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NATURAL RESOURCE ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN KENYA

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AGRICULTURE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The Kenya Government has developed guidelines to integrate environmental concerns into agriculture development projects in relation to management of rangelands, forests, water quality, wildlife and conservation of genetic resources.  Our national legislation restricts the transfer of productive arable land to other uses especially human settlement for commercial development, i.e. development of rental houses or commercial houses for industrial purposes.  However, enforcement of this legislation has been rather wanting as population pressure on land has been increasing in the recent years.

Prevent and remedy water logging and salinization of agricultural land.  Water resources assessment, monitoring and information system is an effort being undertaken by the Department of Water Development where establishment of a comprehensive water resources databases, at all levels of management, on a self-sustainable basis for use in water sector development is underway.  These databases will contain updated water resources date at all times and in this regard will put in place water resources assessment and monitoring systems in collaboration with relevant institutions.

Prevention of adverse effects of agriculture in water quality - Levies on effluent discharges will be introduced based on the quantity of effluent whose quality must conform to prescribed requirements of the standards in force.  Additionally Environmental Impact assessment must be carried out where new agricultural projects are to be undertaken prior to commencement of the project.  The Government has already put in place an Act on Environment Management and coordination.  This legislation is now the main basis of preventing adverse effects of agriculture on water quality because it also provides for judicial intervention where any adverse effects are realized by any citizen. 

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The Government has taken certain measures to increase equitable access to Production support services by the rural poor and they include:

Agriculture policy review, planning and integration programmes in the light of multifunctional aspects of agriculture (PROGRAMME AREA A.

Measures Kenya has adopted for promoting crop diversification at the farm level such as agriculture land use zoning according to the agro-ecological conditions, removal of agriculture subsidies, differential land tax systems for promoting crop diversification, differential water pricing according to the crop types and seasons or income support:

§         Agricultural land use is more less according to obtaining agro-ecological zone.  High potential agro-ecological zones are more intensively used compared to the less  potential ones which tends also to be bigger in relative size;

§         Market liberalization policies removed agricultural subsidies and include some of the following: Beef (1987);  Animal Feeds (1989;  Fertilizer (199);  Domestic marketed tea, rice, wheat (1992); Dairy (1992); Cotton (1992);  Sugar (1992); and Maize (1993);

§         Parastatal Reform Programme:  Restructuring of parastatals, Rationalization of the public sector to allow for more private sector involvement in agricultural marketing. Lease indicate measures that your Government has adopted for sustainable intensification of productive lands.

Kenya is currently undertaking bold initiative in agriculture policy review,  planning and integration programmes in the light of multifunctional aspects of agriculture.

Other sub-sectoral policies are derived from this and currently policy reviews are ongoing in the following sub-sectors:- Coffee, Sugar cane, Tea, Pyrethrum, Horticulture, Dairy, and Beef.  Policy review in extension services was carried in 1999 with the following objectives:-  Efficient extension services delivery; Beneficiary participation; and Private sector participation.  Measures in relation to foreign trade and GATT/WTO, agriculture commodities prices, agriculture subsidies and taxes, and regional economic integration.  Funding of the revision:  The revisions are funded through the national budget.  Major activities to implement the SARD Policy include: 

The Government has carried out a strategy on sustainable agriculture and rural development (SARD).  This has been done as part of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP).  This was one in the year 2000.  The review is not yet complete and is at an interim stage.  It is called Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper.  Relevant actions to be taken with regard to agriculture include:

The review of the Sessional Paper No. 2 of 1994 on National Food Security is also underway to harmonize withy the Kenya Rural Development Strategy Document which is now at a draft stage.  Together with PRSP, the issue of SARD is being addressed seriously.

Steps to halving the  number of undernourished people in the country by the year 2015 are being undertaken through a multifaceted approach as indicated in the various strategies mentioned above.  The Kenya Rural Development Strategy (KRDS) recognizes that agriculture and rural development sectors have a critical role to play in achieving poverty reduction and economic growth objectives.  Efforts to revamp agriculture through increased funding of research empowerment of women where there is high relative dependence upon subsistence in order to ensure household food security thus reduce under nourishment, provision of cheaper credit in the rural areas, competitive input prices, improvement of rural infrastructure, adequate food sector coordination and national food reserve, among other plans, are being addressed by the Government of Kenya.

National Livestock Policy:  The Government is currently undertaking policy review of the National Livestock Policy in order to improve service delivery in livestock production, conservation of livestock genetic resources and marketing:  included are cattle, sheep, goats, camels, fowls and rabbits.

Sustainable agriculture concerns are addressed through integrated pest management, soil and water conservation, environment management, rehabilitation of degraded lands and conservation of plant and animal genetic diversity.

    i)  Parastatal Reform Programme:  Restructuring of parastatals.  Rationalization of the public sector to allow for more private sector involvement in agricultural marketing.

    ii) Sessional Paper NO.1 of 1999 on the National Water Policy and Water Resources Management and Development

    iii)   Liberalization seed production and marketing.

Agricultural land use is more less according to obtaining agro-ecological zone.  High potential agro-ecological zones are more intensively used compared to the less potential ones which tends also to be bigger in relative size.   Market liberalization policies removed agricultural subsidies and include some of the following: Beef (1987); Animal Feeds (1989);  Fertilizer (199);  Domestic marketed tea, rice, wheat (1992);  Dairy (1992);     Cotton (1992);  Sugar (1992);  Maize (1993)

Remedial measures undertaken on the effect of ultraviolet radiation on plants and animal life as well as on agricultural activities include ban on use of ozone depleting substances in agricultural production.  Where banning is not done, use of the substances e.g. methyl bronmide are substantially reduced through regulation.  

National Livestock Policy: The Government is currently undertaking policy review of the National Livestock Policy in order to improve service delivery in livestock production, conservation of livestock genetic resources and marketing:  included are cattle, sheep, goats, camels, fowls and rabbits

 Policy Instruments:

§         Agricultural Research to enhance the existing technology package with regard to type and level of use;

§         New National Agricultural Extension Policy Guidelines (1999) where training of agricultural extension services personnel is being improved in order to deliver to the farmers the right information on appropriate technologies; and

§         Inspection and quality control of farm inputs through improved legislation and empowerment of farmers associations with technical skills.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

 The key major groups in this sector include local communities, small-scale Indigenous people, women and youth.

