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Economic Aspects | Natural Resource Aspects | Institutional Aspects | Social Aspects |Kazakhstan

ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN KAZAKHSTAN

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INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

No information is available.

 

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TRADE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

With the purposes of ensuring the rights of consumers on getting complete and reliable information, and for the protection of internal market against poor-quality imports, the Governmental Resolution of the Republic of Kazakhstan No.1274 of August 31, 1999 "On the requirements on drawing the information in national and Russian languages on labels of goods" has been adopted.
For a number of goods, mainly, consumer goods, listed in the Annex to this Resolution, any citizen of Kazakhstan has the right to get the following information in the national and Russian languages: the names of the goods, country and manufacturer, date of manufacturing, application time, conditions of storage, ways of application, and food value.

From February 1, 2000 and April 1, 2000, respectively, import and sale of consumer goods will be stopped if without information labels (packing, instructions and etc.) in national and Russian languages. The information should correspond to the standards and other requirements specified by the legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
According to the requirements of the RK, State Standard measures on the control for import of goods with expired application time or representing danger to the environment have been made tougher.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

Kazakhstan by virtue of the geopolitical situation, as the large transit state on the boundary of two continents, can not remain aside from global economic processes. In this connection it is very important to support and develop cooperation with basic countries - trade partners of the country, to improve the forms and methods of internal macroeconomic policy and foreign trade activities.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status

On preliminary evaluation of the Agency on Statistics of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Gross Domestic Product for the first 9 months of 1999 recorded 1,421 billion Tenge, which is a 0.3% increase from the same period in the previous year. In the GDP structure there was an increase in the share of manufacturing of goods. The actual weight of the industrial sector has increased to 22.5% from the 22.2 % in 1998, and that of agriculture increased to 9.7 % from 8.7% in 1998. The real volume of GDP in the third quarter of 1999 has grown by 105.3% from the same period in 1998.
The structure of Gross Domestic Product is characterized by the following data:

 

Structure of GDP, %

 

9 months of 1998. Report.

9 months of 1999.
Estimation.

Gross Domestic Product

100

100

Manufacturing of Goods

Including:

34.7

35.5

Industry

22.2

22.5

Agriculture

8.7

9.7

Construction

3.8

3.4

Production of Services

Including:

59.9

59.2

Trade

18.7

17.5

Transport and Communication

10.6

10.7

Net Taxes on Products and Import

5.4

5.3

Volumes of Kazakhstan production in general in the CIS are as follows: 4 % of uranium, 97 % of chrome, 70 % of lead, and 50 % of zinc. Production of other kinds of raw materials, as well as pure precious metals, including gold, is significant. Kazakhstan ranks first place among members of the CIS in explored reserves of lead, zinc and bismuth, and second place in reserves of copper, molybdenum, bauxite, oil, phosphates and cadmium.

The development of economy for the first 9 months of 1999 can be possibly characterized by the following indicators:

( % to the appropriate period of the previous year)

January – September of 1998

January – September of 1999

Gross Domestic Product

100.0

100.3

Volume of Industrial Products (works and services)

98.8

100.0

Volume of Gross Products of Agriculture

77.9

118.9

Investments in Fixed Capital

142.8

103.1

Transportation of Cargo by all Types of Transport

92.5

92.2

Foreign Trade Turnover*

83

82

Export

97

125

Import

76

84

Industrial Producers Price Index

(Data of September to data of December of the previous year)

102.7

135.2

Consumer Price Index

(Data of September to data of December of the previous year)

