Click here to go to the following issues:

Economic Aspects | Natural Resource Aspects | Institutional Aspects | Social Aspects |Japan

NATURAL RESOURCE ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN JAPAN

Click here to go to these sections:

AGRICULTURE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) is the primary responsible institution in the areas of agriculture and rural development. In April 1994, the National Council for Sustainable Agriculture was formed by JA (a national organization of agricultural cooperatives) in cooperation with Nisseikyo (a national body of consumer cooperatives) to promote various actions to achieve the targets of Sustainable Agriculture. The members of the Council are farmers, consumers and distributors.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

In The Basic Law on Food, Agriculture and Rural Areas, a new basic agricultural law, was enacted in July 1999. The importance of multifunctional roles that agriculture plays through stable production in rural areas is recognized in this law's general provisions. The recognized multifunctional roles consist of the conservation of water resources, and the natural environment by the formation of a good landscape and the maintenance of cultural traditions. And also, in consideration of the importance of its multifunctional roles, the importance of the sustainability in agriculture is clearly described in the Law.

A provision of "Maintenance and Promotion of Natural Cyclical Function of Agriculture 2" has been created under t he Basic law on Food, Agriculture and Rural Areas. Article 32 of this reads: "the State shall take necessary measures such as securing the proper use of agricultural chemicals and fertilizers and improving soil fertility through effective use of livestock manure, in order to maintain and promote the natural cyclical function of agriculture."

Furthermore, the government of Japan also enacted an entirely new law, the Law for Promotion on Introduction of Advanced Sustainable Farming System in July 1999, with a view to taking further steps to develop sustainable agriculture through maintaining agricultural production harmonized with the environment. The Law stipulates that farmers shall improve soil quality management by applying composted manure or other organic materials with soil analysis and simultaneously reduce the amount of chemicals, both fertilizers and pesticides, by using alternative practices such as the application of fertilizer with high performance, pheromones or cleaning crops. The cost for implementation, including administration costs, is covered by the national budget.

The Law concerning the Appropriate Treatment and Promotion of Utilization of Livestock Manure was also enacted in July 1999. The object of this law is to ensure the appropriate treatment of and promotion of the utilization of manure by defining necessary matters regarding the management of livestock manure by livestock operators, and by planning promotional measures for the aggregation of facilities where livestock manure is treated. These provisions will contribute to the healthy and sound growth of the livestock industry.

There are certain restrictions set by the national legislation in the transfer of productive arable land to other uses. One of this is: the Agricultural Land Law, under which any person must be authorized by the prefectural governor or the Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries when s/he alters or transforms arable land for other use such as human settlement or recreational sites. Exceptions to this rule may include cases in which national or local governmental organizations undertake these actions and cases in which such actions are oriented strongly for the public good. Another one is: the Law Concerning Establishment of Agricultural Promotion Areas, under which

any person must be authorized by the prefecture governor when she/he alters or transforms the land or undertakes the construction, renovation or extension of buildings and structures within an Agricultural Promotion Area. Exceptions to this rule may include cases in which national or local governmental organizations undertake these actions and cases in which such actions are oriented strongly for the public good.

With regard to agricultural chemicals, a registration system has been established under the Agricultural Chemicals Regulation Law. This system requires registration for any sales in Japan of manufactured or imported products of agricultural chemicals. Registration takes place only after passing an inspection in light of criteria in relation to the quality, efficacy, toxicity, persistency, etc. of the product in question.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The Basic Environment Plan, established in 1994 in accordance with the provisions of the Basic Environment Law, stares the importance of sustainable agriculture, in particular the expected actions of farmers in realizing sustainable agriculture. More specifically, sustainable agriculture has been recognized as a system in which farmers can reduce the amount of chemical fertilizers and pesticides to be applied partly through improving soil fertility by applying well-composted manure or other materials under national agricultural policy.

In response to the enactment of the Environmental Impact Assessment Law in June 1997, the government of Japan established in June 1998 a set of concrete guidelines for the promotion of environmentally-friendly public works. The targeted large-scale public works are dam and weir construction and reconstruction, and reclamation via landfills and reclamation of water areas. These guidelines establish environmental indicators to be assessed, methods for collecting the necessary data and methods for predicting and evaluating the environment through their use.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

The National Council for Sustainable Agriculture was formed by the national organization of agricultural co-operatives (JA) in April 1994, in cooperation with a national body of consumer cooperatives. Its objectives were to achieve the targets of sustainable agriculture and to promote various actions, such as establishing a Charter, organizing contests for sustainable agriculture. The members of the Council are representatives of farmers, consumers, distributors, researchers and scholars. At present, about half of the agricultural cooperatives throughout the country are tackling sustainable agriculture, with numerous activities such as the provision of technical support to member farmers. The number of cooperatives committing to the promotion of sustainable agriculture is expected to increase. Since the Government and the Council have maintained a good relationship, the voice of farmers can be delivered to the government through the Council and political decisions can also be announced via the Council.

Since the role of the women in agriculture is recognized and emphasized in the new agricultural basic law, the role of women in promoting sustainable agriculture is also expected to become more important. Opinions from women's points of view regarding sustainable agriculture will be taken into account in the Council.

Programmes and Projects 

With regard to rural development, the Agricultural and Rural Development Project has contributed to reducing labor hours for farming and to increasing productivity of agricultural production through implementing such measures as enlargement of farmland, arrangement of irrigation and drainage, construction of agricultural roads and improvements of soil conditions in order to introduce middle- and large-sized machinery to farms. Currently, the Agricultural and Rural Development Project is shifting from developing agricultural production to the improvement of infrastructure in rural areas in budgetary terms. In this regard the budget allocated to rural sewerage projects has been increasing in order to enable these areas to catch up with medium-sized cities in the coming ten years with regard to the sewerage penetration ratio.

Japanese farmers usually control plant pests according to the Plant Pest Forecasting Program promoted by national and local governments. Recently the national government started demonstration projects to establish the Integrated Pest Management System, introducing various control methods such as natural enemies, pheromones, and so on. These methods are spreading at the farmers' level.

Based on the Land Improvement Law established in 1949, the government has been carrying out Land Improvement Projects which in turn lead to stable agricultural productivity. Agricultural water resources have been developed as part of these projects in coordination with comprehensive planning for water use. The Water Resources Development Public Corporation has implemented its projects in cooperation with other organizations involved in water use planning under the Water Resources Development Promotion Law.

The Government of Japan does not have any plan or programme for CO2 sequestration into soils. However, the examination of farming practices and measuring methods for reducing GHG emissions, including CO2 emissions, has been conducted.

DNA lesion such as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer formation and mutation can be important components of damage to plants caused by ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiation. Two research activities have been carried out in National Institute for Environmental Studies(NIES) to reveal the significance of DNA lesions; (i) quantification of pyrimidine dimers produced in plant cells under natural solar irradiation using immunochemical methods, and (ii) development of a mutation-detecting methodology by generating transgenic plants with mutation-detector genes.

Furthermore, the government of Japan has been promoting a research project titled 'effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on terrestrial and marine ecosystem' for the past three years. It is funded by the Global Environment Research Fund of the Environment Agency of Japan. This research project aims at study on the effects of enhanced UV-B on terrestrial (forest, annual plants, natural alpine plants for natural community and crops, vegetables, ornamental crops for artificial community) and marine (photoplankton and zooplankton) ecosystems by determining their primary mechanisms of damage, defense and acclimation in order to develop a forecasting model of future effects caused by enhanced UV-B.

Japan conducted enhanced UV-B irradiation to rice plants in a paddy using a modulated lamp control system. Should UV-B increase by the 15% projected as a result of possible future ozone depletion of up to 7% in middle latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, rice yield losses are expected to be less than 1 5%.

The "MAFF Genebank" program (1993-2000) was created in I992. The National Strategy for Biological Diversity was established in 1995, which stipulates the MAFF Genebank System as principal mechanism for conservation and use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture (PGRFA) in Japan. Animal genetic resources are also included in the MAFF Genebank program (1993-2000). Note: MAFF stands for the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.

Status

Historically, the Land Improvement Law enacted in 1949 has provided a mechanism for the execution of food production policy in the post-war period Irrigation and drainage projects and land reclamation projects in mountainous and coastal areas had been especially accelerated in line with the priority of national agricultural policy during the initial stage. Since the 1960s, land consolidation projects and agricultural road construction projects have been implemented so as to increase the productivity of labour and farmland. Thanks to the implementation of these projects, the productivity of agricultural production per unit area has been increasing and labour hour for farming has been decreasing concurrently. The productivity of agricultural production per unit area in 1990 was almost seven times higher than that in 1955.

In order to promote sustainable agriculture, or in other words, environmentally-friendly agriculture, the government of Japan announced the basic concept of sustainable agriculture in April 1994. It is aimed at reducing the amount of chemical fertilizers and pesticides being applied, partly through improving soil fertility by applying well-composted manure or other materials. At the same time, the Government recommended several types of targeted farming systems and practices, including organic farming, as guidance for farmers. The government has also fostered sustainable agriculture by guiding local governments to establish support systems for farmers and organize broad relationships among many organizations of producers, traders and consumers step by step.

The Basic Law on Food, Agriculture and Rural Areas established in July 1999 replaced the Agricultural Basic Law which had been in effect for 38 years. One of the basic principles of the new law, which will direct future policy, is the guarantee of food security and a stable food supply based on domestic agricultural production. To this end, the government will set targets for food self-sufficiency ratios as guidelines in calling for the efforts of concerned parties and as means of promoting policies and measures in cooperation with parties concerned with the achievement of these targets.

When soil pollution is found in agricultural land, countermeasures shall be implemented in accordance with the Agricultural Land Soil Pollution Prevention Law. One of the major problems faced in the implementation of countermeasures is the allocation of responsibility for costs for the rehabilitation of polluted soil and for preventive measures. The total costs amassed for countermeasures to soil pollution in agricultural land from 1971 to date is estimated at about 100 billion yen.

Blessed with abundant water, Japan has made full use of water and used it for rice farming since ancient times. Japan also tried to make good use of limited water resources by building irrigation ponds or introducing rotational irrigation to expand paddyfields in water-scarce areas in pre-modern period. During the 20th century, the progress of civil engineering techniques enabled Japan to construct large-scale facilities such as dams and modern agricultural water systems which provide a stable supply of irrigation water.

At present, because the development and introduction of modern water systems has almost been completed in paddy fields in flat areas, maintaining and protecting the system rightly becomes an important subject in the future. In case of upland fields, we still need to explore water resources or provide an agricultural water system by building dams to make farming feasible.

Additional agricultural area brought under irrigation since 1992 is:

45,647ha (total accumulated area of improved farmland since 1994)/4,905,000 ha (total farmland area in the year XXXX) = 0.93%

Reference (unit: ha)

 

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Area of improved farmland  

344,668

354,093

359,372

367,706

386,339

392,315

Area of improved farmland in a year    

7,425

5,2789

8,334

18,633

5,976

* Total area of improved farmland: 45,647 ha.

Note: Improved farmland is defined as farmland where modern agricultural water systems have been introduced with a view to not only for irrigation but also for various farm work such as washing vegetables, protection of farm products, stock farming water and cleaning machines.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

The government of Japan has been encouraging such technical research and development as Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and release-controlled fertilizers for encouraging sustainable production harmonized with the environment. The government has also popularized the technologies through the verification of advanced farming systems or the organization of training courses in order to provide opportunities for all farmers to implement sustainable farming systems. Furthermore, the government has been conducting a program for supporting farmers' groups which intend to develop the facilities necessary for sustainable agriculture.

The government has given awards to prominent farmers' groups through contests organized by the National Council for Sustainable Agriculture, and the activities of these groups have been published The government has implemented "Guidelines for Labeling on Organic Farm Products and Specially-Grown Farm Products" since 1993, providing rules of production and methods of verification for those products. Under these guidelines, when labels such as "Pesticides Used in Reduced Quantities" or "Chemical Fertilizers Used in Reduced Quantities" are claimed, indications of the frequency and quantity of inputs are required. These guidelines will help consumers choose products produced through low-input sustainable agriculture.

Information 

The following Websites on sustainable agriculture are available:

Research Information of national agricultural experiment stations:
    http://www.affrc.go.jp/ja/seika/index~j.html (in Japanese)

Information of pesticide and fertilizer:
    http://www.jppn.or.jp/ (in Japanese)

Information of IPM:
    http://www.affrc.go.jp:8001/agroipm/narc.html (in Japanese)

As most of Japanese territory locates under East Asian monsoon zone which is characterised by high temperature in summer and high annual precipitation, paddy fields are the most suitable agricultural land use. In this connection, the Government have evaluated the functions of paddy fields for conservation of land and natural environments and quantified them by using original Agro-environmental indicators. These functions expressed by the indicators are hoped to be maintained by agricultural activities and are expected to become one of the reasoning for the possibility of direct payment to farmers in hilly and mountainous regions who are less competitive than those in flat areas.

Research and Technologies 

For improving efficiency in fertilizer application, the development and popularization of new technologies such as the application of fertilizers with high performance and the application of fertilizer to certain precise places using sophisticated machinery, have been and will be undertaken. Farmers are guided to follow fertilizer application guidelines, which were recently modified by local agricultural research centres in order to make them more environmentally-harmonized ones.

Since demand for water for other uses is increasing, the efficient use of agricultural water via measures such as the improvement of irrigation canals for agriculture becomes the priority. In this connection, Japan is developing the following techniques and systems:

    1. Techniques for water use management correlated with planting pattern
    2. Designing subsystems for irrigation and drainage which correspond to changes in
    3. demand for agricultural water

Regarding the prevention of adverse effects of agriculture on water quality, the following techniques and systems are being developed:

The Outline for Promotion of Efforts to Prevent Global Warming were established by a decision of the Council of Ministers on Measures to Arrest Global Warming in Japanese Governments on 19 June 1998. And the Law Concerning the Promotion of Measures to Cope with Global Warming was enacted in October 1998 and promulgated in April 1999. The law aims at accelerating the introduction of new energy including biomass. Both the Outline and the Law stipulate the promotion of environmentally sound energy transition in the whole country including rural areas. Subsidiary projects have been conducted to introduce new energy saving system into facilities for rural development and to equip small hydroelectric power system into irrigation facilities.