 Local communities and small scale farmers - under normal circumstances, local communities involvement in national decision-making related sustainable agriculture is through civil society organizations, local community leaders who participate in various development committee such as Divisional Agricultural Committee, District Agricultural Committee, Divisional Development Committee and District Development Committee.  Other avenues come in form of local area representative who can articulate the concerns of his constituents at the national decision making level and local cooperative society organizations.

Indigenous people - these are involved in national decision making through community leaders, local members of parliament (MPS), NGOs and other civil society organizations.  In the recent years, some of their concerns have been incorporated in national decisions.

Women - concerns have been the most articulated with regard to sustain agriculture decision making process since they provide most of the labour in agricultural production and are actually the major food producers.  Actions such as prudent and deliberate measures to promote gender equity and greater participation of women in social, political and economic processes.  In agriculture, there is a Gender Mobilization Support Unit concerned with incorporating women in the national decision making with regards to SARD.  Other avenues are women groups and civil society organizations dealing with agricultural issues such as Winrock International country office.

Youth - there are several youth groups involved in agricultural production.  They grow crops, raise livestock and undertake agro-forestry activities by establishing agro-forestry tree nurseries.   At school level, there are agricultural clubs called the 4-K clubs who are involved in agricultural activities more or less like the rural youth.  They grow vegetables, cereals and raise small stocks such as rabbits for sale and for learning purposes.  They are represented in the national decision making through the local agricultural extension services staffs who report to the national office at the Ministry’s headquarters.  At the headquarters, there is a unit which deals with the rural youth and 4-K clubs.

Programmes and Projects 

i) National Soil and Water Conservation Programme

ii) Legislation through enactment of Environmental Management and Coordination Bill (1999)

iii) Agro-forestry programme

iv) Promotion of integrated nutrition management, improved crop and soil management practices.

IMP (Integrated Pest Management) - This is an activity coordinated by the Crop Protection Branch of MARD.  It Involves training of extension service personnel on minimal use of pesticides to control plant and animal pests and diseases and maximum use biological agents as natural enemies of pests to control them.  They are trained to recognize and appreciate the dangers inherent in over-use of pesticides which include harmful effect on beneficial insects and biodiversity.  This information is then passed down the line to the local farmers through farmer’s field days or during in-house training at Farmer Training Centers.

Land Degradation and Rehabilitation - Efforts in this area started in earnest in the early 1970s, area started in earnest in the early 1970s, actually in 1974.  A programme on National Soil and Water Conservation was started by the government under the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development through a bilateral assistance from the Swedish government .  The programme is still going on and it involves conservation of soil and water in degraded water catchment areas and sloppy areas.  It includes capacity building for agricultural extension services personnel and farmers who are involved in the implementation.  Specific intervention measures are also undertaken for degraded lands outside the designated catchment for rehabilitation, example include the Integrated Soil and Water Conservation Component of the Lake Victoria Environmental Management Programme which deals with environmental management of the Lake Victoria catchments.  It also includes conservation of biological diversity at the landscape level.  The Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources provides the coordination for all the environmental matters.

Integrated plant nutrition management is undertaken as part of household crop husbandry practice where use of both farmyard manure and commercial fertilizers are used as sources of nutrient to the cultivated crops.  Advisory services in this areas are provided by the agricultural extension personnel who trains the local farmers on how to make compost and green manure and what levels of fertilizer to apply to the growing crops.

 Plant and animal genetic resources conservation gained importance sometimes back.  However, concentrated efforts gained stream under the global programme of conservation of our genetic resources under the auspices of the convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).  The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development is primarily concerned with the conservation of agricultural biodiversity and biodiversity of relevance to food and agriculture.  Conservation is undertaken at the farm level, in-sites and ex-site at the Nation al Gene Band and public arboreta.  All these are reflected in the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plans (NBSAP) and the National Environmental Action Plans from which the NBSAP were derived.

Land conservation and rehabilitation (PROGRAMME AREA E)

 Achievements

 Integrated pest management and control in agriculture (PROGRAMME AREA I)

 The Government in the early 1990’s initiated a programme called Safe Use of Pesticides Project with the main goal of ensuring safety in application and disposal of pesticides.  It was sponsored by GIFAP.  It involved training of agricultural extension services personnel and pesticides dealers and retailers on safe and effective use of pesticides.  IPM has always been conducted as part of genesis crop pest and disease management where use of pesticides and cultural measures such as crop rotation, mulching, closed season and also biological control are integrated in this process.  Policy changes in National Agricultural Extensions Guidelines where field extension workers are expected to deliver to farmers appropriate information regarding use of appropriate technologies incorporates the issue of IPM.  Additionally, the Environmental Management and Coordination Act (1999) now embraces all environmental aspects of use of agricultural chemicals, including pesticides.

Evaluation of the effects  of ultraviolet radiation on plants and animals caused by the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer (PROGRAMME AREA

 

Remedial measures undertaken on the effect of ultraviolet radiation on plants an

animal life as well as on agricultural activities include ban on use of ozone depleting

substances in agricultural production.  Where banning is not done, use of the

substances e.g. methyl bronmide are substantially reduced through regulation.

 

Improving farm production and farming systems through diversification of farm and non-farm employment and infrastructure development (PROGRAMME AREA C).  Major activities initiated by the Government in order to implement integrated farm management technologies and practices. 

The Government, through the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development initiated a project on crop post harvest handling to reduce losses at the farm level at the end of the cropping season.  It involved use of appropriate technologies in handling and storage.  Standardized cribs for storage of cereals, especially maize, were designed and developed for use by the small scale farmers.  Though this project ended, lesson learnt are still being used by the farming communities.

Fertilizer Extension Project (FEP):  This project was meant to provide the most appropriate fertilizer use recommendations according to agro-ecological zones.  The goal was efficient fertilizer resource utilization in combination with organic manure obtainable at farm level.  The project was quite an integrated one as application of necessary pesticides to control the insect pests. 

