Click here to go to the following issues:

Economic Aspects | Natural Resource Aspects | Institutional Aspects | Social Aspects |Jamaica

NATURAL RESOURCE ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN JAMAICA

Click here to go to these sections: 

AGRICULTURE

AGRICULTURE

 Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

 Under the Rural Agricultural Development Authority Act, RADA is established to inter alia: Provide an efficient agricultural extension service and participate in the formulation and implementation of appropriate rural development projects with a view to stimulating and facilitating the development of Agriculture in Jamaica; and, Encourage and, so far as maybe practicable having regard to the financial and other resources at the disposal and to the statutory powers of the authority, to secure proper economic and efficient utilization of all land in rural areas. 

Land 

The Rural Physical Planning division has been involved to a great extent in the zoning of lands. There is a range of circumstances in which decisions on type of land use - agriculture, forestry, urban, tourism, etc. - are taken, in whole or part, on the basis of the inherent properties of the land. 

Poverty Reduction 

The Ministry of Agriculture is one of the partners in the Poverty Eradication Programme.  The Ministry collaborates at national, parish and community levels.  Such collaboration is an integral element in the implementation plan because it facilitates the pooling of resources for maximum benefit.  The appropriate sections and offices of the Ministry are involved at various levels of planning and implementation.  The Ministry of Agriculture Poverty Eradication Committee is proactive in providing structure, co-ordination and direction to the poverty eradication effort in its agency, and must work in collaboration with its counter parts in other agencies as well as with the other partners.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

Integrated Pest Management 

Under this IPM policy the provisions of the Plant Quarantine Act is being rigorously enforced, thereby strengthening the quarantine services. This includes numerical strengthening and training to improve technical competence. 

Land Degradation and Rehabilitation 

Four statutes have a major influence on soil resources issues:

·         The Forest Act

·         The Watershed Protection Act

·         The Rural Agricultural Development Authority Act

·         The Town and Country Planning Act. 

Sections of the Forest Act sets out a number of prohibited activities in a forest reserve.  The prohibited acts include the following: girdling, lopping, uprooting, and burning of trees, kindling and carrying of fire, manufacturing or removal of forest produce. The Watersheds Protection Act is intended to reduce soil erosion, ensure regular flow in rivers and streams, encourage optimum levels of groundwater and encourage proper land use. 

Watershed Development 

The Watersheds Protection Act (1963) is the law governing watersheds in Jamaica and is administered by the Natural Resources Conservation Authority.  The primary focus of the act is the conservation of water resources by protecting land in or adjoining the watersheds.  The Act is intended to; ensure proper land use in vital watershed areas; reduce soil erosion; maintain optimum levels of groundwater and promote regular flows in waterways. The Act relies heavily on prohibiting and regulating to protect the declared watersheds.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans 

Agricultural Policy Review 

The national strategy on sustainable development (SARD) of Jamaica is embodied in the 1999 draft of the Policy Framework document on The Development of the Agricultural Sector, the contents of which must first go through the prescribed legislative steps before it becomes a policy. 

The objectives stated in the Policy Framework draft are outlined below:

·         Improving rural infrastructure, including road, water, power and telecommunications

·         Development of human resources, through vocational training and other activities, which are necessary to encourage stable growth through development, oriented investments.

·         Increasing land ownership, which is important for achieving, desired investments.  

Land policy as related to Agriculture:

·         Government will make a greater effort to preserve arable land (especially classes 1 and 2) for agricultural purposes as far as is viable as possible.

·         Agricultural land use maps are to be upgraded to identify land capability and suitability for various types of crop.

·         Conservation measures and improved agricultural practices are to be used to reduce soil erosion and maintain soil fertility and increase productivity. 

There is no written policy, which specifically addresses the conversion of arable land for purposes other than agriculture. The guidelines outlined below were adapted from the document “A suggested National Soils Policy for Jamaica”.  

·         In the area of agricultural land use, all arable lands will be preserved for agricultural purposes as far as viable and possible.  The agricultural mapping system will be reviewed to identify land capability and suitability for various types of crops.  Government will also endeavour to bring about a significant reduction in the amount of under-utilized arable land.

·         As far as land policy for "industrial activity" is concerned, Government's new national industrial policy clearly indicates that there will be continuing provision of new industrial land by Government within urban boundaries to form an integral component of settlement development strategy.

