, newspapers and brochures are widely used.

-           Exhibitions where all previously mentioned tools are used.

One last detail to highlight is that these tools usually include, in addition to the targeted message, the source of information, the reference group and the web site of the organizers.

Capacity building related to the collection and management of the information evolves in general on surveys, data collection based on site visits, electronic data processing and analysis, geographical information, etc. These tools are included in internationally funded projects and also applied by all government, non-government and academic institutions and agencies.

Information  

The Sustainable Development Networking Program (SDNP) aims at promoting sustainable development and the implementation of Agenda 21 in Lebanon by facilitating increased access to information, knowledge and expert advice and by encouraging increased collaboration and communication between stakeholders at the national and international levels. It is designed to build capacity and train national stakeholders to become both consumers and suppliers of information at the Internet. Thr SDNP designed homepages for all ministries and environmental NGOs, and published an Internet guidebook encompassing all international electronic addresses needed to search for topics pertaining to sustainable development issues.The SDNP was initiated in 1996 and phased out in 1998.  Many universities have developed expertise in the field of environment and sustainable development and can be considered centres of excellence in the region. NCSR has linked all universities to Internet, a national NGO (LARN) is supporting these efforts.

The Ministry of Environment’s decisions, decrees and laws are published in the Official Gazette, thus ensuring proper dissemination of the information. At another level, when the MoE formulates a decision or an inquiry, it is forwarded to the Governorats (Mohafazats) that in their turn, send these administrative papers to the Municipality in charge. The municipality responds in writing to the Governorats that channel the answer to the inquiring Ministry. In case of opinion divergence between the Ministry and the Municipality, the case is forwarded to the Al-Chura Council (Body to resolve conflicts on the governmental level) before it is sent to the Council of Ministers for the final decision.

The annual indicators developed by Central Bank are used to analyzing the economical, social financial trends and evolution in Lebanon, but also for planning and research purposes.

The indicators to be developed by LEDO will serve to assess the environmental situation on national level to be integrated into the policy-making and measure the impact of sectoral issues (solid waste, forestry, water sector, air pollution, biodiversity, etc.) on the environment.

The MoE website is a portel site: www.moe.gov.lb that provides access to the various projects operated and operating at MoE premises.

The SDNP website is also a portel site: www.sdnp.org.lb that provides access to other government and non-government institutions working in the Country.

The American University of Beirut website is: www.aub.edu.lb

The UNDP website is also a portel site: www.undp.org.lb

Research and Technologies 

The Remote Sensing Center is a part of the National Council for Scientific Research. Its mandate is to gather and analyze data collected through satellite images to be made available to concerned institutions.

A Business Information Centre was launched by the Investment and Development Authority of Lebanon (IDAL) that would supply all stakeholders and mainly the Ministry of Environment with data on future investment projects to assess any needs or requirements for studies on environment impact assessment.

Euro Info Correspondence Centre (EICC) at the Beirut Chamber of Commerce, Industry and Agriculture. The main objective of the centre is to provide Lebanese businessmen with information on the European Union market and European businessmen.

New technologies being developed to improve methods of data collection related to sustainable development include:

-           Remote sensing techniques (satellite images);

-           The air monitoring equipment at the Directorate of Civil Aviation, Meteorologic Department, to detect, process and store information pertaining to atmospheric changes;

-           The laboratory for stack emissions and ambient air at the Ministry of Environment to record and update changes on urban air pollution.

In addition to very advanced equipment at the premises of the Industry Institute and the Marine Research Institute to carry out needed tasks.  

The  techniques used for continuous and accurate data storage, management, and assessment include the following: 

- Satellite images using LAND SAT thematic mapper;

-           Visual basic programming to automate and process data;

-           Software for Environment database (ENDO) in English and Arabic;

-           Creation of CD-ROM’s on indicators to be published and disseminated (2002 by LEDO). 

An example of data collection, storage and updating is the formulation of the Development Cooperation Report (UNDP publications).  The data of this report are gathered based on a UNDP standard questionnaire sent to concerned agencies and institutions. Then this information is processed using the Development Cooperation Analysis System (DCAS), a software programme.