 108.6

 113.3

* Source: Agency on Statistics of the Republic of Kazakhstan

Foreign Trade Turnover of the Republic of Kazakhstan
Foreign trade turnover of the country (on the basis of data of customs statistics taking into account data on unorganized trade) from January to September of 1999 has recorded 7,485.6 million USD, including export of 3,708.2 million USD, and import of 3,777.4 million USD.
As a whole, for the main export nomenclature for January to August of 1999 in comparison with the same period in 1998, the analysis of the price and quantitative deliveries shows a decrease in the cost of export by 25%. Reduction of exports in the CIS countries has recorded 56 %. In countries outside the CIS, exports have increased by 1%.
The estimated growth rate of the total volume of export recorded 35% in the third quarter as against the second quarter of the current year. It is basically connected to the growth of physical volumes of export production.
Growth of physical volumes of export as well as growth of average export contract price in comparison with that of the second quarter is observed as follows: rolled ferrous metal by 2 %; copper and lead by 3 %; chrome ores and concentrates, gold, grain by 5 %; aluminum by 8 %; and oil and gas condensate by 21 %.
In the country, export of oil products has been renewed. The Atyrau Refinery is completely oriented to export. The joint-stock company "ShNOS" has restored the market of sales of its production in the Kyrgyz Republic.
In the structure of foreign trade there were no progressive changes. In the total volume of export for the analyzed period, the specific weight of food and raw material was reduced by 4 percentage points, and mineral products by 3 percentage points. At the same time a share of metallurgical industry has increased by 3, and chemical industry by 2 percentage points.
The rates of import decrease for the first 9 months of 1999 exceed the rates of export reduction. It is connected to the rise in the cost of import equipment, transport, and reduction of volumes of food imports, all related to the restrictions on foreign trade adopted during 1999.
Due to the constraining influence of devaluation of Tenge, the growth of volumes of unorganized import in the second quarter was reduced by 30 %.
The countries outside CIS play an important role in meeting the needs of the country. Over the analyzed period, the share of the following imports out of the total imports recorded as follows: mechanical engineering 62%; food 64%; pharmaceutical goods 76%; clothes 86%. The CIS countries continue to remain the basic suppliers of mineral products. The share of import from these countries on fuel and energy resources during January to August of 1999 recorded 87 %.
Noting the beginning growth of world prices of raw materials from the second half of 1999 and taking into account the devaluation factor, promoting decrease in the production costs at the expense of reduction of prices in the structure of the cost price of industrial production of material inputs, it is possible to predict a positive influence of these factors on the increase of the level of competitiveness of Kazakhstani production in the world commodity markets and opportunity of enhancing the use of the export potential of the country.

Trade in Grain
Food grain is one of components of exports of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Export of grain among total exports takes up about 5-7 %. Production of grain in Kazakhstan, depending on climatic and weather conditions, as well as technical equipment of agricultural producers, varies on the average from 7 to 17 million tons a year. This year grain yield has made up about 12 million tons, which is 1.5 times more than the indicators of the previous year. In 1998 production of grain in Kazakhstan has made up about 7.5 million tons or about 1 % of the world grain crop. In 1999 the share of Kazakhstan in the world volume of grain production can increase up to 1.7 %.
The specific weight of grain in the structure of export of the country in 1998, in comparison with 1997, has decreased by 2.5%, or 217.8 million USD. In the first half of 1999 export of grain in comparison with the same period previous was reduced by 56% and has made up 73 million USD. The specific weight in the structure of the total export was reduced by 2 % additionally.
About 90% of grain in Kazakhstan is annually exported to CIS countries. The Russian Federation is traditionally the basic importer of Kazakhstani wheat. Export of wheat to Russia in 1998 in comparison with 1997 was reduced by 30% and has made about 1 million tons. However, in the first half of 1999 export of wheat to Russia in comparison with the same period in the previous year has increased insignificantly and has made up more than 350 thousand tons or 54% of the total grain export. This year in the structure of grain export the export of wheat has increased as follows: to Tajikistan by 8%, to Ukraine by 5 %, and to Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan by 1%.
The restriction of the offer of grain to the Caucasian countries from Russia and Ukraine can increase demand on Kazakhstani grain. On the grain crop of 1999 Kazakhstan has signed the appropriate agreements with Uzbekistan and Iran. Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan also remain the traditional consumers of Kazakhstani grain.