·         Over the next two years, Government will review the roles and functions of all the agencies involved in land management and develop institutional modalities that will eliminate inefficiencies and promote co-ordinated decision-making.

·         Finally, in terms of the planning approval process, Government will harmonize the operations of Town Planning Department and the NRCA with particular reference to the administration of the country's environmental impact assessment (EIA) requirements.  This EIA requirement, which, through the NRCA Act, is now applicable to public sector developments, will be extended to block zoning and plans. 

Greater efforts are being made to preserve all arable lands for agricultural purposes as far as is viable and possible. There are three policies that are applicable in this context. They are National Land Policy, National Settlement Strategy and the National Industrial Policy. 

Government will endeavour to bring about a significant reduction in the amount of under-utilised land, under the Land Development and Utilization Act.                   

Guidelines to integrate environmental concerns into Agricultural Development Projects are as follows:

·         All lands of environmental importance will, unless decided otherwise by Cabinet, remain vested in Government, but could however be leased for approved uses/management with relevant conditions.  These areas would include watersheds, wildlife sanctuaries and quays.

·         All new agricultural developments (including change of agricultural use) over 5 hectares must obtain a permit from the Natural Resources Conservation Authority, with inputs from the Ministry of Agriculture.  Agricultural development of 25 hectares and over may require an Environmental Impact Assessment.

·         The  “Polluter pays” principle and application of the best practical available technology among basic responses to Jamaica’s environmental problems. 

Major activities:

·         Development of government lands

Special attention is to be given to the use of Government lands. This includes the following:

·         acceleration of the process of divestment of such lands for productive purposes.

·         centralization of the divestment process;

·         enforcing the non-performers clause within the context of the existing divestments. 

Crop Zoning 

Crop Zoning is expected to play an important role in investment decisions and the Rural Physical Planning Division of the Ministry of Agriculture will play a key role in this area, particularly in relation to land capability and soil management. 

Irrigation Programmes 

Government recognizes that there must be increased development of irrigation programmes and proper management of irrigation systems. It has therefore prepared a master plan for the development of this service on a phased basis. The National Irrigation Commission  (NIC) has been in charge of the effective management of the system. 

Electricity and telecommunications 

The Government will work together with the respective agencies responsible for the provision of electricity and telecommunications to ensure that these services are delivered to rural areas on a phased but timely basis. 

Roads and other infrastructure 

The Government recognizes the important role played by the development and proper maintenance of a network of farm roads in attracting investments to the sector and in reducing costs as well as improving marketability. It is therefore committed to ensuring that adequate budgetary provision is made for this purpose.  

Development of Human Resources 

The Government is committed to the effective development of rural population through the development of educational programmes and institutions. This includes primary and secondary schools; The College of Agriculture Science and Education (CASE); The HEART Academy and the University of the West Indies. 

Involvement of Youth in the sector 

The government is involving youth in the sector through a Youth in Agriculture programme which has three components:

·         Revitalization of the schools’ agricultural programme;

·         Identification of properties to be leased/sold to youth;

·         Specific macro-projects which would address some of the factors militating against youth involvement.

·         Lift-up Jamaica 

Involvement of women in agriculture Programme 

The Government recognizes the importance of women in the agricultural sector. Women were always involved in the marketing of domestic crops. The government intends to promote and encourage a more direct involvement of women in the ownership and management of farms through on-farm production, agro-processing and cottage industries. 

Jamaica’s Commitment in the WTO 

Under its Uruguay Round Commitments, Jamaica has complied with WTO rulings and has reduced ceilings to a rate of 100% for duties on agricultural commodities.  Other duties and charges were bound at 15 percent except for a list of 56 products for which rates were set at 80 percent, and for three (3) products set at 200 percent.  These products include bovine and swine meat, poultry, vegetables, some cereals, fruit juices, and sugar other than raw sugar.  Applied tariff rates range from 0-40 percent with inputs normally subject to low rates or granted duty free access. 

Jamaica did not include in its WTO schedule the use of any export subsidies and therefore has no obligation to reduce export subsidies.  Jamaica does not supply any trade distortion support measures and is therefore not required to reduce their measures.  All the domestic support measures fall in the category of “the Green Box” and are not subject to reduction.  Access Quotas – Tariff Rate Quotas:  This section of the WTO agreement is not applicable to Jamaica as it does not use quotas or any form of quantitative restrictions on imports. 