Rural electrification to encourage the establishment of agro-processing industries and other cottage industries.

Infrastructural development to create ff farm employment opportunities in marketing and transportation businesses, telecommunication services etc.

 

Conservation and sustainable utilisation of plant and animal genetic resources for food and sustainable agriculture (PROGRAMME AREAS G AND H).

Status 

Agriculture is the lifeline of 80% of Kenya’s population who live in the rural areas, including farmers, workers and the unemployed.  Currently, 70% of Kenya’s employment is in agriculture, consequently creating jobs and income to the rural folks thereby alleviating poverty.

Kenyan Government has initiated some programmes to increase non-farm employment opportunities in the rural areas such as:

i)                    Rural electrification to encourage the establishment of agro-processing industries and other cottage industries; and

ii)                   Infrastructural development to create off farm employment opportunities in marketing and transportation businesses, telecommunication services etc.

Challenges

 Agriculture growth has been well below potential in recent years due to a number of constraints.  Those which result from an accumulation of poor past policies and which will take time to remedy include:  

  1. Non availability of quality seeds and inappropriate production technologies especially for small holder farming,
  2. lack of access to credit,
  3. high cost of farm inputs
  4. poor and inadequate infrastructure in the rural areas especially feeder roads, power supply and market facilities.  Other constraints include
  5. inconsistencies in policy/poor institutional and legal framework,
  6. inadequate research, inefficient extension delivery systems as well as inadequate extension services and support,
  7. lack of effective coordination of investment activities among the key stakeholders in agriculture
  8. pros sequencing of the liberalization process and lastly, there are exogenous  constraints such as
  9. insecurity in high potential areas and cattle rustling in ASAL areas,
  10. unfavourable weather conditions and high dependence on rain-fed agriculture production, and
  11. population pressure on the natural resource base.  As a result, many indicators of rural livelihood have been worsening indicating an increase in rural poverty.

 The Agriculture sub-sector needs to grow at about 4-5% per annum so as to contribute to national growth and an increase rural wealth and development.  For this to happen a number of important elements need to be in place and actions to facilitate them need to be taken.  These include:-

  1. Building an effective and efficient participatory extension and technology delivery service,
  2. undertaking an affirmative action in agriculture by facilitating participation of women,
  3. establishing efficient rural finance and credit supply system for small holders and rural primary agro processors,
  4. ensuring policies, institutional and legal frameworks are investor friendly,
  5. implementing sound land use, water and environmental policies,
  6. facilitating long term investments in farm improvement,
  7. protecting water catchment areas by developing forest plantations, and
  8. improving the governance of the co-operative sector by empowering farmers.  This would be the effective rural development strategy for Kenya.

Major problems faced in implementing the instruments include: inadequate financial resources;  lack of proper institutional coordination; and inconsistent sectoral and sub-sectoral policies.  

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

Capacity building initiatives to strengthen local food systems include training of agriculture extension service personnel and farmer training through the local Farmers Training Center and through farmer field days.  Specific interventions to monitor and combat the impact of HIV/AIDS on family food security using village level approaches and extension service personnel is an activity within the ministry.  It involves training on information dissemination to create public awareness.  A project to this effect is being coordinated from the ministry’s headquarters.

Additionally under the Kenya Rural Development Strategy, training and capacity for the sector will continue to receive adequate attention.  The current institutions will be reorganized to offer tailor made courses to meet the manpower requirements of the stakeholders and industry alongside the current long-term program so as to offer short-term courses.  

Activities my Government has initiated or implemented to increase public awareness and participation for promoting sustainable agricultural practice.

Information

Kenya recognized the importance of conserving her biological resources.  In the

Recent past, national master plans for forestry, water and tourism.  Likewise, action plans for environment, biodiversity data management, desertification and drought have been prepared.  In addition, Kenya is implementing the convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), having completed the National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP), the country study and the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan.  There are efforts to implement the Global Plan of Action for the Conservation and Sustainable Utilization of Plant Genetic Resources for food and Agriculture.  Institutional capacity building and promotion of research through Kenya Agricultural Research Institute. 

 

Though a country study to determine the status of Kenya’s biodiversity , it was found that Kenya   has an estimated number of 35,000 known species of animals, plants and micro-organisms.

     

§         Improvement of the poor genetic potential of the existing dairy her, mainly of European origin has been an ongoing processs through artificial insemination using quality imported semen and more productive bulls.

There is no single consolidated national data on sustainable agriculture.  However, data exists in hard copies or electronic forms and are available at the line institutions dealing with sectoral or sub-sectoral activities.  There are no national world wide web sites except for the international research institutes based locally such as the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE).

 

Even though indicators (economic, social and environmental) for the aggregate national economy and can generally be applied to the various sectors of the economy, including agriculture , specific indicators for monitoring and evaluation sustainable agriculture practices and rural development have not been developed  

Kenya recognized the importance of conserving her biological resources.  In the Recent past, national master plans for forestry, water and tourism.  Likewise, action plans for environment, biodiversity data management, desertification and drought have been prepared.  In addition, Kenya is implementing the convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), having completed the National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP), the country study and the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan.  There are efforts to implement the Global Plan of Action for the Conservation and Sustainable Utilization of Plant Genetic Resources for food and Agriculture.  Institutional capacity building and promotion of research through Kenya Agricultural Research Institute.  

Though a country study to determine the status of Kenya’s biodiversity , it was found that Kenya has an estimated number of 35,000 known species of animals, plants and micro-organisms.    Improvement of the poor genetic potential of the existing dairy her, mainly of European origin has been an ongoing processs through artificial insemination using quality imported semen and more productive bulls.

There is no single consolidated national data on sustainable agriculture.  However, data exists in hard copies or electronic forms and are available at the line institutions dealing with sectoral or sub-sectoral activities.  There are no national world wide web sites except for the international research institutes based locally such as the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE)

Research and Technologies  

Integrated plant nutrition is implemented in the production process in form of use appropriate nutrients from commercial fertilizers and use of farmyard compost manure.  This kind of combination has been found to be successful in that the plants get the right nutrient s and at the same time, soil structure is improved.  This approach thus optimise effective and efficient use of various sources while protecting the environment. 