In Japan, for optimising the use of limited arable land, land use pattern including orchard, common field or paddy field, etc., has been arranged suitably to climatic and topographical condition. Farmers have also been adapting the most suitable farming system to land condition with the guidance by experts. For example, such guidance recommends that farmers should improve soil fertility by rational utilisation of local organic resources or introduction of rational crop rotation in common crop field to reduce the consumption of chemicals.

The following research projects have been conducted in agricultural sector for efficient use of biomass energy.

(i) Alcohol fermentation from sugar beet

(ii) Methane fermentation from animal waste slurry

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

So far, there are two major activities Japan has taken as follow-ups for the World Food Summit's Plan of Action. One is providing support to the development of the food insecurity and vulnerability information and mapping system {FIVIMS) in Asia. The FIVEMS is a kind of computerized mapping system to provide policy makers with accurate and timely information on the incidence, nature and causes of chronic food insecurity. The other is sponsoring and supporting various activities under the FAO's TeleFood Campaign which mobilises resources to fund small grass-roots development projects aimed at helping people free themselves from hunger by raising awareness of the scourge of hunger.

Cold NE wind originating from the Sea of Okhotsk high pressure predominates over northeast Asian region during summer and is sometimes harmful to crop production. Automatic Weather System (AWS) monitoring units, prepared in Tohoku (northeast) region in Japan and the east coast of the Korean peninsula have succeeded in evaluating crop production by cold damage This program is a joint research between Japan and Republic of Korea supported by the Science and Technology Agency of Japan.

 

 

* * *

This information is based on Japan's submission to the 5th and 8th Sessions of the Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: 10 November 1999.

For information on Agriculture and Rural Development in Japan's Agenda 21, click here.
To access the FAOSTAT Data Base for information by country, item, element and year, click here:
Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to link to Country and Sub-regional Information on Plant Genetic Resources of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
Click here to go to Web Site of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, which includes information on the Codex Alimentarius and the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme.
Click here to access the Web Site of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).
Click here to access the sixteen international agricultural research centers that are members of the CGIAR.
Click here to link to biosafety web sites in Japan.

| Japan | All Countries | Home|

 

ATMOSPHERE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Environment Agency (EA) is responsible for making decisions for protecting the atmosphere.

In case of the revision of the air pollution control law in 2000, for example, the Environment  Agency (EA) and the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) are jointly undergoing the reconsideration of the scheme for the promotion of           measures concerning hazardous air pollutants by checking and reviewing the result of ambient atmosphere monitoring and of the reduction of the discharge based on voluntary control plans by major manufactures.

Air Pollution Control Law and Law Concerning Special Measures Against Dioxin ensure that local governments can order stopping facilities' operations in case of emitting prohibited amount of pollutants and punish them.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The principal laws are:

1)  Air Pollution Control Law, targeting,

a) Soot and Dust,

b) Sulfur oxides,

c) Asbestos,  

d) cadmium and its compounds,

e) chlorine and hydrogen chloride ,

f) fluorine,

g) hydrogen fluoride and silicon fluoride,

h) lead and its compounds,

i) nitrogen oxides, and

j) pollutants from auto mobiles (see note below)

2)  Law Concerning Special Measures Against Dioxins;

3) Noise Regulation Law;

4) Vibration Regulation Law; and

5) Offensive Odor Control Law.

It is also notable that the use of spiked tires are prohibited in designated snow-falling areas in northern Japan to avoid dust generation.

Note: In addition to establishing emission standards for passenger cars, trucks and buses under Air Pollution Control Law. EA is starting to regulate motorcycles and will be starting to regulate off-road diesel vehicles from 2003.

There are various incentive systems to promote the protection of the atmosphere. This includes: the reduction of tax rates and special depreciation measure for the investment in industrial pollution control facilities; and the purchase of the low emission vehicles.

Complying with the Ozone Layer Protection Law and promoting recovery and destruction of ODSs from waste appliances, has been the measure that have been introduced to prevent further depletion of the ozone layer.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Basic Environment Plan established in 1994 describes the over-all strategy in environmental protection including atmospheric protection.

Japan's strategy on greenhouse gas emissions is elaborated in Law Concerning the Promotion of the Measures to Cope with Global Warming. This law covers the whole activities related to emissions of all six GHGs being targeted under the Kyoto Protocol ,namely CO2,CH4,N2O,HFCs, PFCs and SF6. The Law also covers the activities related to the removals of CO2 by sinks.

Under the Law Concerning the Promotion of the Measures to Cope with Global Warming, the following target is set for the development of greenhouse gas sinks:

1)Securing healthy and vital forest by promoting afforestation, implementing necessary tending and thinning, while striving to promote stable supply and utilization of timber;

2)Establishment of a new form of resource circulating society which uses wood resources in a sustainable and stable manner based on sustainable forest management; and

            3)Promotion of national land afforestation movements with public participation.

Japan regulates production and import/export of ODSs in responce to the Montreal Protocol. Its policy includes:

  1. Steady implementation of HCFC phase-out in accordance with the national target agreed to at the advisory Council of Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI);

       2. Promotion of recovery and destruction initiative by industry based upon the policy guideline by MITI;

     3.   Promotion of recovery and destruction of CFCs/HCFCs used as refrigerant contained in disposed appliances; and

       4.   Technical cooperation for developing countries with the increased support of industry in the future.

Concerning transboundary air pollution, scientists have often pointed out that Japan has sometimes suffered from air pollutants originated from the Asian Continent based on their research results.  Japan has taken an initiative to tackle with the issue with the East Asian countries through the implementation of the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET) since 1993. EANET is coming  into its regular activities from January 2001.

Japan's short-term (2-3 years) and long-term (5-10 years) goals concerning:  

-          Reduction of green house gas emissions: 

Short term: Effective implementation of existing legislation such as Law Concerning the Promotion of the Measures to Cope with Global Warming and Law concerning the rational use of energy.

Long term: Complying with the commitment of the Kyoto Protocol with strengthened measures including the utilization of economic instruments and etc.

 -          Conserving and increasing greenhouse gas sinks: 

Short term: following measures are to be implemented to secure healthy forests:

·             Afforestation especially in abandoned agricultural lands, degraded lands and wild lands; 

·             Promotion of tending and thinning; and

·             Pest and disease prevention.

Long term: in addition to promoting sustainable forest management, following measures are to be carried out to reduce fossil fuel consumption and to increase carbon storage.

·             Improvement of wood processing technology;

·             Promotion of wood use for a longer period; and

·             Promotion of use of wood as a renewable resource.

 -          Mitigating ozone depletion:

Short term: promotion of policies to expedite the transition from ODS containing appliances to non ODS containing appliances, as well as the recovery and destruction of ODSs especially from waste appliances by way of bringing the established mechanism into more effective one.

Long term: phasing out of the consumption and production of HCFCs and methyl bromide  in accordance with the schedule stipulated in the Montreal Protocol. Promotion of R&D activities to seek and identify new alternative substances to be used as refrigerants, blowing agents and solvents.

-          Mitigating transboundary air pollution:

 Short term: effective implementation of EANET.

Long term: formulation of more effective policy framework with the East Asian countries based on the scientific knowledge obtained through the activities of EANET and other related programs.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

Among the 9 major groups, Women, NGO, local authorities, business and industry and scientific and technological community are relatively active in participating in the decision making process. They have mainly participated in the process with an advisory status.

Regarding the air pollution problems, local residents living in heavy traffic areas are considered to be most affected.

Programmes and Projects 

Under the Law concerning the Promotion of the Measures to Cope with Global Warming which was enacted in 1998, enterprises with remarkable amount of green house gas emission should try to formulate programs to reduce the emission and publicize the programs and the state of the implementation of the measures specified in the programs.

 The Law concerning the Rational Use of Energy which was revised in 1998, introduced  the ‘Top Runner Approach’ for automobiles and electric appliances. Under the approach, efficiency standards are set with an aim of meeting or exceeding the highest energy efficiency levels that have been achieved among products currently commercialized.

Under the Law, the enterprise which owns a factory that consumes large amount of energy, shall formulate a medium-long term plan every year for achieving the objective of rational use of energy determined by the government.

Various measures will be taken to form a desirable urban environment in order to build "Eco-City (environment-harmonized city)" designed for reduction of pollution load, harmonious coexistence with nature, and creation of amenities.

In relation to promoting the "Eco-City", city planning departments of municipalities have been making efforts to formulate  urban environment plans which contain comprehensive and systematic urban environmental measures.

An remarkable example of such measure is a creation of an "Wind Path" in urban area. A wind path is secured by the setbacks of buildings and plantation of trees along the streets, thereby helping mitigate the heat island effect in urban center and remove air pollutants with improved ventilation.

Status 

In general, atmospheric environmental quality has been significantly improved, as compared with that of 1960s - 1970s when there were many patients of respiratory disease caused by serious air pollution. While the achievement rates of the Environmental Quality Standards for nitrogen dioxides and suspended particulate matter are still low.

As for the impact of atmospheric changes on ecosystems, an 18 year-long survey on the acid deposition in Japan has been carried out, through which, among other ecosystems, forest degradation has been observed in some monitoring points . However, its cause is still unclear and the relationship between the ecosystems and the impact of atmospheric changes is under investigation through the national survey on acid deposition in Japan.

Afforestation has been promoted especially in abandoned agricultural lands, degraded lands and wild lands, and thinning was implemented with the emphasis on preventing soil erosion and damages caused by winds and snowfalls. In addition, urban greening is being promoted under national and municipal plans on comprehensive and systematic conservation of green spaces in urban areas.

In 1998, the emission of carbon dioxide was 1.19 billion tons, decreased by 3.8%, while increased by 5.6% compared to that of 1990. The principal cause is the decrease in industry sector. In transport sector, the emission of carbon dioxide increased by 21% since 1990. The emission of methane was 1.36 million tons, decreasing since 1990. The emission of nitrous oxide was 64 thousand tons, generally increasing until 1997, but in 1998, decreased by 5.5%. The potential emission defined based on production, import, export and destruction amount of HFCs, PFCs and SF6 were respectively 11.6, 2.3 and 2.1 thousand tons.

The national total emission of greenhouse gases in 1998 (GWP equivalent value) which was 1.34 billion tons was composed of carbon dioxide,(88.8%), CH4, (2.1%), N2O(1.5%), HFCs(2.4%), PFCs(1.3%), and SF6(3.7%).

The total land area is 37,780 thousand hectare, out of which the area of all forest is expected to be 25,220 thousand hectare, among which managed forest be 12,450 hectare in the year 2010. (These figures are estimated based on the Japan’s Basic Plan on Forest Resources.)

Challenges

Environmental quality standard value for benzene, 3mg/m3 as annual average, was not satisfied by 23% of 1999-FY monitoring points.

In detail, 9.5% of the residential points, 58% of the roadside points and 25% of the points near industrial area exceed the standard, showing that the roadside areas were the most heavily affected by the pollution of benzene.

In the case of dioxins, environmental quality standard value 6pg-TEQ/m3 as annual year was satisfied in most points.

Environmental quality standard values 200 mg/m3 as annual average for TCE (Trichloroethylene) and PCE (Perchloroethlene) was satisfied in all monitoring points.

According to the trend of demand and supply of energy and other factors, policies and measures relevant to GHGs emission reduction need to be reviewed. We have to establish the institution to ensure the achievement of the emission reduction target adopted in Kyoto Protocol

It transport sector, the emission of carbon dioxide has been constantly increasing, in spite of the introduction of High Fuel Efficiency Vehicles into the market. The assessment method of policy and measures in this sector is not so well developed that taking effective policies and measures are difficult.

In residential sector, the problem is that household electrical appliances such as TV sets, refrigerators has become bigger for last decade. This phenomenon induce the further electricity consumption in the sector. Monitoring energy consumption by different appliances in detail is required in order to formulate and adopt more efficient policies.

In Japan, forests cover already two thirds of the total land area, and the remainders are already utilized so such as agricultural, or residential areas. Therefore, given the limited space,  it is difficult and hence implausible to increase the forest area. The scientific information and knowledge on the marine resources for increasing green house gas sinks are too limited to develop the resources as practical policies and measures at present stage and a study aiming at evaluating the capacity of marine resources as a sink is in progress.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

Japanese government has been conducted various activities in disseminating information on climate change issues including  international negotiations concerning the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol. The following two examples are notable ones:

1) the National Center for the Promotion of Activities to Cope with Global Warming, designated by the Environment Agency in July 1999, has provided the information on environment-friendly products since then;

2) the Global Warming Prevention Month has been celebrated in December in memorizing the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol in December 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. The first ceremony for the Month was taken place in Kyoto in December 1998, with an  international symposium and various side events. At the same time relevant events were convened on a nationwide basis. The second ceremony was held in Sendai, Miyagi prefecture in December 1999; and

        3) The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) regularly publishes "Report on Recent Climate Change in the World" and "Climate Change Monitoring Report"  to provide information on the recent changes and current situation of global and regional climate and the outlook of future climate. In addition to the printed material, JMA disseminates information on these reports via the internet (http://www.kishou.go.jp/ (in Japanese)). JMA also holds an open lecture annually to promote public awareness of scientific information and influence of global warming.

Besides, Japan has been disseminating information on international negotiations concerning "Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer" and "Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer", too.

Japan provides several training courses for capacity-building on not only such domestic environmental issues as noise, vibration and odor pollution, but also global environmental issues under the auspices of various organizations and networks such as JICA, EANET and APN. The Eco-Frontier Fellowship Programme by Environment Agency and part of STA fellowship by Science and Technology Agency have been implemented to invite overseas researchers to Japan in order to facilitate joint research activities on global environmental issues.

Information 

There is no emission data of ozone depleting substances so far. Regarding production and consumption of ozone depleting substance, please see Annex.

A survey has been conducted to investigate all facilities under Air Pollution Control Law in order to estimate total amount of national emissions from them.

To monitor the climate change, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) has developed and operated database containing climate observation data, which are internationally exchanged within the framework of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and bilaterally.

The Ministries that collect and archive the scientific data and information provide their data by publications or via the Internet. The exaplmes are shown below:

1)  The data of Air pollutants concentration measured in Japan are published and distributed to the local governments, researchers and so on;

2)  NO2 concentrations measured at more than 300 monitoring stations through Atmospheric Environmental Regional Observation System( http://www-aeros.nies.go.jp.);

3)  “Climate Change Monitoring Report (every year)” and “Report on Recent Climate Change in the World (every five years)” by publications;

4)  WMO World Data Center for Greenhouse Gases (http://gaw.kishou.go.jp/wdcgg.html); and

The observation data of high-latitude stratospheric ozone by satellite sensor (http://www-ilas.nies.go.jp/data2/DataDistribution.html).