Trade in Oil, Lead and Zinc
Volumes of oil and associated gas production during the first 10 months of 1999 exceeded volumes for the same period of the previous year. From January to October of 1999, the index of physical volume in comparison with that of January to October of 1998, has recorded a growth of 112 %. The figure for October of 1999 in comparison with that of September increased by 109 %.
Production of oil from January to October has made up 21.9 million tons, and gas condensate, 2.6 million tons. In 1998, 25 enterprises produced oil in Kazakhstan. 23.8 million tons of oil was extracted in 1998. Among the CIS countries Kazakhstan is the second greatest oil manufacturer after Russia, and among 90 countries of the world community, Kazakhstan is included among the top 30 countries. Production of metal ores has not reached the level of the previous year (reduction of index of physical volume by 13.2 %).
The basic iron-ore regions of Kazakhstan are Kostanai and Karaganda Oblasts. The JSC "SSGPO" and JSC "Lisakovsk GOK" in Kostanai Oblast, where more than 80 % of iron ore is concentrated, are the producers in the country. Also the JSC "Atasuruda" of Karagandy Oblast deal in production and processing of ore. The basic consumers are metallurgical industrial complexes of Russia and China. Reserves of Kazakhstani ores make up about 700 million tons, including industrial reserves of about 400 million tons. On reserves of iron ore Kazakhstan occupies the eighth place in the world. On production of iron ore Kazakhstan occupies the tenth place in the world after China, Brazil, Australia, Russia, USA, India and Ukraine, the share of which is more than 80% of the total iron ore produced in the world.
In non-ferrous metallurgy some reduction of index in the physical volume (98%) at the expense of cutting down of production of rare metals and affinaged gold is observed. However, there is growth of production on the basic types of production: zinc by 104 %, lead, 132 %, and refined copper, 114 %.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

At the moment in Kazakhstan the official Website on trade is absent. Only generalized data on the economic situation in Kazakhstan, published in Internet by the Republican State Enterprise "Kazinvest" are available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

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This information was provided by the Government of Kazakstan to the 8th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: December 1999.

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CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

No information available.

 

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FINANCING

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

The Ministry of Finance is responsible for matters concerning financial resources in the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

According to the Constitutional norms of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Ministry of Finance is going to issue Statistical Bulletin, which is intended for a wide range of readers and will contain information on state finance. Statistical Bulletin of the Ministry includes the data on financial operations of the RK Government and of local implementing agencies, the data on government debt and government guaranteed debts, government stocks emitted by the Ministry, and data on privatization.

The Statistical Bulletin is presented to representatives of foreign organizations in Kazakhstan:

At present the Ministry of Finance carries out the activity of establishing Web-sites of the Ministry of Finance to make available information on state finance of RK. It's planned to have a representative of the RK Ministry of Finance in Internet in January 2000.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

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This information was provided by the Government of Kazakstan to the 8th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: December 1999.

For information on participating States in the Global Environment Facility, click here:
For information about issues and projects in Eastern Europe and Central Asia from the World Bank, click here:

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TECHNOLOGY

BIOTECHNOLOGY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

The Ministry of Ecology and the Centre of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) are responsible for biotechnology issues. The NEAP/SD Centre studies international experiences and develops technologies of animals, plants and resources protection.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

 

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This information is based on Kazakhstan's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: June 1997.

Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to go to the Web Site of UNEP's International Register on Biosafety.
Click here for the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Biosafety WebPages

 

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

The Ministry of Ecology and the Centre of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) are responsible for technology issues.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

Kazakhstan is ready to establish a National Cleaner Production Centre (NCPC) within the framework of the National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD)Project approved by the RK Government. The NEAP/SD Centre is capable of serving as the nexus for research and dissemination of cleaner production processes for major industrial sectors. The NCPC will have a co-ordinating and catalytic role in regard to cleaner production. Their activities cover four areas: in-plant demonstration, training, information dissemination, and policy assessment.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

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This information is based on Kazakhstan's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: June 1997.

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INDUSTRY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

Kazakhstan is ready to establish a National Cleaner Production Centre (NCPC) within the framework of the National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD)Project approved by the RK Government. The NEAP/SD Centre is capable of serving as the nexus for research and dissemination of cleaner production processes for major industrial sectors. The NCPC will have a co-ordinating and catalytic role in regard to cleaner production. Their activities cover four areas: in-plant demonstration, training, information dissemination, and policy assessment.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

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This information is based on Kazakhstan's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: June 1997.

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TRANSPORT

No information available.

 

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SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

No information available.

 

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