Extension services provision:  Reorganization and redefinition of staffing norms of the extension management function at all levels in order to improve information flow to farmers on various farm management technologies and practices such as crop rotations; optimal use of organic and inorganic plant nutrients; prevention of pre and post- harvest losses, efficient utilization of external inputs etc.  The information emanates from the research centers to farmers via the national agricultural extension system and vice visa through a feedback mechanism. 

Research in animal breeding technology disease diagnosis and control and development of vaccines to control such diseases are being undertaken by the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute and collaborating partners such as the International Livestock Research Institute.  Other institutions involved in conservation and sustainable utilization of animal genetic resources are the Kenya Trypanosoma brucei and bimolecular epidemiology of Trypanosoma awareness.  

 

Research in animal breeding technology disease diagnosis and control and development of vaccines to control such diseases are being undertaken by the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute and collaborating partners such as the International Livestock Research Institute.  Other institutions involved in conservation and sustainable utilization of animal genetic resources are the Kenya Trypanosoma brucei and bimolecular epidemiology of Trypanosoma awareness.

 

Major activities initiated by the Government in order to implement integrated farm management technologies and practices include the following:

Extension services provision:  Reorganization and redefinition of staffing norms of the extension management function at all levels in order to improve information flow to farmers on various farm management technologies and practices such as crop rotations; optimal use of organic and inorganic plant nutrients; prevention of pre and post- harvest losses, efficient utilization of external inputs etc.  The information emanates from the research centers to farmers via the national agricultural extension system and vice visa through a feedback mechanism.

The Government, through the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development initiated a project on crop post harvest handling to reduce losses at the farm level at the end of the cropping season.  It involved use of appropriate technologies in handling and storage.  Standardized cribs for storage of cereals, especially maize, were designed and developed for use by the small scale farmers.  Though this project ended, lesson learnt are still being used by the farming communities

Fertilizer Extension Project (FEP): This project was meant to provide the most appropriate fertilizer use recommendations according to agro-ecological zones.  The goal was efficient fertilizer resource utilization in combination with organic manure obtainable at farm level.  The project was quite an integrated one as application of necessary pesticides to control the insect pests.

Financing

The efforts are geared for both rural and urban areas as appropriate.  Promotion of food security will be ensured through consumption smoothing and social protection intervention supported by maintenance of national reserve of three million bags of maize in physical stock and drought contingency funding of US$60  million in cash equivalent.

Cooperation

There is an early warning system unit at the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development supported by my Government and United States International Development Agency (USAID) for monitoring food supply and those factors affecting household demand for food both in urban and rural areas.  It deals mainly in crops early warning system.  This unit works in collaboration with similar institutions which are national or regional based in Kenya.  The Kenya Meteorological department, Department Remote sensing and Resources Survey and Regional Centre for Remote Sensing Surveying and Mapping have been established to provide the necessary early warning information.  At the Kenya meteorology department, there is a Drought Monitoring Unit which provides an early warning for any impeding drought.  The Government cooperates with neighbouring countries and regional organizations on this matter.  For example, it cooperates with the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) countries, that is, Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia, Sudan and Somalia.

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This information was provided by the Government of Kenya to the 9th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: November 2001

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ATMOSPHERE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Responsibility is with the Ministries of: Energy; Information, Transport and Communications; and Environment and Natural Resources.

Decisions on energy related issues are made by the Ministry of Energy in close consultation with other relevant government bodies and stakeholders.  However, where necessary especially on legislation, the Parliament must give an approval. Decision –making is delegated to the lowest level through District Development Committees.  

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

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This information was provided by the Government of Kenya to the 9th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: November 2001

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BIODIVERSITY

No information is available.

 

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DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

No information is available.

 

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ENERGY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

Private sector involved in energy production and distribution, and its role is coordinated with state agencies through:

NGO’s consumer groups, scientists and other major interest groups influence the energy consumption pattern in Kenya through:

Programmes and Projects 

Main programmes or project undertaken to cut down emission of greenhouse gases and reduce GHG concentration into the atmosphere include:

Main programmes  or projects undertaken to reduce emissions from the usage of petroleum-based fuels for transport include:

Programmes or projects aimed at promoting energy conservation in Kenya include:

Agro-forestry program under the National Soil and Conservation Programme to provide fuel wood to household in a sustainable manner.  

Rural energy transition to enhance productivity (PROGRAMME AREA K)

§         Agro-forestry program under the National Soil and Conservation Programme to provide fuel wood to household in a sustainable manner;

§          Government sector development priorities include measures to sift the pattern of energy consumption towards modern forms of energy, in order to protect the environment, particularly electricity through the Rural Electrification Programme.  The Government plans to invest US$ 13million annually to increase access to electricity in rural areas under this program;

§         Use of biomass fuel in form of biogas from domestic livestock exists and other sources of biomass is also encouraged among the rural household;

§         Rural Electrification Programm Coordinated by the Ministry of Energy.  It is a national endeavour

Second Coffee Improvement Project (SCIP II) which, among other activities, supplied electricity to coffee pulping factories in the coffee growing areas of the country.  

Government sector development priorities include measures to sift the pattern of energy consumption towards modern forms of energy, in order to protect the environment, particularly electricity through the Rural Electrification Programme.  The Government plans to invest US$ 13million annually to increase access to electricity in rural areas under this program.

Actions taken towards mobilization of the potential of agriculture as a major

  1.  produce of biomass energy include advocacy through agricultural extension; and

  2. services personnel and Non-governmental organizations of the use of biomass as an alternative energy source in the rural areas through development biogas plants, use of appropriate technologies such as energy conserving wood burners such as Mandeleo jikos in Kenya popularised and distributed through the Ministry of Agriculture with the support of GTZ of Germany.