Some of the data has been offered to the "OECD Data Compendium" or some conferences in disseminating materials. Air concentration monitoring data collected by local governments are compiled and published by the Environment Agency on yearly basis. Some of the local governments disseminate the monitoring data on their websites, and anyone is accessible to the raw data on hourly basis. The Japanese Government annually publishes "Quality of Environment in Japan". via the Internet.(Same address as Q30)

Data and information archived in the WMO World Data Center for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG), which is operated by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), is disseminated and shared at the national and international level in publications and on the CD-ROM and on the Internet. Furthermore, JMA publishes the future projections of global warming with JMA’s climate model in printed forms and on the CD-ROM. The outline of these products is available in the JMA website (http://www.kishou.go.jp).

Research and Technologies 

Representative examples of research programmes aimed at promoting a better understanding of the processes and consequences of changes in the atmosphere are as follows:

1)  Japan, in cooperation with other East Asian countries, has promoted "Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET)" and started its preparatory-phase activities in April, 1998 so as to create a common understanding of the state of acid deposition problems in East Asia, and also to provide useful inputs for decision making at local, national and regional levels aimed at preventing and reducing adverse impacts on human health and the environment due to acid deposition;

2)  Japan, China and Korea started trilateral research activities on the long-range transboundary air pollution issues by developing emission inventory for establishing numeric models in the region;

3)  The Frontier Research System for Global Change, which is a joint program of Japan Marine Science and Technology Center and National Space Development Agency, is conducting researches in the field of climate variations, hydrological cycle, global warming, atmospheric composition and others under the supervision of the Science and Technology Agency (STA).  The system also associates with research activities at the International Arctic Research Center and the International Pacific Research Center which are established as Japan-US joint research centers. STA is developing computational technologies for research on global change prediction by introducing a high-speed parallel computer called the Earth Simulator. STA has also promoted global change research projects especially focused on  investigating global carbon cycle system and ocean water circulation mechanism;

4)  The Ministry of Transport (MOT) has conducted a study on the observation, monitoring and research network regarding the climate change in Asia and Pacific region; and

5)  The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) has studied the prediction of the climate system and its variability. In the year 2000, JMA initiated a five-year project entitled “Projection study of regional climate change over Japan due to global warming." This project aims at developing a regional climate model with high resolution to assess regional impacts of global warming.

 Both national and local governments have been monitoring the concentrations of air pollutants such as SO2, NO2, Ox, SPM, CO on hourly basis at the more than 2,000 monitoring stations.  Data compiled with automated data collecting system are utilized for emergency alert of air pollution.  Atmospheric composition is also observed with aircraft and radar, and the marine meteorological and oceanographic observations are also conducted. A satellite sensor monitors the high-latitude stratospheric ozone.

The 'Guideline of Measures to Prevent Global Warming', established in 1998 to promote the reduction of green house gases, lists various technologies for the reduction of green house gases emissions. Based on the Guideline, the following technologies were being developed/ introduced according to the follow-up report released in 2000,

1)In energy sector, the adoption of air conditioning system with heat strage using night time electricity and coolers which use gas fueled heat pump were highlighted.

2) In transport sector, developments of compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, dimethylether (DME) vehicles or fuel cell vehicles that use alternative fuels are under way. Research and development is being made for low-emission and high-efficiency gas turbine cargo ships (‘Super Eco Ships’) that will improve the fuel efficiency by about 10% and reduce NOx emission by 1/10 in comparison with the present ships. The arrangement of new systems utilizing information system such as Universal Traffic Management Systems (UTMS), Electronic Toll Collection System (ETC) started in order to optimize traffic control and to avoid traffic congestion.

3) In industry sector, the performance of highly efficient industrial furnaces and boilers has been confirmed and is to be introduced in practice.

4) In commercial / residential sector, the development of compound semiconductors which are material of light emitting diodes, liquid crystal displays of low electricity consumption and highly efficient solar battery is under way. As for household electrical products and office appliances which consume much energy while not in active use, technology for reducing electricity consumption is being explored with a view to reduce electricity consumed while not in active use.

5) The development of technologies concerning HFC, PFC and SF6 are also under way, such as alternative gases of SF6 and PFC and systems in cleaning and etching process of electric devices production as well as continual recovery and destruction of HFC-23 produced as by-product in HCFC-22 production process.

6) In many sewage plants, electric power plants were introduced, utilizing energy contained in digestion gas derived from waste water sludge.

As for nitrous oxide emitted in adipic acid production process, most of this greenhouse gas was cut by elimination equipment since March in 1999.

More sophisticated technologies are required  to reduce emissions from vehicles, especially from diesel powered vehicles by promoting R&D. Improved diesel particulate filters and NOx absorber are expected to be developed as post-reduction technologies. Since reducing sulfur in diesel fuel is prerequisite for applying those technologies, technology for reducing sulfur in diesel fuel should also be developed.

The R&D of Low-emission vehicles(electric vehicles, natural gas vehicles, methanol  vehicles, hybrid vehicles etc) is most needed in order to take measures for air pollution caused by exhaust gas from automobile. Furthermore Japan promotes the R&D of fuel cell vehicles as the national strategy recently.

Financing 

Public sources are principal for activities aiming at the reduction of dioxins emission from waste incinerators. Private sources are the major sources in other cases.

There are measures that reduce tax rates for environment Equipment and funds that are provided for environment Equipment.

Cooperation

The outline of technical cooperation in the area of air pollution and complexed pollution through JICA(Japan International Cooperation Agency) in FY1999 is as follows;

  Air pollution Complexed pollution
Inviting trainees (people/year) 72 100
Dispatch of experts (people/year) 15 23
Project type technical cooperation (No. of projects) 2 6
Total expenditure for technical cooperation (million yen) 537 1,801

 

For example, Japan supports "the Model Cities Plan" in China, which aims to select several cities and serve as models of efficient environmental planning for other cities throughout China, targeting mainly air pollution. Three cities, Chongqing, Guiyang and Dalian have been selected, and basic policy was recommended by expert committees. Japan decided to provide yen loan funding of up to 40.5 Billion Japanese Yen for two years (FY1999-FY2000) for projects that the experts committee recommended. In addition, JICA(Japan International Cooperation Agency) is considering to support in the area of human resource development.

Japan also has been donating to international financial institutions, such as Global Environment Facility (GEF) and  Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol(OZONE).

    e.g.    GEF ----US$ 412 m(1998-2002: total sum of four years)

         OzoneUS$ 100 m(2000-2002: total sum of three years))

Also, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) has been involved in global environmental issues including global warming through observation, monitoring, analysis, prediction and research, in cooperation with international frameworks such as the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). In addition, JMA has carried out bilateral atmospheric environmental research projects with Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Germany, India, Netherlands, Norway, Russia, Republic of Korea, Sweden and USA.

Japan has already ratified UNFCCC and Vienna Convention , been participating in the Conference of the Parties , making every efforts to ensure the entry into force of the Kyoto and Montreal Protocol.

For the UNFCCC, Japan have fulfilled its commitments both at international and domestic levels, including the submission of national communication and GHG inventory since then. As for the Kyoto Protocol, Japan signed in April 1998 and has not ratified yet.

For the Montreal Protocol, Japan formulated the “Law Concerning the Protection of the Ozone Layer through the Control of Specified Substances (Ozone Layer Protection Law)” in May 1988. The Law specifies all the substances controlled in the Montreal Protocol as those to be regulated on production and export/import under the Law. And the Government regulates on production and consumption of the specified substances with which Japan is obligated to comply under the Montreal Protocol.

Japan has been promoting the East Asia Acid Deposition Monitoring Network(EANET)and the North-East Asian Subregional Programme of Environment Cooperation (NEASPEC), in purpose of monitoring, collecting and analyzing the data to raise a shared regionwide awareness of the conditions caused by acid deposition.

Japan cooperates with developing countries in reducing the amount of automobile emissions by improving inspection systems, the transfer of related inspection technology, the adoption of more energy-efficient means of public transportation, and the drawing up of a master plan for achieving efficiency in the distribution of goods. Japan also actively cooperates with developing countries in enforcing comprehensive measures regarding traffic pollution.

In its assistance to developing countries, Japan disseminates scientific knowledge and technology transfer for the protection of the ozone layer by contributing to Multilateral Funds for the protection of the ozone layer and by providing technological cooperation through international bodies and using the system for group training by the Japan International Co-operation Agency (JICA). In view of the fact that it is necessary for each country to promote air pollution control measures, Japan has provided assistance to developing countries, including countries in East Asia, by dispatching experts and receiving trainees to and from these countries. Japan has actively participated in regional cooperation efforts, such as in the ESCAP Conference on Regional Environments and has hosted the Northeast Asian Conference on Environmental Cooperation.

In order to exchange information, experiences and views on climate change among countries of the Asia-Pacific region and facilitate the steps to address the climate change problem in the region, the Asia-Pacific seminar on climate change is held with participation of countries in the region. In view of the importance of the function of forests for carbon sequestration, Japan has been implementing various forestry and conservation projects through JICA to promote sustainable forest management and reforest and rehabilitate degraded lands. In addition, a research project, entitled "Study on Carbon-Sink Forest Management Technology", has been supported by the forestry agency to evaluate carbon dynamics of tropical forest ecosystems.

 

 

* * *

This information is based on Japan's submission to the 5th and 9th Sessions of the Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: December 2000.

Click here for Japanese approaches to Greenhouse Gas Generation.
For information on Atmosphere in Japan's Agenda 21, click here.
For Japan's Air Pollution Control Act, click here.
For national information on Global Warming, click here:
Click here for national information from the Web site of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

| Japan | All Countries | Home |

 

BIODIVERSITY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Environment Agency (for Biodiversity), several ministries and other agencies are primarily responsible for biodiversity and genetic resources. Among them is the Inter-Agency Coordinating Committee on the Convention on Biological Diversity which was established in January 1994 under the chairmanship of the Director-General of the Nature Conservation Bureau of the Environment Agency. The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) assists in the conservation of genetic resources in order to conserve biological diversity. Its major fields of work include conservation and use of animal genetic resources in the Asia and Pacific Region; international programs and conference for plant genetic resources; and development assistance on genetic resources preservation in developing countries (1993-1995) which has been strengthened to the collaborative research project on genetic resources in developing countries (1996).

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Existing legislation, including the Law for the Conservation of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, the Wildlife Protection and Hunting Law, the Aquatic Resources Protection Law, and the Law for the Protection of Cultural Property, covers the obligations of the Convention on Biological Diversity, and there is therefore no need to have new legislation.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Japan adopted the National Strategy on Biological Diversity on 31 October 1995 by a decision of the Council of Ministers for Global Environment Conservation. Japan has a Basic Policy for the Conservation of the Natural Environment which is intended to systematically conserve diversified nature; manage natural areas appropriately; apply environmental impact assessment; strengthen research and survey programmes; enhance public awareness; and coordinate outdoor recreation policies. In addition, National Guidelines for the Conservation of Endangered Species have been adopted, both to protect and conserve endangered species and to carry out breeding programmes. National Surveys on the Natural Environment as well as National Biodiversity Surveys are carried out approximately every five years. Biodiversity loss has been the result primarily of habitat destruction, over harvesting and the inappropriate introduction of animals.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

Local communities have been an essential element to the success of the conservation of biological and genetic resources. Among other activities, they have organized public hearings in the process of designating protected areas in accordance with the Wildlife Protection and Hunting Law and the Law for Conservation of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. Their views were collected through mail and fax for preparations of the National Agenda 21 and the Basic Environmental Plan. Local community participation in conservation activities is promoted through public awareness activities and financial and other support to local NGOs, including funding by the Japan Fund for Global Environment. According to the Public Opinion Survey of the Prime Minister's Office undertaken in 1991, 49% of people surveyed had experience in taking part in nature conservation activities such as cleaning up and tree planting.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

Both in situ and ex situ conservation activities are carried out. Examples of the former include designation of protected areas, protection forests, protected forests of National Forests and Natural Monuments, development of new legislation for conservation of endangered species, and strengthening of management of protected areas. Ex situ activities include R&D on artificial breeding of endangered species and their artificial propagation. Japan also works to enhance ecosystem functions through restoration of endangered species habitats and damaged valuable plant communities and eradication of the Crown-of-Thorns Starfish for restoration of coral reef ecosystems.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

Capacity-building for the assessment, study and systematic observation and evaluation of national biodiversity has been done through the National Survey on the Natural Environment that has been carried out since 1973. Several training courses have been organized by the Environment Agency. Training courses have also been organized by the Japan International Cooperation Agency at both regional and international levels.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

Japan signed and ratified The Convention on Biological Diversity in 1993. It ratified The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, 23 August, 1980 and submitted the latest report in 1994. Japan has also joined the Ramsar Convention and the Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, both of which are related to the conservation of biological diversity. Japan is also cooperating in the Man and the Biosphere Program, of UNESCO, which is conducted as an intergovernmental project.

Regarding bilateral or multilateral initiatives, the government has been involved in the following projects, funded largely through ODA and the Global Environment Research Program Budget:

  • Japan-US Joint Project for Conservation of Biodiversity in Indonesia;
  • The Environment Agency's Support for Development of the Asian Red Data Book in cooperation with Bird Life International;
  • The Environment Agency's Cooperative Projects for Conservation of Biodiversity, Wetlands, Migratory Birds, Natural Heritage and Coral Reef;
  • Bilateral Treaties for Conservation of Migratory Birds with the USA, Australia, China and Russia;
  • Research Cooperation Projects on Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biological Diversity carried out by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI).

Japan has hosted the annual meeting of the International Whaling Commission, under the International Convention for The Regulation of Whaling, and is also conducting research on mink whaling in the Antarctic Ocean.

Through a bilateral project between Japan and China, China has contributed significantly to research and development of artificial breeding of an endangered bird species (Japanese Crested Ibis), since only China has natural habitats for this species.

 

 

* * *

This information is based on Japan's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

For information on Biodiversity in Japan's National Agenda 21, click here.
For Japan's National Strategy on Biological Diversity, click here.
For access to the Web Site of the Convention on Biological Diversity, click here:
For access to the Web Site of the CITES Convention, click here:
For the Web Site of the CMS Convention, click here:
For the Web Site of the Convention on the Protection of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage, click here:
For the country-by-country, Man in the Biosphere On-Line Query System, click here: Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to go to the Web Site of UNEP's International Register on Biosafety.
Click here for the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Biosafety WebPages
Click here to link to biosafety web sites in Japan.

| Japan | All Countries | Home |



DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

There are no deserts or areas in danger of becoming deserts in Japan.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

Japan signed The International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Drought and/or Desertification Particularly in Africa on 14 October 1994 but has not yet ratified it. The latest report to the Secretariat of the Convention was prepared in 1994.