Food Security 

Jamaica has submitted a report dated January 26, 1998 to the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) in relation to the follow-up on the implementation of the World Food Summit Plan of Action (1996). In retrospect of the seven commitments outlined in the summit there is reported progress in the following areas as outlined in the progress report. 

The Jamaican Government will ensure an enabling political, social and economic environment designed to create the best conditions for the eradication of poverty and for durable peace, based on full and equal participation of women and men, which is most conducive to achieving sustainable food security for all.

 Government is in the process of implementing a National Industrial Policy to achieve growth and prosperity in the Jamaican economy. Through this policy the government is committed to building and sustaining a ‘Social Partnership’ which fosters collaborative effort between the government, the business sector, the labour unions in an effort to achieve national development goals of growth with stability, social equity, and conservation of the environment. There is a proposal for the creation of a Commission on Gender and Social equity which advocates gender balance in the appointment of various economic committees and the policy areas involved in implementation of the industrial policy as well as systemic effort to incorporate specific policies, programmes, action plans and measures designed to improve the status of women in Jamaican society; 

The Government will implement policies aimed at eradicating poverty and inequality and improving physical and economic access by all, at all times to provide sufficient, nutritionally adequate and safe food and its effective utilization.    

The Jamaican government will pursue participatory and sustainable food, agriculture, fisheries, forestry and rural development policies and practices in high and low potential areas, which are essential to adequate and reliable food supplies at the household, national, regional and global levels, and combat pests, drought, decertification considering the multifunctional character of agriculture. 

One of Government’s objectives for the agricultural sector is to increase production and productivity in order to make greater contribution to national food security. This is being achieved in the following ways: 

·         A production target of 10% increase per annum for domestic food crops.

·         A Master Irrigation Development Plan has being developed and the government is now in the process of seeking funding of projects which will reduce farmers’ dependence on rainfall.

·         The Ministry has completed the implementation of a Hillside Agricultural Project (HAP) in the eastern watershed, which was successful in carrying out rehabilitation of denuded hillsides as well as improvement in farmers’ income. A successor project is now being prepared for the Hope and Great River Watersheds for which funding is being sought.

·         Priority is being given to a reforestation programme. A public awareness programme is being implemented and 100 hectares of forests will be established on private lands.

·         The research and extension services are to be upgraded to provide farmers with appropriate technology. To this end, an Agricultural Support Services Project (ASSP) has been prepared and is awaiting funding.

·         The interest rate on agricultural credit has been reduced to an average level of just under 20% per annum.

·         Post Harvest Management training is being intensified to reduce post harvest losses and increase marketable agricultural produce. Consequently several workshops have been held to promote this and will continue to be accorded high priority in training programmes for both staff and farmers.

·         Legislation is being upgraded to protect consumers through improved food quality safety. To this end parts of Codex standards are being used for the development of local standards. The first Codex standard on irradiated foods has been adopted.

·         The levels of residues in agricultural produce are being monitored. To this end, only licensed insecticides can enter Jamaica.

·         A laboratory for residue analysis in meat and dairy products has been established at the Veterinary Division.

·         The training of public health inspectors in food safety is on-going.  

The Jamaican government will strive to ensure that food, agricultural trade and overall trade policies are conducive to fostering food security for all through fair and market oriented world trade systems.

·         Monitoring of the impact of reduction of tariffs on competing produce.

·         Priority is also being given to existing farmers to become more efficient and competitive through Improved research, extension, irrigation and other infrastructure. 

The Jamaican Government will endeavour and be prepared for natural disasters and man-made emergencies and to meet transitory and emergency food requirements in ways that encourage recovery, rehabilitation, development and the capacity to satisfy future needs. In Jamaica, there is an organization called the ‘Office of Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Management (ODPEM) which has the responsibility of providing food, shelter, disease control measures and access to individuals and communities which have been affected by natural disasters. The organization carries out this role with the assistance of all relevant Ministries of Government, organizations and agencies as well as co-ordinating relief supplies from private agencies both local and overseas. 