Actions taken towards mobilization of the potential of agriculture as a major produce of biomass energy include advocacy through agricultural extension services personnel and Non-governmental organizations of the use of biomass as an alternative energy source in the rural areas through development biogas plants, use of appropriate technologies such as energy conserving wood burners such as Mandeleo jikos in Kenya popularised and distributed through the Ministry of Agriculture with the support of GTZ of Germany.

Use of biomass fuel in form of biogas from domestic livestock exists and other sources of biomass is also encouraged among the rural household.

  1.   Rural Electrification Programm Coordinated by the Ministry of Energy.  It is a national endeavour
  2. Second Coffee Improvement Project (SCIP II) which, among other activities, supplied electricity to coffee pulping factories in the coffee growing areas of the country.

Status 

Unstable prices.  The level playing ground in petroleum sub-sector has not been even hence the competition expected has been curtailed.

Challenges

 

The area which require immediate attention in improving energy used and efficiency would be in renewable energies.

Institutional or structural barriers against development and usage of renewable energy sources and cleaner fossils fuel techniques include: High initial (upfront) costs for Renewable energy Technologies; High Taxes and duties; Lack of legislation; Lack of articulated/comprehensive policy guidelines.

Major challenges in meeting the financial requirements for the implementation of environment-friendly energy policies and strategies include: High up-front costs and week financial bases; Technology transfer often very expensive in third world countries; and Poverty.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

Information is disseminate through feature articles and Workshops, Seminars etc.  Environmental issues are incorporated in the schools curricula.

Major programmes or measures introduced  to educate consumers on energy and environment related issues include: Catchment protection by regional authorities, and Farmers field visit.

Information

Regular surveys e.g. Household Energy Surveys and Continuous data gathering by Central Bureau of Statistics.   Information is disseminated through: Monthly publication of data on all major sectors by Central Bureau of Statistics; Annual Economic Survey Publication; and Workshops/conferences e.t.c.

Information  on energy is contained in both monthly and annual publications by Central Bureau of Statistics.  Their publications are made public at a fee.  However, the wider public has limited access to this information.

Research and Technologies  

 Potential risks of the above technology options in Kenya include:

The new transportation mode is being devised with a view to improving fuel efficiency and promoting cleaner environment include: Pipeline transportation for petroleum products; Rail transport instead of road transport this limit the fuel consumption by vehicles and reduce GHGs emission.

Financing

Cooperation

 

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This information was provided by the Government of Kenya to the 9th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: November 2001

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FORESTS

No information is available.

 

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FRESHWATER

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Legal framework: Water Act (Cap 372 of the Laws of Kenya) is due for review in view of the new water policy to harmonize it with other Acts.  The Department of water development’s capacity will be enhanced to enforce the Act by reviewing the water user pus to encourage proper utilization and management by the beneficiaries.

 Economic incentives include beneficiary participation in the decision making process at the local level through water users associations (WUAs) and review of user fees to manageable levels.

 Regulation through an integrated water resources management by a National Standing Committee to deal with cross-sectoral issues with representatives from all main water and related sector actors under the Ministry in charge of water affairs.  Additionally, roles  and functions at different levels will be enhanced through decentralization of decision making by adopting  three water resources management levels (including National Basin and Sub-basin/catchment levels) and setting up appropriate institutions clearly defining the role of each and how they relate to each other.  

Legal framework:  Water Act (Cap 372 of the Laws of Kenya) is due for review in view of the new water policy to harmonize it with other Acts.  The Department of water development’s capacity will be enhanced to enforce the Act by reviewing the water user pus to encourage proper utilization and management by the beneficiaries.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Water for Sustainable Food Production and Sustainable Rural Development (PROGRAMME AREA F)

Kenya has developed a water resource policy for food Agriculture.  Sessional Paper No. 1 f 1999 on National water policy on water resources management and a National Water Master Plan for the country.  Main objectives include:

§         increase water availability in agriculture (e.g., through promotion of moisture conservation, water harvesting, small-scale irrigation, groundwater development or large irrigation schemes etc.);

§          increase water use efficiency in agriculture (e.g., through improved irrigation technologies, economic incentives, regulations etc.);

§         prevent and remedy water logging and Stalinization of agricultural land; and

§         prevent adverse effects of agriculture on water quality.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

The National Soil and Water Conservation Programme implements a number of activities with regard to water availability and these include:

§         Promotion of moisture conservation through conservation tillage, mulching and soil conservation as appropriate;

Increase water use efficiency in agriculture:

Private sector participation in design and development of irrigation schemes is now a government policy as the Ministry of Agriculture off loads some of its non-core functions in order to improve efficiency in agricultural production through irrigation.

Additional agriculture area brought under irrigation since 1992.  Area in Ha: 36,000 Percentage of total cultivated land: 0.98.

 

The National Soil and Water Conservation Programme implements a number of activities with regard to water availability and these include

There are small irrigations schemes all over the country.  Some are developed through individual and community initiative with the support of the government and local international NGOs.  The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development has a unit which deals with small scale irrigation schemes.  It provides technical advisory services, including design and maintenance where applicable.

 

 Ground Water Developments;  The Rural Development Department has a portfolio which includes regional development and has developed many ground water resources, particularly in ASAL areas for the pastoral communities.  The Department of water Development has also sunk a number of boreholes all over the country but emphasis has been for the ASAL areas.

 

Large irrigation scheme:  The National Irrigation Board (NIB) is a government parastatal charged with the development of large scale public irrigation schemes.  A few large scale irrigation schemes have been developed and include Mwea Teberre and Ahero Irrigation Schemes among others which are in the development stage.

 

 Increase water use efficiency in agriculture:

 

Private sector participation in design and development of irrigation schemes is now a government policy as the Ministry of Agriculture off loads some of its non-core functions in order to improve efficiency in agricultural production through irrigation.

 

Economic incentives include beneficiary participation in the decision making process at the local level through water users associations (WUAs) and review of user fees to manageable levels.

 

Regulation through an integrated water resources management by a National Standing Committee to deal with 

cross-sectoral issues with representatives from all main water and related sector actors under the Ministry in charge of water affairs.  Additionally, roles  and functions at different levels will be enhanced through decentralization of decision making by adopting  three water resources management levels (including National Basin and Sub-basin/catchment levels) and setting up appropriate institutions clearly defining the role of each and how they relate to each other.