 

 

* * *

This information is based on Japan's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

For information on Desertification and Drought in Japan's Agenda 21, click here.
For access to the Web Site of the Convention to Combat Desertification and Drought, click here:

| Japan | All Countries | Home |

 

ENERGY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The following ministries/agencies are generally responsible for making decisions:

Ministry of International Trade and Industries (MITI), concerning energy issues in general;

Environment Agency (EA), concerning protection of atmosphere; and

Ministry of Transportation (MOT), concerning energy-related aspects of transportation.

As for the climate change issues, Global Warming Prevention Headquarters consisting of ministries and agencies concerned with global warming problems has served the policy coordination mechanism among them since 1997.

As for the air pollution from automobiles: EA sets automotive fuel quality standards for improving air quality and MITI regulates it.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The principal laws are:

1)Law Concerning the Promotion of the Measure to Cope with Global Warming;

2)Law concerning the Rational Use of Energy; and

3)Air Pollution Control Law.

Regulations that promote sustainable energy are:

Law concerning Special Measure for Promotion of Utilization of New Energy The Law concerning Special Measure for Promotion of Utilization of New Energy was enacted to accelerate the introduction of new energy for achieving the FY 2010 targets and prescribes for the following: (1) Formulation and announcement of basic policies on new energy use, and (2) Financial support measurement for businesses which use new energy.

The Revised Law concerning the Rational Use of Energy and the Law Concerning the Promotion of the Measures to Cope with Global Warming came into effect in April 1999.

 - Incentives given are:

1)  From April 2000, the Government of Japan established and expanded the exemption of the automobile acquisition tax for the low emission vehicles and the energy-efficient vehicles that meet the new standards based on the Law concerning the Rational Use of Energy;

2)   Tax benefits such as special depreciation or tax deduction are granted when high efficiency railway equipment is introduced and deployed by railway companies;

3)  The governmental funds are loaned to promote the use of the ground electric power source during the parking of an aircraft; and

4) The governmental funds are loaned and tax benefits are granted when airline companies introduce new and efficient models of aircraft.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The Basic Environment Plan developed under the provisions of the Basic Environment Law reads that "things removed from the Earth, such as raw materials and energy, must pass cleanly through our socioeconomic system at every stage.

Specific issues related to the Plan include, inter alia:

  • increasing energy and material efficiency in production processes;
  • promoting use of new and renewable sources of energy
  • using environmentally sound technologies for sustainable production;
  • increasing awareness for sustainable consumption.

The Action Plan for Greening Government Operations was established in 1995 based on the Basic Environment Plan. According to the plan ministries, agencies and other institutions of the Government should procure environmentally friendly products as much as possible. To promote implementation of this plan, the recommended List of Specifications and Quality of Goods that have minimal environmental impact were prepared in 1998. The Action Plan for Greening Government Operations program highlights environmental aspects of sustainable consumption and production.

To accelerate the introduction of new energies involving less environmental load, the Government is going to strengthen the measures for developing and extending clean energy vehicles and photovoltaic power generation. It is also going to promote efforts by stakeholders such as business and local government.

In response to global warming problems, the government of Japan adopted the Guideline of Measures to Prevent Global Warming in June 1998, which describes required measures in energy policies to curb the GHG emissions.

In accordance with the Guideline of Measures to Prevent Global Warming (June 1998), the emission of carbon dioxide from the transport sector in 2010 shall be reduced by 13 million tons of carbon equivalent in comparison with the Business-as-Usual case by improving the fuel efficiency etc.

1) Nuclear Energy

  Draft of the long-term program for research, development and utilization of nuclear energy says as follows.

“It is a rational policy for Japan to continue making the fullest possible use of nuclear energy, which is contributing to a stable supply of energy and a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions, as one of the mainstays of the nation’s energy supply, while making the utmost efforts to ensure safety with a primary focus on public understanding and cooperation.

  It is a fundamental policy of the Japanese government to make efficient use of plutonium and uranium recovered through recycling of spent fuel.”

2) Renewable Energy

  The Government is promoting research and development on renewable energy technology, with ongoing close cooperation with the ministries and agencies, based on "The Basic Plan for Research and Development on Energy" decided on July 18, 1995 by Prime Minister Japan, in order to secure a stable supply of energy and cope with global environmental issues, and tackling solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy and ocean energy as the main energy R&D programs.

The Government is making efforts to perform comprehensive promotion with ongoing cooperation with industrial, academic, governmental and other organizations, long-range and continuous promotion, implementation of appropriate evaluation, development of talented people, positive promotion of international activities, improvement of infrastructure for research and development, and assurance of understanding and cooperation of the people, in order to promote research and development on sustainable energy technology in smooth and efficient manner.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

Most of the member of the council for energy policy consist of those groups. The council for energy policy never fails to ask public-comments before making decisions.

Since Japanese energy sector is completely privatized, energy production and distribution are operated by private companies.

Some of the NGOs and consumer groups have initiated environmental book-keeping accounting campaign by checking the amount energy consumption of households and offices and hence saving the energy. Although they have reported some of the results to the public, the extent of their influence to the energy consumption pattern in the whole country is still unclear.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

Since most of the energy resources are not sufficient, Japan is one of the biggest import of energy resources such as coal, petroleum, natural gas, and materials for nuclear energy.

Almost all households, as well as industrial complexes, are assured of the access to electricity.

In FY 1999, 59.8 % of JR (former National Railways) and 73.0 % of other private railways are electrically driven.

In Japan where natural resources such as fossil fuel are scarce, the energy sources have been diversified for ensuring energy security, especially since it experienced the two ‘Oil Crises’. Oil, which amounted to 71.9% in 1970 of all energy supply in Japan, constitutes 52.4% in 1998. The shares of natural gas and nuclear energy have grown to 12.3% and 13.7% respectively in 1998, although they were very little in 1970. Coal supply remains at the same level of share since about 1990 while increasing supply amount until 1997. Hydro power, which was not small energy resource in Japan until 1960’s, becomes less important (3.9% in 1998) as others become more important.

‘New energy’, such as solar energy, unutilized energy, waste power generation etc., which are expected to play a significant role, still remain a small component of all energy supply, 1.2% in 1998. Black liquor from pulp production process and waste woods constitute the most important part, 65.8% of all new energy supply. Next important energies are waste power generation and the utilization of solar heat, respectively amount to 16.4, 15.8% in 1998. On the other hand, solar power generation and wind energy, although much expected to diffuse in Japan under the name of ‘Natural Energy’, are not yet so important as expected in terms of ratio.

Energy sector in Japan has been already privatized and based on a liberalized trade system. As for globalization, we can not answer the impact because the specific meaning of the word "globalization" in this question is not clear.

A group of twenty-five business organizations developed voluntary action plans. Strict follow-up on these plans has been carried out specifically on the progress of energy conservation and CO2 emission reduction measures. As for individual companies, obtaining certification of the ISO 14000 series has spread gradually. Some companies form "zero-emission" industrial complexes. The concept of "zero- emission" is to aim at the establishment of a new industrialized society where resources are circulated, by utilizing all wastes from a industry as raw materials for the others. These operations are voluntary.

To promote the concept of "zero-emission", the Ecotown Pilot Project is supported by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and the Ministry of International Trade and Industry.

Challenges

Japan measures the concentration of air pollutant substance at the ambient air pollution monitoring stations and roadside air pollution monitoring stations and announce the state of air pollution every year. According to this announcement, especially the concentration of nitrogen oxides and suspended particle matters are still high. It is mainly caused by the fuel consumption at automobiles and factories.  Especially Tokyo areas require most immediate attention. 

The comparatively higher cost of renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power generation than that of conventional energy sources is a barrier preventing the introduction of them into households and local societies.

 Although electricity companies are buying electricity which photovoltaic panels equipped with governmental subsidy on household roofs supply at a fixed price, they are generally reluctant to buy electricity supplied by independent power plants such as wind power plant because they consider that the purchase of such electricity over a certain extent causes the unstableness of electricity power in the electric wires.  

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

Japan has been disseminating information on international negotiations concerning the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol.

For example, in July 1999, the National Center for the Promotion of Activities to Cope with Global Warming was designated by the Environment Agency and this center services the information on environment-friendly products and so on.

In December 1998, the first Global Warming Prevention Month was celebrated. Centering around an international symposium, held in Kyoto on the first anniversary of COP3, PR activities were promoted on a nationwide basis. In December 1999, this event was held in Sendai, Miyagi prefecture.

It is very important that students have a true understanding of the environment and take responsibility for its protection. At each school, students learn about these aspects through educational activities carried out in such classes as Social Studies, Science, Home Making and Moral Education.

Guideline of measures to Prevent Global Warming adopted in 1998 highlights the improvement of education and learning relating to environment and energy (nuclear energy, energy saving etc.).

In terms of enhancing safety of handling nuclear materials, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), a representative research institution for nuclear energy, has set up special internal training courses, such as "Course for Safety Education for Managers" and "Course for Training for designating those who are engaged in the Work dealing with Radiation" for their technical staff. These courses aim at providing them with opportunities for obtaining common and basic technology necessary for the work in JNC.

The “Eco-Drive” Program is implemented for the public awareness of the efficient use of the automobile.

Information 

The Ministry of Transport (MOT) is authorized to collect data on energy consumption under the Law of Statistics from each transportation mode to derive the total consumption of the transport sector.

The Ministry of Transport annually edits and publishes the Survey on Transport Energy as a governmental publication.

The Survey on Transport Energy is published by the government as a printed publication.

Research and Technologies 

In most cases, the cost of environmentally sound technologies is higher than existing technologies. Financial measures including subsidy, remission of tax, or reduction of interest of the loan for plant investment, are very effective means of diffusing such technologies. Exhibitions of clean and environmentally sound technologies give good opportunities to spread such technologies.

The Government has been promoting research and development on life-cycle assessment to find method to evaluate the environmental impacts of a product throughout its whole life, i.e. extraction of raw materials, manufacture, consumption and disposal of it. Reduction of wastes generation and the promotion of recycling is the most prioritized area to exert efforts. Improvement of energy efficiency is also an important area.

The diffusion of solar batteries was promoted by governmental subsidy in particular for the installation of solar panel on household roof so that the total subsidy amounted to 10.4 billion yen, for the generation of 12 thousand kW.

The number of wind power generation plants is rapidly increasing in recent years. According to the estimation of a private sector, it amounts to approximately 200 in 1999.

Research and development project on direct utilization and utilization by means of gassification and liquefaction of woody biomass as an energy source is being implemented.

A waste water treatment system was developed by an application of a new methane fermentation method, i.e. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) method for the waste water from animal barn. The system requires only half electricity in comparison with a conventional method. Energy generation system by dry-type methane fermentation method has also been developed. Demonstration scale plants are now being operated for the evaluation of the practicability of these processes.

High sugar producing crops for production of ethyl alcohol were developed. They are hybrids of sugar cane with sweet sorghum and F1 hybrids of sweet sorghums. The yield of sugar from these crops is higher than that of leading varieties.

The diffusion of so-called ‘Cogeneration’ system supplying electricity and heat simultaneously is also an important progress Japan made since UNCED. In 1998, the total installations amount to 1,051 and the total capacity amounts to 3.7 million kW.

Solar batteries of which Japan has advanced technology are popular in small appliances such as electric calculators. The subsidy of the government for the installation of solar battery on house is desired among many people. If the period for making up the purchasing cost by the cost supposed for using conventional electricity becomes more short, they could purchase it on their own charge.

About wind power generation plant which is also realized without any technical difficulty, some people are concerned about degradation of natural landscapes and the environment for the wild birds which habit near these plants because of the acoustic nuisance and physical block.

Research and development project on utilization of woody biomass is expected to be over by 2004 with operational level technology.

Although initial cost of UASB facility is slightly higher than conventional process, the UASB system requires less electricity and easy for operation and maintenance. Therefore, the system has a high possibility to be practically utilized. Sludge production from dry-type methane fermentation method is remarkably low, as solid materials can be processed.

Although yield is high, production cost of ethyl alcohol using these materials is still high.

In 'Guideline of Measures to Prevent Global Warming' established by the Japanese Government in 1998 to promote the reduction of greenhouse gases, various technologies for the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions were listed up. In the follow-up of this Guideline in 2000, following technologies are referred to.

In energy sector, the adoption of air conditioning system storing heat derived from the night time electricity and coolers which use gas fueled heatpump are promoted.

In transport sector, developments of compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, dimethylether (DME) vehicles or  fuel cell vehicles that use alternative fuels are under way. Research and development is being made for low-emission and high-efficiency gas turbine cargo ships ('Super Eco Ships') that will improve the fuel efficiency by about 10% and reduce NOx emission by 1/10 in comparison with the present ships. The arrangement of new systems utilizing information system such as Vehicle Information and Communication System (VICS), Universal Traffic Management Systems (UTMS) and Electronic Toll Collection optimize traffic control and to avoid traffic congestion.

In industry sector, the performance of highly efficient industrial furnaces and boilers has been confirmed and is to be introduced in practice.

In commercial / residential sector, the development of compound semiconductors which are material of light emitting diodes, liquid crystal displays of low electricity consumption and highly efficient solar battery is under way. As for household electrical products and office appliances which consume much energy while not in active use, technology for reducing electricity consumption is studied with a view to reduce electricity consumed while not in active use.

The development of technologies concerning HFC, PFC and SF6 are also under way, such as alternative gases of SF6 and PFC and systems in cleaning and etching process of electric devices production as well as continual recovery and destruction of HFC-23 produced as by-product in HCFC-22 production process.

In many sewage plants, electric power plants were introduced, utilizing energy contained in digestion gas derived from waste water sludge.

As for nitrous oxide emitted in adipic acid production process, most of this greenhouse gas has been cut by elimination equipment since March in 1999.

In Japan, New Transport Systems, such as Monorail and LRT( Light Rail Transit), are promoting to development. One of new transportation mode is Short Distance Transport Systems. In connection with new towns and other types of urban development, there is an apparent need for short distance transit accommodating massive pedestrian traffic to which existing public transport system cannot provide appropriate service. Short-distance transport services are expected for the following fields of urban transport: a) between railway station and new town, and b) between railway station and commercial/business center.