The Government will promote optimal allocation and use of public and private investment investments to foster human resources, sustainable food, agriculture, fisheries and forests and rural development in high and low potential areas. The Government is committed to developing agriculture, fisheries at optimal levels.  This is being done through budgetary support to the Ministry of Agriculture for the employment of relevant technical staff and through the development of appropriate projects in the areas of research, extension and integrated rural development.  The Government receives additional support by mobilising bilateral and multilateral funding in support of these programmes. 

The Jamaican Government will implement, monitor, and follow-up this Plan of Action at all levels in co-operation with the international community. The government is seriously committed to implementing the Plan of Action. It is doing this by ensuring that an integrated set of policies and programmes are implemented which will impact on increasing food production and productivity and by ensuring a distribution system which delivers food to even the most remote areas of the country.  

Land 

The revised National Physical Plan 1978-1998 broadly outlined a national development strategy which identified urban growth points, conservation areas (inland and marine parks, wetlands and watersheds) and mining and agricultural areas. The land use decisions have been to a large extent guided by this broad-brush strategy. However, there have been instances in which developments do not conform to this strategy. 

The comprehensive task of preparing a Natural Master Land Use Plan is intended to be created. Jamaica’s Land Policy as related to Agriculture is threefold: 

·         Government will make a greater effort to preserve arable land (especially class 1 and 2), for agricultural purposes as far as is viable and possible.

·         Agricultural land use maps are to be updated to identify land capability and sustainability for various types of crops.

·         Conservation measures and improved agricultural practices are to be used to reduce soil erosion and maintain soil fertility and increase productivity. 

Soil conservation strategies have been employed by a number of projects such as:         

·         Forestry Development and Watershed Management in the  Upland Regions (1968-1975)

·         Second Integrated Rural Development Project (1978)

·         Strengthening the National Soil Conservation Programme for Integrated Watershed Development (1979-1982).

·         Strengthening of Department of Forestry and Soil Conservation and Institutional strengthening of the Department of Forestry and Soil Conservation.

·         Hillside Agricultural Project (1987-1998)

·         The National Forestry Action Programme (1990-)

·         The Agroforestry Development Project  (992-94 and 1995-98).

·         There is a recent U.K. funded research project on Forest Clearance, Agroforestry and Soil Conservation. 

Information from the Ministry of Agriculture’s Rural Physical Planning Division states that special attention is to be given to the protective use of Government lands, including the following measures:  

·         acceleration of the process of divestment of Government lands for productive enterprises

·         centralization of the land divestment process; and,

·         invoking the non-performance clause with respect to existing divestment agreements 

Jamaica through its regulatory body the National Resource Conservation Authority (NRCA) has adopted the following policy; to promote the integrated protection of land; conservation and development of land and water resources in watersheds for their sustainable use and for the benefit of the nation as a whole. 

Through the NRCA the following strategies were formulated to:  

·         Develop a National Watershed Programme

·         Establish an Inter-Ministerial Watershed Management Committee

·         Strengthen human and financial resources required to co-ordinate employment and monitor work in the watersheds

·         Bank each watershed and establish priorities for interventions.

·         Secure budgetary support for implementation of the policy. 

Integrated Pest Management and Control in Agriculture 

While recognizing that chemicals will be continue to play an important role in the management of pests, under this IPM policy government is guided by available information, continue to enhance national pesticide control capabilities. This is attended firstly through the strengthening of the Pesticide Control Act and relevant regulations as seem necessary. The active participation of the general population, farmers, agricultural workers and consumers in particular is enlisted through education and training and training programmes designed to increase awareness about pesticides.   

The Government of Jamaica is cognizant that overdependence on pesticides will affect the ecological balances of nature and is also committed to assisting farmers to increase their productivity and chances for making a livelihood from agriculture to institute an Integrated Pest Management programme. 

The government ensures effective agricultural extension capability by providing the necessary support to Rural Agricultural Development Authority, agricultural commodity boards, and other agencies responsible for training. Of major importance is the development of a team of highly trained IPM specialists. This is to be spearheaded by a national training of trainers’ programme. Government will encourage and facilitate the earliest establishment of rapid retrieval information system with direct linkages to international databases to support the national IPM programme. This will facilitate, where feasible, the options of technology validation as opposed to basic research. 