All latest technologies pertaining to information system are available in the Country; the manufacturing companies or their agents being based in Lebanon. Therefore, what is needed is to overcome the obstacles mentioned in answers to question no. 21.

Financing 

Budgets/cost of some projects which were identified are as follows::

LEDO: 370.000 US$ (EU funding).

SDNP: 256.000 US$ (UNDP funding).

Desertification database: 500.000 Deutsche mark (GTZ financing).

The Implementation of the Institutional Development Strategy for Lebanon: 2.516.556 US$ (UNDP, CIDA, UNESCO and government funds).

External assistance disbursement on General statistics (for development administration): 113.000 US$ (year 1999- CDR sources).

External assistance disbursement on general cartography: 46.000 US$ (year 2000- CDR sources).     

Stack air monitoring equipment: 500.000 US$ (government budget). 

Ambient air monitoring equipment: 500.000 US$ (government budget).

Measures taken to increase the volume of investment in development and/or improving the national information system related to: 

- A thorough follow-up of the Ministry of Environment to international funds;

- Formulation project proposals to be financed mainly by GEF, EU, GTZ and UNDP.

- The offices of the international agencies in the Country help in increasing the volume of investments regarding the information system, this would be part of an overall programme that would also include institutional strengthening, legislation, capacity building and other.

In addition, it is worth noting that Lebanon hosts a number of missions and international organizations such as the United Nations Regional Office for Education, Science and Culture in the Arab Countries, the United Nations Commission for Refugees, Food and Agriculture Office of the United Nations, the World Health Organization, the United Nations Fund for Childhood, United Nations Development Program and the Arab Center for Legal and Judicial Research affiliated to the Arab League.  The Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) relocated its headquarters to Beirut in October, 1997 and the World Bank opened an office in Beirut in January, 2000. The presence of these organizations assists tremendously in increasing volume of investments that would tackle among other the information sector.

Cooperation

The MEDSTAT is an EU-financed project aiming at harmonizing the statistics of the European Union and its Mediterranean partners. Some priority areas were tackled namely tourism, migration, transport, external trade, environment and information systems. This project is implemented by the Central Administration for Statistics, in close collaboration with LEDO.

Another programme financed by EU is the Assistance to the Rehabilitation of the Lebanese Administration (ARAL). This programme aims at supporting the Lebanese Administration to implement the National Administrative Rehabilitation Programme (NARP) both at central and local level. In particular, this programme will concentrate on central government agencies, ministries, public utilities and local government and Services. This programme will put in place the basis for data standardization.

A thorough collaboration exists between all ministries and line institutions as well NGOs and the international agencies namely UNDP, UNEP, GEF and the World Bank due to the establishment of internationally funded projects at the premises of these institutions, a matter that keeps information exchanged almost at regular basis.

Sharing information on bilateral, regional and international levels are being made through (1) participation in conferences, seminars and training, (2) filling questionnaires requested by various international entities, such as UNCSD guidelines, (3) invitation of international organizations to contribute to the national experience, such as the workshop organized by LEDO where international representation was ensured through the participation of the European Environment Agency, The Mediterranean Action Plan (Blue Plan), The Center for Environment and Development for the Arab Region and Europe (CEDARE) and the Ministry of Environment Affairs in Syria, (4) fulfilling the obligations required by the Conventions ratified by the Lebanese Government, such as the Climate Change Convention (studies on national GHG emissions, assessment of Lebanon’s vulnerability to Climate Change), the Montreal Protocol (status and levels of Ozone depleting substances), the Desertification and the Biodiversity (National report of biodiversity- 9 volumes). Finally, sharing information in bilateral cooperation is made available through reports and policies provided by the funding agencies, for instance, the Common Cooperation Framework (CCF) of the UNDP programme.

 

 

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This information is based on Lebanon's submission to the 5th and 9th Sessions of the Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: November 2000.

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INTERNATIONAL LAW

Information on the application of international law in Lebanon is provided under the relevant sectoral and cross-sectoral issues.

 

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