When considering the structure of the domestic traffic network in Japan, it is thought to be important to make a contribution to preservation and improvement of the environment through securing and improving mutual linkage and securing smooth transfer which enables transportation  combining multiple modes of transport to be efficiently conducted.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

Japan has been implementing technical cooperation for developing countries through bilateral ODA(Official Development Assistance) and other forms of economic cooperation, which includes training programmes related to management of power-generation and power-transmission facilities, renewable energy, mining and oil refinement technologies as well as energy efficiency improvement.

Japan also has been providing financial contributions to international financial institutions, such as Global Environment Facility (GEF) and  Asian Development Bank(ADB).

As for climate change area, Japan has held successive Asia-Pacific Seminar on Climate Change since 1990, and also established and managed AP NET (Asia Pacific Network on Climate Change), with a view to enhance policy dialogue concerning the promotion of transfer of technology by exchanging information.

Japan has been providing bilateral ODA(Official Development Assistance) to developing countries for the establishment of technological research institutes, support to or exchange of engineers and researchers in various fields such as the electric power field.

Japan also has been donating to the international financial institutions, such as Global Environment Facility (GEF) and Asian Development Bank(ADB).

Japan has been participating in the Conference of the Parties to UNFCCC and the Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol, and making every effort to ensure the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol no later than 2002, and the effective implementation of the Montreal Protocol. 

"Grant Aid for Clean Energy" was newly established this fiscal year. This aid programme aims to support developing countries that set up or maintain facilities and equipment using renewable energy sources (for example, solar powered generation) which contribute to the reduction and control of greenhouse gas emission.

Japan also has been donating to the international financial institutions, such as Global Environment Facility (GEF) and Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol (Ozone).

e.g.    GEF US$412 m(1998-2002: total sum of four years)

           OzoneUS$ 100 m(2000-2002: total sum of three years))

Japan has implemented Feasibility Study on Climate Change Mitigation Projects for CDM / JI to accumulate knowledge necessary to formulate the international/domestic rules on CDM / JI framework, as well as to explore projects which effectively contribute to reduction of GHG emission and enhancement of CO2 sinks. 

 

 

* * *

This information is based on Japan's submission to the 7th Sessions of the Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: November 1998.

| Japan | All Countries | Home |

FORESTS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Forestry Agency is primarily responsible for this sector and is a member of the National Coordination Mechanism for Sustainable Development.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The government of Japan established the "Basic Plan for Forest Resources "which outlines basic ideas on forest management policies and provides individual forest owners with information on forest management practices. In addition, the "Nationwide Forest Plan" was developed based on the Basic Plan as a comprehensive forest management plan in accordance with the "Forest Law."

Under the "Nature Conservation Law" and the "Natural Parks Law," areas with scenic beauty and valuable ecosystem are designated as the Nature Conservation Areas and the Natural Parks. These protected areas play an important role in the forest conservation, and also contribute to the sustainable forest management in Japan.

Following the global movement towards sustainable development after the UNCED, the latest revision to the Basic Plan for Forest Resources was made in 1996, emphasizing the importance of sustainable forest management. In the latest revision, the basic approach to implementation of sustainable forest management highlights management practices, forest conservation, research activities, international cooperation, and recreational, cultural, and educational uses of forests and so on.

One of the major post-UNCED achievements has been the revision of the Forest Law in 1998, making it possible for any concerned party to make comments on drafts of plans for forest management at the local level. In addition, as a result of this revision, municipalities are authorized to make and implement forest management plans except with regard to national forests within their jurisdiction.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The government of Japan established the "National Land Use Plan" as part of a comprehensive and integrated national plan for the management of land resources. The "Basic Plan for Forest Resources," which is an integral part of the national forest program, was developed to maintain consistency with national land policy.

The contents of the important forest management plans, such as the Basic Plan for Forest Resources, are developed through consultations with relevant governmental agencies based on the Forestry Basic Law. Once agreement is reached, the Cabinet makes the decision. Efforts are made to ensure the consistency and harmony with other national policies and plans such as the Basic Environment Plan, which aims at achieving sustainable development.

The IPF proposals are relevant to the basic approach towards sustainable forest management in Japan. For example, in accordance with the Basic Plan for Forest Resources, the government establishes the Nationwide Forest Plan, and based on this plan, local governments also establish Regional Forest Plans. This planning system is in agreement with the national forest program suggested by the IPF. In implementing the IPF proposals, there are two major aspects in which concrete steps have been taken in Japan: (i) application of criteria and indicators and (ii) revision of the Forest Law.

Since April 1999, monitoring of domestic forests has been implemented in reference to some of the criteria and indicators identified in the Montreal Process. Moreover, by financing ITTO’s activities, the government of Japan has contributed to ITTO producer countries' efforts toward the Year 2000 objective through development of a manual for application of criteria and indicators, improvement of forest fire management, dissemination of reduced-impact logging practice, and enhancement of statistical functions and networks.

The government of Japan could urge countries to implement a strategy for achieving exports of timber and timber products from sustainably-managed sources.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

Based on the 1998 revision of the Forest Law, any concerned party can make comments on drafts of plans for forest management at the local level. In addition, as a result of this revision, municipalities are authorized to make and implement forest management plans except with regard to national forests within their jurisdiction. As a result, participation of stakeholders has been encouraged, which meets the IPF proposal for action which emphasizes "the need for appropriate participatory mechanisms to involve all interested parties."

Programmes and Projects 

The national forest program, most of which was established before the development of the IPF guidelines, meets most of the requirements suggested by the IPF guidelines.

WWF-Japan has been one of the leading private organizations in promoting the Forest Stewardship Council's forest certification scheme in Japan. In addition, both the private and public sectors are actively engaged in drafting the ISO technical report (ISO/TR 14061). The government of Japan deems that voluntary forest certification schemes may contribute to promoting sustainable forest management domestically and internationally.

Status 

There are some forests in Japan in which local communities have been allowed to use on a customary and traditional rights basis. In order to allow a transition period to modern legal ownership systems, there is a law that legalizes such forest use for the time being. As of 1997, there are some 500,000 hectares of such forests, of which 21,657 hectares have been put in order with consultation among stakeholders in the post-UNCED period up to 1997.

Woody waste comes out mainly from the wood industry and the construction industry. For example, residue from the wood industry is about 5.5 million tons per year, and more than 94% of it is reused for pulp, compost and floor covering of cattle sheds.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

The following actions have been taken by the government:

(i) Promotion of public awareness on healthfulness and renewability of wood products

(ii) Support for the supplying of low-cost and high-quality housing materials

(iii) Support for research and development activities for new markets for wood products

(iv) Promotion of wood use in public buildings

Information 

The government of Japan has just started the "Continuous Forest Inventory" system using the criteria and indicator method for policy development, which monitors changes in quality and quantity of forests on a nation-wide scale considering some of the criteria and indicators identified in the Montreal Process.

The government of Japan can provide case studies on the assessment of the effects of trade policy on sustainable forest management as well as to activities toward international comparability and equivalence of forest certification-and-labeling schemes with the aim of promoting further improvement of forest management.

Information on sustainable forest management is provided by several sources. For example, summaries of domestic conferences on sustainable forest management are released to the press. The Forestry White Paper, the government annual report on forestry, is published upon Cabinet approval. It provides information about the current situation and governmental actions toward sustainable forest management. The summary of the information can be accessed at the following URL. http://www.maff.go.jp/

In addition, the government of Japan provides information to other related organizations to be used in the publishing of journals and books.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing 

There are privately- and publicly-owned forests where specific activities are legally restricted in order to strengthen the non-market environmental benefits provided by the forests. In such cases, some compensation is available based on the established guidelines by the authorities for privately-owned forests.

Japan is currently carrying out surveys on collection of necessary data for and application of the following criteria and indicators in Japan, which are part of the criteria and indicators identified in the Montreal Process. Japan considers that these could be useful to assess progress at the international level.

Criterion 1: Conservation of biological diversity indicators

Indicators 1.1 Ecosystem diversity

  1. Extent of area by forest type, relative to total forest area
  2. Extent of area by forest type and by age class or successional stage
  3. Extent of area by forest type in protected area categories as defined by IUCN or other classification systems.
  4. Extent of areas by forest type in protected areas defined by age class or successional stage
  5. Fragmentation of forest types

Indicators 1.2 Species diversity

  1. The number of forest dependent species
  2. The status (threatened, rare, vulnerable, endangered, or extinct) of forest dependent species at risk of not maintaining viable breeding populations, as determined by legislation or scientific assessment

Indicators 1.3 Genetic diversity

  1. Number of forest dependent species that occupy a small portion of their former range
  2. Population levels of representative species from diverse habitats monitored across their range

Criterion 2: Maintenance of productive capacity of forest ecosystems indicators

  1. Area of forest land and net area of forest land available for timber production
  2. Total growing stock of both merchantable and non-merchantable tree species on forest land available for timber production
  3. The area and growing stock of plantations of native and exotic species
  4. Annual removal of wood products compared to the volume determined to be sustainable

Criterion 3: Maintenance of forest ecosystem health and vitality indicators

- Area and percent of forest affected by processes or agents beyond the range of historic variation, e.g. by insects, disease, competition from exotic species, fire, storms, land clearance, permanent flooding, salinisation, and domestic animals

Criterion 4: Conservation and maintenance of soil and water resources indicators

- Area and percent of forest land with significant soil erosion

Criterion 5: Maintenance of forest contribution to global carbon cycles

Indicators

    1. Total forest ecosystem biomass and carbon pool, and if appropriate, by forest type, age class, and successional stages
    2. Contribution of forest ecosystems to the total global carbon budget, including absorption and release of carbon (standing biomass, coarse woody debris, peat and soil carbon)

Cooperation

The government of Japan participated in all of the IPF sessions and in most of the related international events.

The government of Japan has been one of the most active participants in the Montreal Process. It has promoted the development and testing of criteria and indicators for domestic forest management practices in collaboration with the Montreal Process. In 1996, it launched a ten-year project to develop methodologies for identifying applicable indicators for forest management at a unit level with two pilot areas determined.

There are also many other actions which have been undertaken, including financial contributions to CGIAR/CIFOR.

It is an interest of the government of Japan that wood products which are traded are from sustainably-managed forests. The international community should build a consensus on some form of international arrangements and mechanisms to address such issues. It is important to continue intergovernmental dialogues to promote sustainable forest management after CSD8 as well.

The output of UNCED, IPF and IFF regarding forests should be properly reflected in other international legally-binding instruments such as in the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC.

 

 

* * *

This information is based on Japan's submission to the 5th and 8th Sessions of the Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: 10 November 1999.

For information on Forests in Japan's Agenda 21, click here.

| Japan | All Countries | Home |


FRESHWATER

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

In Japan there are a number of governmental bodies in charge of coordinating water resource management and development, and policy across sectors. These are:

  • the Environment Agency: responsible for coordination for water quality conservation, including groundwater.
  • the National Land Agency: responsible for coordination for water resources development
  • the Ministry of Construction: responsible for management of water and other properties within the boundaries of rivers, and coordination of water usage if there is a severe drought.

At the subnational level, prefectural or city government has the responsibility for coordination of resource management and development at the local level. The Ministry of Construction has branch offices to implement its task at the river basin level.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

There is no general law which covers all aspects of water resource management and development. However, there are some laws for specific aspects as follows:

  • The Water Pollution Control Law -for water quality (updated as of 5/6/96)
  • The River Act -management of water and other properties within the boundaries of rivers, and coordination of water usage in a severe drought (Updated as of 4/6/97)
  • The Water Resources Development Law-for newly developed water resources (Updated as of 2/12/83)

The law in place for use in agriculture is the Land Improvement Law (Update as of 11/11/94); For use by industry are the Industrial Water Law (Updated as of 11/12/93) and the Industrial Water Supply Business Law (Updated as of 11/12/93); and for use by households is the Waterworks Law (Updated as of 6/26/96)

For the management of water quality for agriculture and rural areas, Japan enforces regulations on agricultural chemicals in accordance with the Agricultural Chemicals Regulation Law. It is also involved in the promotion of the creation of soil which does not excessively depend on fertilizers.

With regard to water pricing, in Japan all users shall pay for the appropriate cost depending upon the volume, or area irrigated in the case of agricultural use, and the type of water provided. Some municipal waterworks bodies have a discount water rate for the poor. Through this pricing system, in FY 1995, 90.2 percent of water costs for household use and, in principle, 100 percent for operation and management in agricultural use, were recovered. In addition, the Government provides subsidies for good industrial water suppliers in order to supply enough water at low cost for industrial use. The Government also subsidizes water resource development and small-scale waterworks construction to support the future development of water resources for municipalities.

In order to prevent pollution of freshwater supplies, the Government is enforcing strict regulation of effluent from industries and public sectors according to their types and sizes and promoting the construction of sewage treatment facilities for household waste water. In addition, plans for the conservation of lake water quality for selected lakes have been established including such measures as dredging contaminated sediment. Construction of dams and water treatment plants are considered as measures to augment freshwater supplies.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The National Integrated Water Resources Plan (Water Plan 2000) has been formulated as a guideline for development, conservation and usage of water resources, and is to be revised soon. In addition, Land Improvement Projects are implemented based on the policy that agricultural land and water should be managed together.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

There are a number of mechanisms to provide for participation of all major stakeholders in the decision-making process. These include:

  • Under the Environmental Impact Assessment Law, parties concerned may submit their opinions to the specific water resource development such as dam construction.
  • Under the River Act amended in June 1997, opinion of local government and the regional people is reflected in River Management Plan.
  • Irrigation projects can be implemented only after 1)they are requested by representatives of farmers, 2)they are agreed on by most of participating farmers, and 3)project planning goes through public notification process required by the Land Improvement Law, in which all people concerned about the project can have opportunities to comment.

Conflict resolution is managed through various mechanisms. Water utilization is adjusted within Land Improvement Districts among farmers and through Conference of Drought among sectors and according to the River Act and Specified-Multipurpose Dam Act. Under the Forest Law, municipalities in upstream areas can request those in the downstream areas to conclude an agreement to enhance and conserve headwater forests collaboratively. The law also provides municipalities for seeking Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries initiative to mediate between related municipalities in concluding such agreements.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

The precipitation in Japan greatly differs from year to year, season to season, and region to region, with floods and water shortages occurring in many areas. It is expected that the demand for water will continue to increase. At the same time, the time needed for construction of dams and other water resource infrastructure tends to be prolonged, and there are problems of over-pumping of ground water. Conserving the quality of drinking water is also a growing challenge. In March 1995, the distribution coverage of waterworks in Japan nationwide was 95.5% of the population.