A public awareness campaign will be implemented through Jamaica Information Service to educate consumers on the superiority of IPM in the sustainable production of wholesome food, the protection of human health, and the preservation of the environment. 

Government will restore its own diagnostic and identification capabilities now located at the Island’s research station. Elaborate, clear and efficient procedures for reporting pest problems will be embarked on. 

Integrated Plant Nutrition Management 

Although there is no written policy on Integrated Plant Nutrition, the government of Jamaica is committed to ensuring an ecologically balanced environment and consequently the concept of Integrated Plant Nutrition (IPN) is practised islandwide by small farmers and in more recent times by commercial farmers.  This practise includes using nitrogen-fixing plants; appropriate soil management techniques, including mulching and fallow periods; resistant varieties; compatible cropping systems (e.g. inter-cropping) and agroforestry; practices giving due consideration to animal welfare; biological control of pests, and manual, mechanical and thermal weeding.  

Although there continues to be a dependence on chemical fertilizers to increase production and productivity, there is a shift towards finding and using alternative methods.  Practices such as organic farming including composting are now being used.  The Government realizes the trade off in becoming involved in integrated pest management as the use of organic fertilizers aid in keeping the environment healthy and provide the economic and health benefit of producing and consuming organically grown food.  

The Jamaican Government through the Rural Agricultural Development Authority is involved significantly in the implementation of activities to motivate farmers to take an integrated plant nutrition approach in their on farm operations. To date some of the practices encouraged are: 

·         Reduction in the use of inorganic fertilizers while increasing the use of organic fertilizers such as composting and mulching.

·         Crop rotation is emphasized and those farmers who have medium to large land holdings are encouraged to leave overused land to fallow.

·         Farmers are discouraged from the widely used "slash and burn" method for clearing land.

·         Implementing proper soil conservation measures such contouring and trenching.

·         There is an ongoing integrated pest management programme, which is responsible for the judicious use of chemicals such as herbicides and pesticides. 

Organic farming is practised on several small to medium-sized farms and small pilot projects have been initiated. A vibrant organic growers association and a vegetarian society exist. A successful Integrated Pest Management (IPM) research has been initiated by several institutions including the Scientific Research Council, and its Food Technology Institute (FTI) division has been actively involved in results-oriented research and development. Moreover, the existence of the USDA pre-clearance unit facilitates exports of organically produced food to the USA. 

Plant and Animal Genetic Diversity 

 Species diversity is normally considered to be one of the primary indicators of a healthy ecosystem in Jamaica. Wild endangered animals are protected under the Wild Life Protection Act (1945).  Investigations conducted by the NRCA between 1993 to 1996 revealed that there has been a significant increase in the number of protected animals held in captivity over the years.  Wild life attractions linked to nature tourism are considered to be one of the contributing factors

Regulatory bodies include National Resource Conservation Authority (NRCA), Ministry of Agriculture, Environment Foundation of Jamaica which carry out regulatory functions with respect to environmental concerns.

The concerns that are stated above are all reflected in the statement of objectives enunciated in Jamaica’s National Environmental Action Plan. These objectives include: 

·         Creating attitudes and behaviour, which are responsible and oriented to action in environmental protection and the sustainable use of natural resources.

·         Encouraging the use of non-renewable resources.

·         Ensuring that renewable resources including forests and wildlife are used in a sustainable manner.

·         Ensuring good air quality in Jamaica.

·         Ensuring surface and underground water are in sufficient quantities and quality appropriate for present and future human needs and ecosystem integrity.

·         Providing for the protection and conservation of plants and animals, particularly endemic species.

·         Minimizing the impact of natural hazards and environmental hazards on the population, the economy and on natural systems.

·         Allowing for global environmental co-operation and security with special attention to the needs of developing countries and the circumstances of vulnerable islands states.

·         Enhancing the natural beauty of the island in natural areas, built-up areas, roadways, and open spaces on both public and private land.

·         Protecting and preserving the marine environment and territorial waters within the exclusive economic zone. 

Water for Sustainable Food Production and Sustainable Rural Development

 The Government is intent on ensuring that the provision of water for agricultural purposes is done: 

·         In a cost effective and efficient manner.

·         In a manner to facilitate sustained social and economic growth development.