 

 Prevent and remedy water logging and salinization of agricultural land

 

Water resources assessment, monitoring and information system is an effort being undertaken by the Department of Water Development where establishment of a comprehensive water resources databases, at all levels of management, on a self-sustainable basis for use in water sector development is underway.  These databases will contain updated water resources date at all times and in this regard will put in place water resources assessment and monitoring systems in collaboration with relevant institutions.

  Prevention of adverse effects of agriculture in water quality

  Levies on effluent discharges will be introduced based on the quantity of effluent whose quality must conform to prescribed requirements of the standards in force.  Additionally Environmental Impact assessment must be carried out where new agricultural projects are to be undertaken prior to commencement of the project.  The Government has already put in place an Act on Environment Management and coordination.  This legislation is now the main basis of preventing adverse effects of agriculture on water quality because it also provides for judicial intervention where any adverse effects are realized by any citizen.

Status 

Additional agriculture area brought under irrigation since 1992.

Area in Ha: _36,000______Percentage of total cultivated land: _0.98

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

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This information was provided by the Government of Kenya to the 9th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: November 2001

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LAND MANAGEMENT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The coordination of this process is under the auspices of the Ministry of lands and Settlement.  Some of the major actors include: Ministries of Agriculture and Rural Development; Environment and Natural Resources; relevant Departments of the local universities, Ministry of Local Government and relevant NGOs.  They work in close partnership with the relevant institutions.  At the national level, it is represented at provincial, district and divisional levels.  At the lowest level (division) it is represented through the divisional land control board, which reports to the district land control board.  Other relevant departments of the Ministry include land valuation, land registration, land surveys and physical planning.

Strengthening institutions and coordination mechanisms for land and resources have gone a considerably distance sine UNCED.  Kenya put in motion a serious policy change for sustainable management of land and land resources by enacting a legislation on environmental management and coordination called Environmental Management and Coordination Act (1999).  At the same time, a stakeholder’s consultative process on National Land Use Policy is ongoing, which will culminate in an integrated land use policy for the country by the end of the year 2002.  

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

 i)            Legislation:    Environmental Management and Coordination Act (1999)

ii)            Guidelines:    Environmental Impact Assessment guidelines for development projects being undertaken to forestall any negative impacts on land and the environment at large.   National Biosafety Regulations and Guidelines

Individual tenure This involves registered ownership of land with freehold and leasehold interests.  Here, the title is derived from adjudication of claims in former trust land areas or allocation of public land to an individual after demarcation and from settlement schemes.  This category is mainly found in the former whit highlands.  This tenural arrangement gives an individual the right of access to and ownership of land.

Communal tenure:  This is the occupation, ownership and use of land by a particular community.  It differs from place to place and from one community to another and is found in trust land areas where land consolidation and adjudication has not taken place.  It is also common among the pastoral communities in Kenya, such as the Masaai.  This arrangement gives an individual the right of access to and not ownership of land.

Public Tenure This is the direct ownership of land by the state and consist system mainly of gazetted forests, national parks, game reserves and other unalienated public lands in both rural and urban areas. 

The Government through its Sessional Paper NO.I of 1986 on “Economic Management for Renewed Growth” decided to set up a National land Use Commission to review the prevailing land tenure laws and practices with a view to formulating a legislation that could bring the law into conformity with the national development needs.   The Government recently set up a Presidential Commission on the National Land Laws in Kenya.  The Commission is expected to address, inter alia, incentive measures that could stimulate productive use of land; enforcement of regulation on the limit and extent of land sub division, efficient lease arrangements,  conflict resolution amongst conflicting users.   The Commission is headed by the former Kenya’s Attorney General with membership drawn from relevant ministries, institutions and other relevant stakeholder groups.  The members are currently  going around the country to get a hearing and presentations from the grassroots communities, farmers, NGOS, women, small scale food produces and indigenous people.

In land administration, land owners require consent from members of their families or communities who have no registered interests in land before they can engage in transactions of the land.  These arrangements are not provided for in the application of the Land Control Act.  Given the changing economic circumstances, the relevant Acts should be reviewed and where necessary amended to incorporate the administrative directions to ensure consistency.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Major ways of changing the sector towards sustainable include urgent need to establish appropriate policies for the sound management and sue of natural resources.  A participatory land use policy, technologies for sustainable use and management of natural resources, favorable environment including political, economic and social stability, a clear and equitable regulatory framework coupled with appropriate agricultural and other sectoral policies with clear environmental focus will be the major vehicles for moving the current situation of integrated land management towards sustainability.

So far, the Government has not undertaken review and development of policies to support the best possible use of land and sustainable management of land resources to meet the targeted date of not later than 1997.  However, currently some tow processes are ongoing to come up with appropriate strategies:

First, a Presidential Commission to examine the Land Law System has been set up and already going round the country to meet various stakeholders and to get the relevant information.  It is expected to make far reaching recommendations on ways to create an efficient and equitable system for land ownership and administration.  The Government is expected to act swiftly to implement the commission’s findings for it recognizes that the past failures have been a major contributory cause of poverty and constraint on agricultural development.

Secondly, a stakeholder’s consultative process on the National Land Use Policy is already underway.  It held its first meeting in October, 2000.  The main objective is to bring all the stakeholders together in a participatory process of developing a comprehensive Land Use Policy and Law are as follows:

  1. Governance issues over land i.e. powers and decision-making process of the President, Commission of              Land, Land Control Boards, County and Urban Councils etc.;
  2.  Tenure arrangements, i.e. communal tenure vs. privatisation, individualization, titling and registration;

  3. Management of common land resources;

  4. Gender issues in access to and control of land;

  5. Commercialization/commoditization of land;

  6. Land in the Constitutional order; and 

  7. Legal/judicial protection of land rights.

The process will come up with ways of dealing with possible conflicting issues in land use goals.  Additionally, the issues of food security, rural development, viability of rural areas, environmental conflicts, socio-economic and social issues and institutional arrangement are also covered and are being addressed in details under thematic working groups.