Land improvement districts manage irrigation based on the principle of participatory irrigation management to ensure efficiency and equity in allocating water. Efficient use of river waters is facilitated by the river system administrator of the Ministry of Construction whose permission must be obtained for using river water.

Industry is not a main user of freshwater. Its consumption accounts for about 16.5% (FY1994) of total usage of fresh water, but it is one of the major sources of organic pollution.

With regard to the involvement of the private sector in water management it should be noted that for agricultural use, water allocation and recovery of cost have been managed by Land Improvement Districts composed of farmers in the respective areas. The role of the Government is therefore very limited On the other hand, for industrial use, the majority of industrial water is supplied by local government, as is 99.5% of the drinking water supply. The rest is supplied by the union composed of residents in each area.

With regard to disaster preparedness, rivers are so maintained as to endure large floods which may take place once every 100-200 years for big rivers, and every 30-100 years for small rivers. Water resource development measures, including desalination, are so designed as to endure the severe drought which may take place once every 10 years. Besides, there is a national subsidy for municipal waterworks bodies that construct emergency, connecting pipes among municipalities and water storage tanks, and enlarge distribution ponds. In addition, measures are taken to enhance flood and drought prevention functions of forests which level off the flow of water into rivers. Such measures include enhancement and conservation of Protected Forests designated for headwater conservation, regulation of development activities in forests, and promotion of forest conservation works in devastated forest areas.

Challenges

The major constraint faced in the area of water resources development in Japan has to do with the increasing difficulty in finding suitable areas for dam construction. With regard to the household water supply, technical and financial problems for the small water supplier need to be resolved to cope with increased demand for safe drinking water supply.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

There are many programs and campaigns for educating the public about issues of water conservation and management such as the following:

  • National Water Day(Aug.1st), National Water Week (around Aug.1st): campaigns such as composition contest, concert and photograph contest are performed.
  • Selected 100 exquisite waters: the Environment Agency selected 100 exquisite waters from all over Japan to raise public awareness of the importance of conservation of waters and waterside.
  • The Forum on the Water Environment: the Environment Agency organizes annually the symposium entitled "The Forum on the Water Environment" to raise public awareness.
  • Monthly event such as "River conservation Month" (July), "Seashore conservation Month" (July) and "Ten- days for Forest and Lake" (last ten days of July)

Information 

With regard to information on water resource management, the Environment Agency collects and publishes the data on water quality, the National Land Agency collects and publishes the data on the state of water resource development and the Ministry of Construction collects various data such as precipitation, water level, water quality and water amount in dams, and sends them promptly to local government and other related organizations. The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery collects the information on the amount of water supplied from big dams for agricultural use. The Ministry of Health and Welfare collects the data on the drinking water supply directly or through prefectures. Municipalities manage information on their own waterworks such as water demand/supply, monitoring and management of water quality, and cost. The Ministry of International Trade and Industry collects data on the state of water supply for industrial use.

The Environment Agency distributes the data it collects through the "Report of Water Quality in Public Water Area". The National Land Agency distributes its data through "Water Resources in Japan". The Ministry of Construction sends data such as precipitation and water level through Foundation of River and Basin Integrated Communications, Japan (FRICS). The Ministry of Health and Welfare, Japan Water Research Center and Japan Water Works Association provide the data upon request. The Japan Industrial Water Association distributes water data through its newsletter. The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries analyzes data on almost all dams for agricultural use such as real time reservoir capacities and then sends the information through FAX. The information is available electronically, but the data format is not standardized. Some data can be obtained through the Internet.

Research and Technologies 

In Japan, 53 million m3 waste water can be treated in a day. Sixty-two percent of sewerage was treated in Japan in FY 1996. Statistics are not collected for urban sewerage separately. The targets established for coverage of water supply and sanitation is 99% in the 21st century and, for sanitation coverage, 80% in FY 2002. The technological needs for waste water treatment include the establishment of advanced sewage treatment technology including denitrification and dephosphorization and of low-cost and multi-purpose waste water treatment technology for small enterprises. For water purification, the needs include the establishment of advanced water treatment technology to cope with recent water pollution problems including criptsporijium and triholomethanes.

One hundred percent of drinking water (16,500 mil m3 /year in FY1995) is treated before use in Japan. Of this, some 3,400mil m3 is chlorinated without sedimentation, coagulation or filtration. In addition to conventional purification, processes such as activated carbon absorption, ozonization, and biological treatment are being introduced in order to remove oder and taste.

Financing 

The estimated cost for achieving universal coverage of water supply for household use is 1900 billion yen per year; For sanitation, it is 23.8 trillion yen to increase the coverage of the sewage treatment plant from 54% to 66%. All costs for water resource management and development are covered domestically.

Cooperation

Japan provides assistance to developing countries to improve the water supply and sanitation systems. Such projects account for a majority of environmental ODA by the Japanese government 8.2% of total ODA (FY1995) (111,894 million yen.

 

 

* * *

This information is based on Japan's submission to the 5th & 6th Sessions of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997 & 1998. Last update: 2 March 1998.

For information on Freshwater in Japan's Agenda 21, click here.
To link to Japan's Water Works Association, click here

| Japan | All Countries | Home |



LAND MANAGEMENT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Forestry Agency is primarily responsible for this sector and is a member of the National Coordination Mechanism for Sustainable Development. The National Land Agency coordinates basic policies and programs relating to the use of national land among ministries and agencies.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The basic concept of national land use is designated in the National Land Use Planning Act. In this law, the following is stipulated:

"To manage national land properly, it is necessary to change policies of national land use to be more integral. The basic concept underlying national land use is to secure a living environment which is healthy and culturally-enriched and to promote the well-balanced development of national land."

The City Planning Law states that city development should be in harmony with agriculture, forestry and fisheries. A system to designate Urbanization Promotion Areas and Urbanization Control Areas has been established in order to coordinate agricultural and non-agricultural land uses in urban areas.

Pursuant to the Water Pollution Control Law and the Law Concerning Special Measures for Conservation of Lake Water Quality, national and local governments are taking pollution control measures for discharges from industrial facilities, in order to meet environmental quality standards set for protecting both human health and aquatic life. For the rivers and lakes in densely populated areas in particular, additional measures have been taken to reduce excessive nutrients resulting from domestic sewage.

In order to obtain permission for installation of waste disposal facilities, the Waste Management and Public Cleansing Law requires due consideration for the protection of the living environment of the surrounding communities.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Japan has established the Comprehensive National Development Plan under the Comprehensive National Land Development Act and the National Land Use Plan under the National Land Use Planning Act. The comprehensive National Development Plan is a framework plan for the use, development and conservation of the land of Japan. It defines the long-term directions for the construction of infrastructure. The National Land Use Plan provides the basic framework for all other national plans relating to the use of national land as well as serves as an umbrella plan for prefectural and municipal plans. It also sets comprehensive and long-term guidelines concerning land use.

Japan's new Comprehensive National Development Plan entitled "the Grand Design for the 21st Century" was created in March 1998. The new plan points out that depopulation and aging have advanced noticeably resulting in difficulties in keeping communities running smoothly. These threaten the safety and security of people's livelihood, because farmland and forests, which form a large part of the country, are not appropriately managed.

The new plan sets "the enjoyment and nourishing of the blessings of nature" as one of the fundamental objectives. It states that Japan should tackle the issues of land management while recognizing the limited environmental capacity and resources. The blessings of nature should therefore be enjoyed in a sustainable manner and nourished for future generations.

The Third National Land Use Plan was formulated in February 1996 for the purpose of ensuring the following concerning national land use: (i) safety and security , (ii) sustainability and coexisttence with nature , and (iii) beauty and comfort. Various measures to achieve these aims have been promoted. In essence, the National Land Use Plan is intended to ensure the balanced use of national land over the long term while giving priority to public welfare and the conservation of the natural environment. For example, the Plan stipulates that in rural villages where farmland and residential land mingle, it is desirable to promote systematic and appropriate land use, taking into account specific local situation. Other specific aims of the Third National Land Use Plan include the following:

Food security

The Plan is aimed at the procurement and maintenance of necessary farmland in attempting to preserve and improve agricultural productivity, taking into consideration trends in both domestic and global food supply and demand.

Rural development

The Third National Land Use Plan is aimed at the creation of healthy local communities as well as better management of living environments in line with the characteristics of each local community. Moreover, its additional aim is to assure the development of agricultural, forestry and fishery industries in accordance with various domestic needs and the promotion of indigenous industries. Introduction of various new industries should taken into consideration the characteristics of each local community while providing new working opportunities which are created in response to the increased demand for leisure.

Viability of rural areas

The Third National Land Use Plan is aimed at the procurement, overhaul and better management of well-suited farmland and forest in agricultural, forestry and fishing villages while attempting to preserve and create scenery which holds significance as secondary nature. The Plan also aims at activation of local communities through the promotion of exchanges between cities and the comprehensive utilization of local resources and the like.

Environmental aspects

The Third National Land Use Plan ensures that various functions of farmland are fully demonstrated through ongoing well management, while aiming at the betterment of agricultural productivity and, at the same time, the diminishment of environmental risks.

Social aspects

The Third National Land Use Plan is aimed at promotion of better understanding of national land among citizens through the promotion of research on national land use and displays of and dissemination of their results.

Comparing the present Third Plan with the former Plans, nature conservation areas have been added as a category of region. As the basic policy for national land use in this area, it has been determined in the plan that valuable primeval natural environment areas, areas important for wild plants and animals to inhabit, and the like will be conserved. It is also determined that as for water area, various functions such as the function of water quality improvement will be conserved, paying attention to the conservation of the environment. Forest land will be secured and improved so as to establish sustainable timber production management and to perform comprehensively public welfare functions.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

The National Land Use Plan comprises the National Plan, Prefectural Plans and Municipal Plans. Prefectural Plans, which are based upon the National Plan, are decided by the prefectural governor. Municipal Plans, which are based upon the Prefectural Plan relevant for each municipality, are decided by the mayor of the municipality. When the Prime Minister decides the National Plan, he is expected to consider the opinions of prefectural governors. When the prefectural governor decides the Prefectural Plan, he is expected to consider the opinions of mayors of municipalities.

The National Land Use Planning Act stipulates whenever a municipal government decides on a municipal plan, a municipal government shall take in advance the necessary measures to reflect fully the intentions of its residents.

Programmes and Projects 

Various global research programs on climate, climate change and El NiÁ o events have been promoted in Japan including international joint research programs. Though the regional impacts of ENSO on the Far East including Japan are being studied, the assessment of impacts has yet to be clarified due to the complexities and uncertainties of the various regional features. At present, research relating to possible impacts of ENSO and integrated land management planning is limited. The need for such research has been identified and we expect to see an increase in land management planning-related research in the near future.

Status 

"Grand Design for the 21st Century" points out that given the need for clarification of the philosophy of national land planning and for diverse reforms including decentralization and other administrative reforms, it is necessary to establish a new national land planning system. Thus the National Land Development Council has been researching an ideal system, and will develop views in this regard by the autumn of 2000.

In order to go beyond the current achievements of the National Land Use Plan, research is to be carried out on the present state of national land use and in particular comprehensive support is provided to municipalities with regard to the drawing up of and revising of municipal plans.

Under the "Protected Forest System", forests with high potential of functions for the public benefit are designated as protected forest by the Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries or a prefectural governor. The transfer of the protected forest to other uses is restricted under the System in such a way that:

When private-owned forest exceeding one hectare is transformed to other uses, the permission of a prefectural governor is required.

As the result of the above-mentioned regulations, the area of Japanese forest land remains stably around 25 million hectares.

In the present Third Plan, forest land area is expected to remain about the same through efforts to conserve national land and the natural environment. However, there is the possibility of forest land decreasing as a result of conversion to residential lands in the three metropolitan areas and conversion to agricultural and residential lands in other areas.

Japan recognizes the importance of trying to conserve or restore attractive rural areas, forests, rivers and coasts, building up a network of nature areas around the country from the perspective of securing biological diversity. The relationship between human activities and the natural environment is also important.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

To implement the "Grand Design for the 21st Century," the government organized a liaison conference for promotion by the government offices concerned and promotes the Plan at all levels of government.

Information 

The Global Map, which consists of geographical digital data such as land use, vegetation, transportation, and elevation, will be prepared by national mapping organizations in over 60 countries to conserve global environment under the arrangement by the International Steering Committee for Global Mapping. The Japanese segment of the Global Map, "Global Map, Japan" is available to the public, although not yet in its final form. The Global Map will be distributed world-wide at marginal cost.

The Geographical Survey Institute of Japan receives remote sensing data every day to monitor the state of national land. Every month it produces Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images in graphic formfrom the data it receives. The NDVI images are accessible at: http://www1.gsi-mc.go.jp/ch3www/EODAS/ndvi-download_e.html

The Environment Agency has been developing an integrated assessment methodology of ambient water environments, using aquatic organisms as indicators in addition to qualitative and quantitative indices as described in the Basic Environment Plan.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

Internationally, within the framework of its bilateral or multilateral initiatives, the Japanese Government has been involved in the intergovernmental Man and the Biosphere project of UNESCO, under which the effects of human activities and land-use on the eco-system were studied.

 

 

* * *

This information is based on Japan's submission to the 5th and 8th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: November 1999.

For information on Land Management in Japan's Agenda 21, click here.

| Japan | All Countries | Home|



MOUNTAINS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

With respect to mountain areas, the Environment Agency, the Nature Conservation Bureau and the Forest Agency are the institutions primarily responsible for sustainable development. Related land use plans and surveys include: The National Land Use Planning Act (25 June 1974); Basic Plan for Forest Resources (24 July 1987); Nation-wide Forest Plan (9 August 1991); Wilderness Areas and Nature Conservation Areas; Protection of Forests; Protected Forests of National Forests; Natural Parks; Protection Areas for Birds and Mammals; Natural Habitats Conservation Areas; and National Survey on the Natural Environment. These plans and surveys do not specifically cover mountain areas They are closely related, however, because a large portion of the land of Japan consists of mountains, much of which are covered by forests. Consequently, much of the discussion included on forests, is also relevant here.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The national legislation directly related to mountain areas consists of the following specific laws and acts: The Mountainous Villages Development Act; Forest Law; Forestry Basic Law; Natural Parks Law; Nature Conservation Law; Wildlife Protection and Hunting Law; Law for the Conservation of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora; and Sabo Law (erosion control law).