·         With develop regard health and environment considerations 

The Government will promote: 

·         Achievement of cost efficiencies

·         Mobilization of additional sources of funding and investment support from the private sector and external sources.

·         Introduction of cost recovery mechanisms to ensure that the direct beneficiary pays and that the supply of services can be maintained and expanded.

·         Encouragement of farmer participation in the management and distribution of irrigation water

·         Introduction of conservation measures including measures to improve irrigation efficiencies and improve losses.

·         Expansion of irrigation facilities on a phased basis to agricultural belts across the country with particular emphasis on the arid but highly production southern agricultural parishes.

·         Development of ways and means to facilitate the need of hillside small farmers. 

Farmers are encouraged to adopt more efficient on-farm systems.  This has resulted in a number of farmers acquiring more efficient on-farm irrigation system.  This has been achieved through educating farmers mostly through demonstration plots and demonstration of more efficient equipment as to the benefits to be gained from the use of improved irrigation technologies. 

The recently completed National Irrigation Plan recognizes the importance of the use of improved technologies and to this end projects have been packaged with the on-farm systems as a component to the funding requirements. In addition to these, the current irrigation charges has as one of its components a demand charge whereby farmers pay for the amount of water used.  A serious effort is being made to ensure that all users of the systems are metered. 

Water Logging:

The following steps are taken: The use of our extension service/officers to educate the farmers in appropriate land levelling and irrigation methods; and, also in the efficient use of on-farm water. 

Salinization:

·         the monitoring of wells (especially those in saline areas to prevent over-pumping.

·         the monitoring of water used for agriculture from saline wells.

·         preventing the use of recycled leached water.

·         issuing advice on proper drainage levels of farmlands. 

Teaching is the most widely used reclamation treatment in Jamaica. However, groundwater sources that show increasing trends to salinity are usually taken out of operation.  These are quickly recognized through the Groundwater Monitoring Programme that the Water Resources Authority carries out. 

Steps are taken in order to prevent adverse effects of agriculture on water quality. These steps include the use of our extension service officers (in conjunction with the RADA officers), to educate and advice the farmers on crop production technologies example in the appropriate use of fertilizers and pesticides. 

Source  - National Irrigation Development Master Plan (NIDP) Annex E – 2.3 Management – Irrigation – Practices – E-11.        

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

See also under Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans. 

The Home Economics/Social Services Section of RADA (Rural Agricultural Development Authority), 4-H Clubs, agricultural institutions of learning (University of the West Indies, College of Agriculture Science and Education et al.) and the Jamaica Agricultural Society solicit and facilitate the participation of women and youth, small farmers and other indigenous groups in agricultural issues. 

Jamaica Agricultural Society (JAS) 

The agricultural society which represents farmers islandwide has as its mandate, to ensure the protection and promotion of farmers' interest through a vigorous, independent and financially viable organization providing services to farmers and assisting them to gain access to resources provided government and other agencies and to enhance global policy initiatives in order to achieve social and economic development of the rural poor. JAS is represented on various committees and statutory organizations which deal with agriculture.

Programmes and Projects 

 Food Security 

Government is implementing policies aimed at eradicating poverty and inequality and improving physical and economic access by all and at all times to provide sufficient, nutritionally adequate and safe food. To achieve this government is committing significant financial resources to projects such as the Social Investment Fund (SIF) established to attack the root causes of poverty and hunger through the provision of community training, institutional building, and employment creation through small business development. Other poverty alleviation programmes include public assistance programmes, which provide aid to persons who have little or no income or who are incapacitated. These programmes are the Food Aid Programme; Poor Relief; Economic and Social Assistance Programmes for the Aged; Programmes for persons with disabilities and Emergency Relief Services. 

Government implements several public assistance programmes that provide aid to persons who have little or no income or who are incapacitated.  The programmes are: 

·         Food Aid Programme 

The Food Aid Prograrmme is designed to supplement the food intake of persons who are at risk of becoming malnourished and others who have little or no visible income. It provides improved nutritional levels for school children, pregnant and lactating mothers and children aged 0-6 years. The aims of the programme are achieved through the Food Stamp Programme and the supplementary and School Feeding Programmes.  