The KWS land use and planning co-ordination study of 1995 recommended several policy proposals and strategies that can be considered essential for proper land use planning and co-ordination which is consistent with wildlife conservation.   Although KWS has not implemented all of these, it has made considerable headway in this direction.   The proposals and strategies are in the following seven areas presented below:

Land Tenure Regimes Policy

Realising the negative impact of subdivision and the subsequent developments of group ranches on wildlife conservation, and whilst appreciating that the general government policy is the registration of group ranches and other lands under communal use regimes into individual ownership, KWS should, with the assistance of other relevant GOK and NGO organization, find ways of discouraging subdivision of such lands that are major wildlife dispersal areas where the subdivision processes has not yet taken place. 

Kenya has always recognized the importance of conserving her biological resources.  In the recent past, national master plans for forestry, water, wildlife and tourism have been developed.  Likewise, action plans for the environment, biodiversity data management, poverty alleviation and desertification and drought have already been put in place. 

Strategies in place or proposed include the following:

·        Create adequate employment opportunities by diversifying livelihoods, increasing domestic investments and savings to levels sufficient to support desired rates of economic growth, thus reducing illiteracy and empowering communities to manage their local resources.  Favourable tax regime and general macro-economic environment have been put in place already to attract the much needed investment capital in order to steer the economy towards a sustained growth path;

·        Initiate and diversify income generation activities by increasing agricultural production and productivity, provision of credit, infrastructure and promotion of greater relevance, effectiveness and efficiency in agricultural service;

·        Strengthening of Kenya Family Planning Programme involved with population control programme in order to achieve sustainable population growth rates; and

·        Promotion of stakeholder participation in identification, planning, implementation and maintenance of development initiative.  Specifically, transfer of control and management to the communities directly affected by the rural development initiatives focusing on poverty reduction food security and generation of employment opportunities.

All the above are underpinned by various government initiatives such as the Kenya Rural Development Strategy, Kenya National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, National Poverty Eradication Programme, Environmental Management and Coordination Act (1999), Presidential Commission on Land Laws in Kenya, Stakeholder Consultative Process on National Land Use Policy and a number of policy reviews currently ongoing, notably in the agricultural sector, water resources and the environmental sub-sectors.

In agricultural sector growth is expected to be about 4/6% to effectively support poverty reduction.  A number of activities are being put in place to facilitate this and which links well with land management policies and they include:

     i)        Implementing sound land use, water and environmental action plans at national level;

    ii)      Protecting water catchments areas by developing forest plantations while conserving         (preserving) indigenous forests;

iii)    Facilitating long term investments in farm improvement;

iv)    Building an effective and efficient participatory extension and technology delivery service; and

v)      Affirmative action in agriculture by facilitating participation of women

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

i)                    National Soil and Water Conservation Programme

ii)                  Legislation through enactment of Environmental Management and Coordination Bill (1999);

iii)                 Agro-forestry programme; and 

iv)        Promotion of integrated nutrition management, improved crop and soil management practice.

Status 

The need to rapidly transform and improve livelihood in Kenya is underscored by the fact that high population growth rate in the recent past threatens to reduce the viability of the land resource and the availability of natural resources per capital.  For example, it is estimated that the availability of agricultural land per capital will reduce considerably between now and the year 2020.

 In the face of rapidly increasing population, the over-exploitation of natural resources in high potential areas and the move into low potential  ecosystems could not be avoided.  This has led to serious land and environmental degradation in certain areas.  Sediment loading, pollution and loss of biodiversity are some of the consequence of this.  This increasing rate of natural resource degradation poses the problem of vicious circle between increasing population and deepening of poverty.  Environmental degradation has even a more deleterious effect on household food security.  Women farmers bear most of the responsibility for feeding their households are unable to produce enough food, as most of them have their farmlands concentrated in degraded areas.  This situation is damaging to rural communities capacity for self reliance in poverty reduction as it is serious to the entire economy.  Urgent actions are required to forestall this.  The adoption of policies and strategies to enhance widespread gender-sensitive use of environmentally friendly agricultural technologies and practices is necessary to address the underlying problems.

Since UNCED, Kenya has transformed forest land into other uses such as agriculture, human settlements, etc. as  follows. 

Year

Additions (ha)

Excisions (ha)

1992

1993

 

1994

201.40

21,010.50

3,365.68

0.00

1,035.53

5,612.08

 

Total

24,77.58

6,647.61

 Source:  Forest Cover and Forest Reserves in Kenya:  Policy and Practice by IUCN The World Conservation Union, June 1996 

 Overriding issues: According to the multi-year programme of work of the CSD, the overriding issues in each of the CSD sessions are poverty and consumption and production patterns.

 Water Conservation in ASAL areas:  This is one activity in our poverty reduction strategy for the arid and semi-arid lands.  Since it is not economically viable to plan and implement large piped water schemes in these areas, the Government has identified dams, water pans and boreholes as the most appropriate technologies for provision of water, mainly for livestock and domestic use.  There is very little crop production in these areas.

 Land and Water Resources Management:  In addition to the ongoing national soil and water conservation programme, the Government proposes to develop community based catchment management strategy to ensure adequate quality and quantity of water to the poor while ensuring proper land management through biodiversity and soil conservation.

It is only recently that concerted efforts have been undertaken to seriously address managing solid and harzardous wastes on the land.  This came basically with the legislation of the Environmental Management and Coordination Act (1999) which has specific management and punitive measures as regards the management of solid and hazardous wastes.  Because of their harmful nature to the environment, land use activities and human health, these wastes must be management properly local industries which are the main contributors or generators of these wastes are now required by law to properly dispose them and any new industry being set up must undertake a comprehensive environmental impact assessment.  Industry stakeholders are now participatory involved in any Government initiatives to discuss appropriate ways of managing solid and hazardous wastes from the environment and to avoid any adverse impacts on land use.