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

Given the superb ecosystems in mountain areas, Japan is studying the adoption of eco-tourism which will both conserve the ecosystems and promote a positive economic spillover to regional communities. Japan is also establishing recreational forests within National Forests in the mountains and promote their use for the recuperation of health. "Eco-roads" are being built in the mountains to provide sufficient roads in harmony with the environment. Floods, avalanches, landslides and earthquakes are serious problems for Japan. The number of hazardous spots of mountainous disasters due to slope failure, landslide, debris flow and land creep increased from 131,000 in 1978, to 205,000 in 1992. Japan carries out continuous surveys and research on mountain areas in order to manage and conserve the various ecosystems.

Those forests which are particularly expected to maintain their functions, such as headwater conservation and soil run-off prevention, are designated as Protection Forests. On these forests, limited tree cutting, restriction of land exploitation and obligatory tree replanting after cutting are imposed.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information is based on Japan's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

For information on mountains in Japan's Agenda 21, click here.

| Japan | All Countries | Home |



OCEANS AND COASTAL AREAS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Decision-making for issues related to integrated coastal zone management and sustainable development, including environmental impacts of activities affecting the coastal and marine areas, is the responsibility of the following organizations:

  • Environment Agency
  • Science and Technology Agency
  • National Land Agency
  • Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
  • Ministry of Transport
  • Ministry of Construction

For marine environmental protection, decision-making is undertaken as follows:

1. Coastal sewage

  • Environment Agency
  • Ministry of Health and Welfare
  • Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries
  • Ministry of Construction

2. Agricultural waste and industrial effluents

  • Environment Agency
  • Ministry of Health and Welfare
  • Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries
  • Ministry of International Trade and Industry
  • Ministry of Construction

3. Discharges of ballast from ship

  • Environment Agency
  • Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
  • Ministry of Transport

4. Oil spills

  • Environment Agency
  • Science and Technology Agency
  • Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries
  • Ministry of International Trade and Industry
  • Ministry of Transport
  • Maritime Safety Agency
  • Ministry of Construction

For sustainable use and conservation of marine living resources, the following are responsible for decision-making:

  • Environment Agency
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  • Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
  • Ministry of Construction

Overall coordination is provided through the Council of Ministers for Global Environment Conservation and the Conference on Environmental Pollution Control, both chaired by the Prime Minister, which have been established within the Government for decision-making of basic policies for environment conservation including marine environment conservation.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Legislation, regulations, and other standards or guidelines that have been developed in this area include the following:

Foir integrated coastal zone management and sustainable development, including environmental impacts of activities affecting the coastal and marine areas.

  1. The Basic Environment Law (1993)
  2. Law Concerning Special Measures for Conservation of the Environment of the Seto Inland Sea (1983)
  3. Natural Parks Law (1957)
  4. Nature Conservation Law (1972)
  5. Seacoast Law (1956)
  6. Environmental Quality Standards related to the conservation of the living environment on coastal waters (1971) under the provisions of the Basic Environment Law
  7. Tentative guideline(1990) under the provisions of the 4th Comprehensive National Development Plan(1987)

For marine environmental protection, both from land-based activities and from sea-based activities:

  1. Basic Environment Law (1993)
  2. Law Relating to the Prevention of Marine Pollution and Maritime Disaster (1970)*
  3. Water Pollution Control Law (1970)
  4. Environmental Impact Assessment Law (1997)
  5. The Law Concerning the Examination and Regulation of Manufacture, etc. of Chemical Substances (1968)
  6. Agricultural Chemicals Regulation Law (1948)
  7. Sewerage Law (1958)
  8. "Johkasou" Law (1983)
  9. Waste Management and Public Cleansing Law (1970)
  10. Nature Conservation Law (1972)
  11. Natural Parks Law (1957)
  12. Law for the Conservation of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (1992)
  13. River Law (1964)
  14. Law Concerning Special Measures for Conservation of the Environment of the Seto Inland Sea (1983)
  15. Fishery Resources Protection Law (1951)
  16. Mine Safety Law (1949)

*One of the purposes of the law is to implement the following international conventions. Stipulations of those conventions are reflected in the articles.

  1. International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973 as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto
  2. Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter
  3. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

For sustainable use and conservation of marine living resources:

  1. Nature Conservation Law (1972)
  2. Natural Parks Law (1957)
  3. Wildlife Protection and Hunting Law (1918)
  4. Law for the Conservation of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (1992)
  5. Fisheries Law (1949)
  6. Fishery Resources Protection Law (1951)
  7. Law concerning Conservation and Management of Marine Living Resources (1996)
  8. Law concerning the Exercise of Sovereign Rights concerning Fisheries in the Exclusive Economic Zone (1996)**
  9. Law for Regulation of Fishing Operations by Foreign National (1967)**
  10. Coastal Fisheries Grounds Enhancement and Development Program Law
  11. Marine Fisheries Development Promotion Law (1971)
  12. Tentative guidelines for development of prefectural comprehensive seashore-utilization plan (1990)

**The measures based on these laws aim to ensure the obligations stipulated by the UNCLOS, to avoid deterioration of marine living resources and to avoid detrimental effects on Japan's maritime fishermen under the circumstances that depreciation of marine living resources is widely observed in Japan's coastal fishing areas.

Environmental Quality Standards on coastal waters mentioned above are established by the Government as an administrative goal. Various measures including regulations shall be taken to achieve these standards. The tentative guideline referred to above was decided by sixteen ministries and agencies concerned. They are voluntary. With respect to marine living resources, the voluntary regulation measure by the local fishermen's organization is ordinarily performed besides the legal regulation by the Government or the local authority.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Japan has adopted a number of policies and plans that relate to the various issues of relevance to oceans and seas. These are as follows:

For integrated coastal zone management and sustainable development:

  1. The Basic Environment Plan under the provisions of the Basic Environment Law
  2. Basic Policy for Reclamation under provisions of the Law Concerning Special Measures for Conservation of the Environment of the Seto Inland Sea
  3. National Strategy on Biological Diversity
  4. Comprehensive National Development Plan under the provisions of the National Land Comprehensive Development Law
  5. Long-term Port Policy of Japan
  6. Long-term Coast Protection Policy of Japan
  7. Seven-year Program for Coastal Protection and Management

For marine environmental protection, both from land-based activities and from sea-based activities:

  1. The Basic Environment Plan
  2. Basic Policy for Areawide Total Pollution Load Control and Areawide Total Pollutant Load Reduction Plan under the provisions of the Water Pollution Control Law (for land-based activities)
  3. Basic Plan for the Conservation of the Environment of the Seto Inland Sea under the provision of the Law Concerning Special Measures for Conservation of the Environment of the Seto Inland Sea (for land-based and sea-based activities)
  4. National Contingency Plan (for oil spills)
  5. National Strategy on Biological Diversity

For sustainable use and conservation of marine living resources:

  1. National Strategy on Biological Diversity
  2. Basic Plan for Conservation and Management of Marine Living Resources
  3. Basic Policy for Development and Rational Use of Marine Fishery Resources

For the preservation and sustainable use of fragile ecosystems:

  1. Basic Policy on Conservation of the Natural Environment under the provisions of the Nature Conservation Law, and
  2. Natural Park Plan under the provisions of the Natural Parks Law

The following plans have also been established:

  1. Basic Policy for Areawide Total Pollutant Load Control and Areawide Total Pollutant Load Reduction Plan
  2. Basic Plan for the Conservation of the Environment of the Seto Inland Sea
  3. Comprehensive National Development Plan
  4. Coastal Fishing-ground Enhancement Development Plan
  5. The 9th Seven-year Fiscal Plan for Ports and Harbors
  6. The 6th Seven-year Fiscal Plan for Coastal Protection
  7. Coastal Environmental Program and Coastal Protection Program under the Seacoast Law

In addition to the above plans and programmes, various measures have taken in Japan.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

The councils have been established as an advisory body for the ministers concerned, based on the wide public opinion in the process of deciding national policies. These councils are composed of members who have various backgrounds and experiences, including scholars, businessmen, officials of quasi-government organizations and so on. The councils conduct surveys to obtain public opinions, when necessary. The result of the council's deliberation is submitted to the minister concerned, and would be considered in the development of national policy. The Central Environment Council and the like are established for environmental conservation. The Council for Ocean Development was established for survey and deliberation of basic and comprehensive matters concerning marine development.

Programmes and Projects 

Among the major projects and activities underway or planned to address the relevant issues cited above, are the following:

  • Research and development on environmental restoration/mitigation technology such as artificial seaweed beds and artificial
  • tidal flats
  • Development of a regional master plan based on a basic concept to promote maintenance and restoration of fishing ground and marine environment with due consideration on marine ecosystem ("MARINE-ECOTOPIA 21")
  • Water pollution control project to conserve and improve coastal waters by removing contaminated sludge
  • Coastal environmental project to restore beautiful coastal landscape with white sand and forest
  • Eco-coast project to conserve coastal ecosystem of littoral fauna and flora and to protect shorelines
  • Participation in the International Coral Reef Initiative and promotion of activities related to the conservation of coral reef in Japan including the establishment of the International Coral Reef Research and Monitoring Center in Okinaw.

Status 

As one of the developed marine states, Japan has contributed much to the conservation of the seashore areas, marine environment, marine living resources, and improvements of sewage systems.

The major current uses of the coastal areas are for major population centers, fishing, leisure, industrial zone including location of electric power plants, reclamation site. The price of total catch by Japanese fishing vessels (coastal and in high seas) comes to about 2.2 trillion yen (0.5% of GNP, 0.43% of GDP).

There is a tendency that the catching effort becomes superfluous compared with the estimated allowable catch amount of marine living resources. The control over catching effort has been implemented in accordance with related laws and regulations, such as a licensing system and restriction on fishing-gear and fishing method. Furthermore, restriction on the amount of catches has been introduced for the primary fishery resources by employing TAC system.

The impact of shipping on the sustainable management of coastal zones includes the following:

  • Pollution caused by illegal dumping of oil, wastes, etc. from ships
  • Pollution of and influence on coastal ecology caused by oil spill incident, solution of harmful anti-fouling paints in to the sea
  • Air pollution by emission of exhaust gas from ships
  • Competitive use of coastal zones by fisheries (fishing operation, aquaculture, etc.) and ship navigation

The impact of other coastal- and marine-based industries (including tourism) on sustainable development of coastal areas is as follows:

  • Disappearance of natural coastline: As a result of reclamation along the coast of the Seto Inland Sea, one-half of the
  • coastline of the Seto Inland Sea has become artificial, most of which is in the form of vertical seawall.
  • Competitive use of coastal area: With the recent expansion of tourism and the marine leisure industry to the coastal areas, competitive use of coastal area by fishery and marine leisure industries has emerged. An investigation shows that the amount of catches attained by omnibus recreational fishing boats alone is about 30,000t (about 2% of that of coastal fishery industry).
  • Disappearance of habitat of marine organisms: Coastal reclamation results in the loss of habitat of marine organisms, which may cause adverse effect on marine living resources.

The major land-based sources of marine pollution are liquid or solid wastes from household, industry, and other human activities. In addition, illegal dumping, accidental spills of oil or chemical substances, and natural disasters may cause water pollution. According to the recent statistics on the COD load into sea areas, the contribution of each sector is as follows:

  Household Industry Other activities
Tokyo Bay 68.9 % 20.6 % 10.5 %
Ise Bay 54.5 % 33.7 % 11.8 %
Seto Inland Sea 48.9 % 41.4 % 9.7 %

(FY1994)

Challenges

When newly introducing a Total Allowable Catch (TAC) system in 1997 based on the Law concerning Conservation and Management of Marine Living Resources, the following potential problems were raised in relation to the sustainable use and the conservation of marine living resources:

  • Enhancement of a research organization which undertakes research activities needed in the determination of TAC;
  • Distribution method of TAC, especially among the fishermen using different fishing methods;
  • Construction of a system for obtaining quick and exact catch information; and
  • Anxiety of occurrence of fish abandonment and its prevention.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

A meeting of public officials has been organized aiming at enhancing consciousness and knowledge to realize "fishery based on a rational resource management system." Participants of the meeting exchange information and views on continuous use and the conservation of marine living resources. In addition, meetings aimed at training core groups of fishermen are held to exchange information and experiences about "fishery based on rational resource management system".

The meetings, fora, etc., are organized to raise awareness among public officers concerned and persons engaged in fishery industry about sustainable use and the conservation of marine living resources. Moreover, activity to disseminate knowledge by the government, the fisheries organizations, etc. is widely performed for the general public. Every year, the month of June is observed as the "Seto Inland Sea Environmental Conservation Month" to disseminate knowledge and raise awareness about environmental issues of the Seto Inland Sea.

An environmentally-friendly programme around the coastal zone is performed with public participation to enhance understanding of the importance of seacoast as natural heritage . The Japan Pavilion at the Marine Expo '98 in Lisbon was exhibited. And the director-level meeting of national and local governments is held every year to discuss policies and to exchange information on oceans and sea.

Information 

The following kinds of national information are available to assist both decision-makers and planners working in coastal areas:

Of relevance to sustainable management of fishery resources:

  • Annual report on fishery industry and the culture production statistics
  • Annual report on marine-product circulation statistics
  • Research report of Regional Fisheries Research Laboratories
  • Reports of various survey or researches undertaken
  • TAC-related information

Of relevance to marine pollution:

1. The Environment Agency has the following information:

  • Data on the distributions of tidal flats, seaweed beds and coral reefs, and present state of natural environment along coast lines (Biodiversity Center of Japan, Nature Conservation Bureau);
  • Data on dissolved oxygen and nutrient salts in the ocean (Water Quality Bureau); and
  • Data of the salinity and chlorophyll in the ocean (Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmenta Studies).

2. The Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture has the following information:

  • CTD (conductivity, temperature and depth) data (Faculty of Fisheries, Hokkaido University);
  • Atmospheric data during cruises, data of CTD and the dissolved oxygen (Ocean Research Institute, the University of Tokyo);
  • Data of sea waves (Tokyo University of Mercantile Marine);
  • Data of sea waves and data of the speed and direction of the wind (Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University);
  • Data of the plankton density and species (Faculty of Applied Biological Science, Hiroshima University);
  • Current data (Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University); and
  • Temperature data and current data (Faculty of Fisheries, Kagoshima University).

3. The Japan Oceanographic Data Center (JODC), Japanese Maritime Safety Agency, collects oceanographic observation data from many national institutions to manage them.

4. The Japan Meteorological Agency owns oceanographic observation data and background marine pollution observation data by research vessels, and collects marine meteorological data from many merchant ships by the Marine Meteorological Logbook to manage them.

5. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has been developing the satellite observing technology and obtained data of the land uses, the land geology, the sea surface temperature and chlorophyll concentration, the marine productivity and the others (the population, etc.).

6. The Japan Marine Science and Technology Center has been observing with vessels and buoys to get data of temperature, current and so on.

Of relevance to living resources other than fish:

The Biodiversity Center of Japan of the Environment Agency provides information on natural environment and biodiversity of Japan including the results of the National Survey on the Natural Environment through the Japan Integrated Biodiversity Information System (J-IBIS). Available information related to coastal areas is, for example, on distribution of shallow water areas, modification of the extent of the coast line and biota of these areas among others.

Of relevance to critical uncertainties:

Various global research programs on climate, climate change and El Niño events have been promoted in Japan including international joint research programs. The Japanese government provides the information such as Climate Change Monitoring Report, Global Warming Projection, Monthly Report on Climate System, Report on Recent Climate Change in the World, El Niño Monitoring Report, and coastal management statistics with users in and outside Japan.

Other, basic information includes that collected and processed by the Numerical National Land Information the National Land Agency on coastal zone data.

A study on comprehensive environmental indicators, including those related to oceans and seas is in progress.

Research and Technologies 

Research and development of environmentally-sound technology is carried out by government research institutes, universities and the business sector. The followings are some examples of the results of recent R&D activities.

  • energy-saving and resources protection type fishing gear and method;
  • turbine engine with low-NOx emission;
  • oil recovery systems practical in rough seas; and
  • offshore floating wave power device

When selecting a technology, the following attributes are considered:

  • effectiveness in abatement of environment pollution,
  • ecologically sound,
  • cost-effective,
  • safe, and
  • convenient for wider use.

Financing 

This sector (oceans and seas) is financed by the national budget, fiscal investment and loansthrough various government-affiliated financial institutions and the tax system.

Cooperation

Japan signed the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea on 7 February 1983 and ratified it on 20 June 1996.

Examples of international agreements related to (a) integrated coastal zone management and sustainable development, (b) marine environmental protection and (c) sustainable use and conservation of marine living resources, to which Japan is a Party, include the following:

  1. Protocol of 1978 Relating to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973
  2. International Convention Relating to Intervention on the High Seas in Cases of Oil Pollution Casualties
  3. Protocol of 1992 to Amend the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage, 1969
  4. Protocol of 1992 to Amend the International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage, 1971
  5. Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims, 1976
  6. Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter
  7. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
  8. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
  9. Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat
  10. Protocol to Amend the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat
  11. Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage
  12. International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation, 1990
  13. Convention on Biological Diversity
  14. International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling
  15. International Convention for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas
  16. Convention for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna
  17. Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources
  18. Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals
  19. Convention on Future Multilateral Cooperation in the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries
  20. Convention between the United States of America and the Republic of Costa Rica for the Establishment of an Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission
  21. Convention on the Conservation and Management of Pollock Resources in the Central Bering Sea
  22. Agreement for the Establishment of the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission

Examples of other related agreements, particularly regional or bilateral and sea-specific agreements, to which Japan is a Party, include:

  1. Agreement of the Commission for General Fisheries Council for the Mediterranean
  2. Agreement for Establishment of the Asia-Pacific Fishery Commission
  3. Agreement Establishing the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Centre
  4. Agreement between the Government of Japan and the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Concerning Mutual Relations in the Field of Fisheries off Their Coasts
  5. Agreement between the Government of Japan and the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Concerning Cooperation in the Field of Fisheries
  6. Agreement of Fisheries between the Government of Japan and the Government of Canada
  7. Agreement on Fisheries between Japan and the People's Republic of China
  8. Agreement on Fisheries between Japan and the Republic of Korea
  9. Agreement between the Government of Japan and the Government of the Gilbert Islands Concerning Fisheries off the Coasts of the Gilbert Islands
  10. Agreement on Fisheries between the Government of Japan and the Government of Solomon Islands
  11. Agreement between the Government of Japan and the Government of the Marshall Islands Concerning Fisheries off the Coasts of the Marshall Islands
  12. Agreement on Fisheries between the Government of Japan and the Government of Tuvalu
  13. Exchange of Note on Fisheries between the Government of Japan and the Government of French Republic
  14. Agreement of Fisheries between the Government of Japan and the Government of the Republic of South Africa
  15. Agreement on Fisheries between the Government of Japan and the Government of Australia
  16. Agreement on Marine Fisheries between the Government of Japan and the Government of the Kingdom of Morocco
  17. Agreement on Fisheries between the Government of Japan and the Government of Republic of Senegal
  18. Convention for a North Pacific Marine Science Organization
  19. Convention for the Conservation of Anadromous Stocks in the North Pacific Ocean

Other bilateral, multilateral and international cooperation in which Japan participates in order to further activities related to (a) integrated coastal zone management and sustainable development, (b) marine environmental protection and (c) sustainable use and conservation of marine living resources include:

  1. International Coral Reef Initiative
  2. Although the Japanese Government is not involved, some private fishery agreements are concluded between the Japanese fishermen's organization and the government of other country in the Pacific, Africa or elsewhere.
  3. Action Plan for the Protection, Management and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the Northwest Pacific Region
  4. Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities
  5. Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries 

 

* * *

This information is based on Japan's submission to the 5th and 7th Sessions of the Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: November 1998.

For information on Oceans and Coastal Areas in Japan's Agenda 21, click here.
To access the Web Site of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, click here:

| Japan | All Countries | Home |

 

TOXIC CHEMICALS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The Basic Environment Law, Air Pollution Control Law and Water Pollution Control Law all control the discharge of chemicals into the environment. In May 1996, Japan amended the Air Pollution Control Law for the purpose of preventing human health damage caused by long-term exposure to hazardous air pollutants. The Agricultural Chemicals Regulation Law prohibits the sale of unregistered agricultural chemicals. Standards have also been developed for the registration of agricultural chemicals with respect to their residue in crops and water pollution. Japan conducts systematic environmental surveys and monitoring to measure the state of chemical residue in the environment, and acts accordingly.

Toxic chemicals are classified and labeled in Japan in accordance with such laws as the Law concerning the Examination and Regulation of Manufacture of Chemical Substances, the Poisonous and Deleterious Substances Control Law and Industrial Safety and Health Law. Under these Laws, Japan conducts examination of safety-related measures, including the potential for biodegradability, bioaccumulation, and the toxicity of chemicals. Based on its findings, it regulates the manufacture, import and use of such chemicals. Japan also supports worldwide harmonization in the classification and labeling of dangerous and toxic chemicals. Japan prohibits the sales of unregistered agricultural chemicals, and has established basic management procedures for the import, use, and export of chemicals.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Pursuant to OECD regulations, Japan has had a Plan of Action since 1991 for mutual checking of the safety of existing chemicals of a high production volume (HPV) (10,000 tons or more for manufactured chemicals, or 1,000 tons or more for chemicals manufactured in two or more countries). Through the International Program on Chemical Safety (IPCS) of UNEP, ILO, WHO and FAO, Japan participates in activities for chemical risk management. In connection with the International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC), it cooperates in collecting information and in conducting research on chemicals.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

Local authorities and business groups are involved in the decision-making and implementation of activities in this area. Japan has followed the Agenda 21 recommendations, is implementing obligations referring to chemicals and participates in a number of international programmes in this area. Japanese industries started voluntary emission control measures of some hazardous air pollutants with a pledge and review system.

Programmes and Projects 

Based on the recommendation in February 1996 by OECD on the introduction of the PRTR system, the implementation of the Pilot Project in local areas in 1997 is under discussion. The Japan Chemical Industries Association started to implement the pollutants release survey through "Responsible Care".

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

Japan participates in related programmes of the OECD, in the International Program on Chemical Safety (IPCS) of UNEP, ILO, WHO and FAO, and in the International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC). It supports the London Guidelines for the Exchange of Information on Chemicals in International Trade as well as the extension of the Guidelines to require the prior informed consent (PIC) procedure. In conformity with the London Guidelines, Japan has amended the Export Trade Control Order to establish a system for management of exports of toxic chemicals which are prohibited or strictly restricted in Japan or internationally.

 

 

* * *

This information is based on Japan's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

For information on Toxic Chemicals in Japan's Agenda 21, click here.

| Japan | All Countries | Home |



WASTE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Solid Wastes and Sanitation

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

In 1991 a Council for the Promotion of Recycling was established to bring together industrial and consumer organizations in this field.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The disposal of waste is conducted in accordance with the Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law. In September 1992, in order to promote the reduction of waste, a National Conference for the Promotion of the Reduction in the Amount of Garbage was established. Also relevant are the October 1991, Law for Promotion of Utilization of Recyclable Resources, the Law on Temporary Measures to Promote Business Activities for the Rational Use of Energy and the Utilization of Recycling Resources, and the amended 1991 Waste Management Law. The 1990 Guidelines that were developed from the report of the Subcommittee for Industrial Structure on measures to address waste disposal and recycling of resources are applied and reviewed on an annual basis.

In 1995, "the Law for the Promotion of Sorted Collection, and Recycling of Containers and Packaging" was established to encourage the establishment of new recycling and packaging systems under the each responsibility of consumers, local governments and producers.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

With the wide-ranging amendments of the Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law in 1992, the basic policy is to promote the planned disposal of wastes, and Japan is enforcing measures to reduce wastes, including the promotion of appropriate packaging for goods, packaging reuse, composting and the segregation and separate collection of recyclable waste. In order to construct a socio-economic system with reduced environmental load, Japan is reducing waste amounts by promoting the recycling of resources as well as limiting the generation of wastes.According to a waste collection plan, in 1993 the percentage of the total population which receives collection service for general waste had reached 100%. However, when looking at the conditions of disposal, the amount accounted for by direct reclamation was equal to 14.4% of the total amount of waste generated. The amount of household disposal by household was equal to 2.0% of the total. At present, the population ratio of domestic waste water treatment is 51.6%. Improvement of sewerage is slow in small and medium-sized municipalities. In accordance with the Five-Year Plan for the 8th Stage of Waste Treatment Facilities Improvement started in 1990, local authorities have decided to reduce the disposal amount of garbage to 91% of the present amount, by means of incineration, segregation, and composting.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

Japan conducts reduction of waste and recycling activities with the cooperation of local authorities, citizens and corporations. Japan promotes public awareness of appropriate waste disposal, environmental education and assists voluntary activities among the private sector, through the national government and local authorities, to encourage companies to develop waste reduction and reuse policies.   In 1991, with a view to enhancing public awareness, ministries and government agencies declared October of each year as the month for the promotion of recycling. In addition to promoting the improvement of sewerage, Japan will also promote the improvement of community plants and Gappei-shori johkasou (domestic waste water treatment system) in towns and villages.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing 

As an incentive to recycle, Japan has adopted measures for special tax redemptions in regards to facilities for recycling waste, as well as financial measures for low-interest financing through governmental financial agencies.

Cooperation

Japan promotes international cooperation in solid waste and sanitation.

 

 

 

* * *

This information is based on Japan's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

For information on Solid Waste and Sanitation in Japan's Agenda 21, click here.

| Japan | All Countries | Home |

 

Hazardous Waste

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law, which is Japan's general law for the management of waste, was broadly amended in October 1991 as the basis for ensuring proper disposal and reduction of waste, as well as the construction of disposal facilities. In July 1992, these amendments were put into effect.

In May 1992, Japan established the Law Regarding the Promotion of the Construction of Specified Facilities for the Disposal of Industrial Waste to give due consideration to the importance of maintaining waste disposal facilities for environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes. To promote the spread of waste disposal facilities, Japan is adopting measures concerning taxation and finances. Japan promotes the prevention and minimization of hazardous waste by continuing to provide technological and financial assistance to prefectural governments which enforce the Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law, and by strengthening institutional capacities in hazardous waste management. Local authorities represented by prefectural governors and mayors of cities, towns and villages have been given the power to instruct businesses, which generate a large amount of wastes, to draw up plans for waste reduction. In accordance with the October 1991 amendments of the Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law, each of the individual prefectures has the power to designate a waste treatment public center for disposing of specially controlled wastes.

Japan presently permits the import and export of recyclable wastes as a resource with the United States and Southeast Asian countries.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

Japan signed and ratified The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal in 1993. The latest information was provided to the Basel Convention Secretariat in 1994. Japan strictly enforces the Basel Convention by means of proper implementation of the relevant domestic laws and regulations including, in particular, the Law on the Control of Export, Import and Management of Specified Hazardous Wastes and Other Wastes which has specifically been enacted for the purpose of implementing the Basel Convention. A penalty regime has been established against illegal transactions of wastes.

Japan promotes close international cooperation and works with the Secretariat of the Basel Convention, UNEP, and the Regional Economic Commissions. In addition, Japan is promoting and strengthening international cooperation in the management of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes.

* * *

This information is based on Japan's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

For information on Hazardous Waste in Japan's 21, click here.
For direct link to the Web Site of the Basel Convention, click here:

|| Japan | All Countries | Home |

Radioactive Waste

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Legislation concerning the safe management of radioactive wastes includes the Law for the Regulation of Nuclear Source Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors, and the Law concerning Prevention from Radiation Hazards due to Radio-Isotopes, etc.

Regarding measures for the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes, Japan abides by such international arrangements as Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution from Dumping of Wastes and other Matter. Japan will continue to cooperate with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

Japan considers that, in addition to promoting the reduction of radioactive wastes, it is necessary to take measures for their appropriate treatment and disposal. In this regard, and based on the Long-Term Program for Research Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy, Japan promotes various measures including those for ensuring financial resources, promoting research and development, and strengthening international cooperation. Japan is also in favor of an early completion of the Convention on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (tentative name).

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information is based on Japan's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

For information on Radioactive Waste in Japan's Agenda 21, click here.


| Economic Aspects | Institutional Aspects | Social Aspects |

| Japan | All Countries | Home |