Kenya  experienced the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in 1998.  It was marked excessive precipitation all over the country, including the dry arid and semi arid lands which comprises almost 80% of the country’s total land area.  It impacts on land resources included massive floods; soil erosion and destruction of trees, crops and animals in a scale not seen in a long time.  The low lying areas, particularly in the Lake Victoria regions and parts of the Coast Province were submerged with water for a long time.  In the sloppy mountainous and the fragile ASAL areas, it resulted  in landslides and severe galley erosion with massive siltation of dams and the low lying flood plains.  Rivers busted their banks and streams temporarily changed courses.  These impacts are anticipated again in the future.   These concerns are reflected in our integrated land management planning in the following:

  1.  Construction of dykes along the major river courses in the low lying flood plains, particularly rivers flowing into Lake Victoria such as Nyando and Nzoia which are prone to bursting of their banks;

  2.  Dam development along the main river courses for retention of excess water and hydropower generation and irrigation;

  3.  Conservation of the wetlands, especially in the lower flood plains by limiting human encroachment for cultivation purposes;

  4. Protection of water catchment areas;

  5.  Afforestation of steep slopes; and 

  6. Soil and water conservation programme for the whole country.

Challenges

Kenya’s immediate development problems, include persistent and increasing poverty coupled with rising population.  The interaction of the poor population and the environment due to expansion of human settlement and engagement in unsustainable farming practices have impacted negatively on farmlands, landscape, forest land, wetlands and biodiversity, not only in the coastal areas but in the country at large.  Expansion of human settlements have reduced the land potential, especially in the arid and semi-arid areas, making the struggle for survival hard and leading to severe over-exploitation of biodiversity resources and degradation of farmlands, landscape, forest lands and the wetlands.

Faced with the challenge, Kenya must come up with solutions to ensure a decrease in poverty through the promotion of sustainable livelihoods among its population.  Sustainable livelihoods are built on initiatives that provide the means for survival and prosperity without jeopardizing the environment and the biodiversity components.  Kenya is slowly but surely integrating environmental protection into national development policies and practices.  Issues of conservation and sustainable utilization of biodiversity, economic development and social equity, therefore must form the basis for sustainable development.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

 Public education and awareness on the need to conserve the available biodiversity and protection of the environment through sustainable utilization of the available resources.

Information

According to a land use planning and co-ordination study conducted by KWS in 1995 "Overall, the results emanating from this study have established that there exists no comprehensive land use policy in Kenya.  Instead, there exists numerous policies and legislative statutes relating to land use and the environment that are: not integrated, highly sectoral and often conflicting, outdated and to a greater extent have not been enforced due to conflicting sectoral interests.  This has led to inadequate land use planning and co-ordination in the country".  

The setting up of the Presidential Commission on the Land Laws in Kenya (1999), and the stakeholder process on National Land Use Policy.

 i)       Soil and slope characteristics:  Soil data maps that elucidate the various soil types; texture and potential are available and accessible.  In some, soil characteristics are in such a way that also indicate their potential for growing certain crops.  In agro-ecological zonation, slope characteristics are clearly indicated.

 ii)       Vegetation cover:  Sufficient access to this information is assured .  One of the sources for this information        is the Department of Surveys and the Department of Remote Sensing and Resources Surveys, one under the Ministry of Lands and Settlement and one under the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources respectively.  They have a range of data in Land use change, soil slope and vegetation cover, wildlife density and also the density of domestic animals especially in the arid and semi-arid areas where pastoralism is the main source of livelihood.

   iii)  Land capability and suitability at nation-wide scale:  This information is readily available and accessible particularly in the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and the Kenya Soil Survey.  First, details of soil types and characteristics are given with details on texture and suitability for say, cropping.  Second land capability and suitability are given as part of data on agro-ecological zone maps which details the type of soils, vegetation cover, rainfall pattern and average amount per annum, types of crops grown and slopes.  Information on types of livestock raised is also part of this.

 iv)    Agricultural inputs:  Information on fertilizer, pesticides commonly used in the country is available.  Fertilizer is normally used depending on the soil type and characteristics in a given area or zone.  Various types of fertilizer are used, i.e.. Phosphates, nitrogenous and soil amendments in terms of trace elements.  Additionally, organic fertilizer in terms of farmyard manure are also used but information on this is not well documented.  Information on such inputs as machinery is available but not comprehensive and not very accessible.

 v)     Land are covered by human settlements and other physical infrascture:  This information is available and accessible but it is not very comprehensive.

Information on all of the above are disseminated by the line departments.  Climatic/weather conditions are disseminated through electronic media and also print media.  Mostly, the information on soils and land in general are mainly disseminated through the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Developments extension services personnel.           

Indicators on integrated land management and sustainable use of land resources have not been developed in a comprehensive manner and in form that is available to anyone interested in using them.  However, what indicators are and should be are known and are available in documentary form but in a scattered manner.  Essentially, a comprehensive data on indicators have not been developed in this regard by my Government.

Information on integrated land management and sustainable use of land resources is made available to potential users in print form (hard copies) through such Ministries as Environment and Natural Resources, Agriculture and Rural Development, lands and Settlement, Department of Remote Sensing and Resource Survey and Regional Center for Remote Sensing, Surveying and Mapping.  This information cannot be accessed through the Internet.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

Kenya is implementing the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), having completed the country study and the First National Report to the Conference of the Parties (COP).  There are efforts to implement the Global Plan of Action for the Conservation and Sustainable Utilization of Plant Genetic Resources (PGR) for food and agriculture.  Indeed Kenya has ratified most of the international treaties, conventions, agreements and protocols related to environmental protection and the conservation of natural resources.  Included here are the Ramsar, Law of the Sea, Framework to Combat Desertification, Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals, the protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, the Montreal Protocol, the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and the Cartagena Protocal on Biasafety.  All these concerns are geared towards addressing the country’s key components of biodiversity conservation.  All the above are legally underpinned by the Environmental Management and Coordination Act (1999).

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Kenya to the 9th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: November 2001

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MOUNTAINS

No information is available.

 

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OCEANS AND COASTAL AREAS

No information is available.

 

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TOXIC CHEMICALS

No information is available.

 

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WASTE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

No information is available.

 

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