·         Food Stamp Programme 

This a welfare programme initiated by the government to assist persons who are classified in the categories of pregnant/lactating women; children 0-6 years; elderly poor/disabled; single person households (earning under Ja$7000 per annum); households of 2 or more (earning under Ja$18000). For the period 1999/2000 the programme targeted 248,000 beneficiaries. These individuals are given an allowance in the form of food stamps, which can be used to purchase certain food items. 

·         School Feeding Programme 

The School Feeding Programme is one of the social safety net measures being implemented by the Government and forms part of the larger National Poverty Eradication Programme. It caters to students in pre-primary, public primary and secondary schools to which it provides nutrition supplement in the form of at least one balanced meal per day. 

·         Supplementary Feeding

Funds were provided to each parish for providing nutritional supplements for malnourished children. 

Land

 Environmental monitoring, by which is meant quantitative measurement of changes with time, is an established method internationally, through the Global Environmental Monitoring System (GEMS) of United Nations  Environmental Protection (UNEP).  In Jamaica monitoring is done, first of erosion, and secondly of other forms of soil degradation.  

The monitoring programme involves estimating present rates of erosion; assessing the consequences of erosion, including both on-site productivity and off-site effects and converting these estimates into economic terms, as financial and social costs. 

Other programmes implemented include land zoning.  As a result of this programme an objective criteria for defining land of high agricultural productivity is to be set up and its extent mapped.   

Integrated Pest Management Programmes

 The Ministry of Agriculture provides technical support to the farming community adopting IPM as the sanctioned pest management approach for Jamaica. 

In fulfilling its mandate to provide technical support to the farming community, the Ministry of Agriculture has adopted Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programmes as the principal means of controlling agricultural pests. It is agreed that overdependence on chemical pesticides reduces quality of life by increasing environmental concerns and disrupting crop production processes. Through the vehicles of research and development, and Extension services an effective IPM programme has been put in place.  Some measures adopted are; use of pheromones, biological control, pest harvesting, using resistant varieties, crop barriers, crop rotation, field sanitation, appropriate time of planting and solarization. 

The prime objectives of the IPM programme are: 

·         To advance the health status of all Jamaicans and those who use our agricultural produce through better management of pesticides in crop production.

·         Protecting and preserving Jamaica's ecological resources through promotion and facilitating optimally lowered levels of environmental contamination by agricultural pesticides.

·         Increasing farm productivity, facilitating improved profitability and enhancing farmer and rural welfare, through promotion and facilitating optimally reduces levels of crop damage by agricultural pests.

·         Encourage and facilitating the development of ecologically, socially and economically appropriate IPM programmes for all crops grown commercially in Jamaica. 

The Global Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Facility has not been used. However, it is intended to be used in upcoming programmes.  

Rural energy transition to enhance productivity 

·         Munro Project : This is a 300 kilowatt wind turbine system used at Munro College.  They also sell power to Jamaica Public Service  Company Limited (JPSCo) for use in their regular supply.

·         The JPSCo Ltd. in expanding the national grid has also implemented a program to install photovoltaic system in rural areas. This system to date has been installed at Middle Bonnet in St. Catherine  

Implement integrated farm management technologies and practices 

The Government of Jamaica through its training and extension arm, the Rural Agricultural Development Authority (RADA) has implemented activities and programmes in order to improve farm production and farming systems.  These activities and programmes are as follows: 

1. Crop Rotation 

Training sessions are conducted both on -farm and at the farmers' training centre. The activities undertaken with respect to crop rotation include:

·         The use of nitrogen fixing plants in the crop rotation cycles, which facilitates the replenishment of nitrogen in soil.

·         The use of insect repellent crop varieties to break the life cycle of pests and diseases.

·         Planting crops in the seasons they grow best in consequently creating a rotation of crops throughout the year. 

2. Organic plant nutrients 

Jamaica's government in collaboration with the Canadian International Development Agency initiated the Soils Nutrients for Agricultural Productivity programme in 1995. The objectives of this programme include: 

·         Tracking fertilizer through the distribution network.

·         Determining the agro-social factors affecting fertiliser usage.

·         Establishing crop nutrient requirements and diagnostic procedures.

·         Assessing application practices

·         Reporting on the impacts, if any, of proper fertilizer usage.

·         With the onset of the Integrated Plant Nutrition Programme (IPN) farmers in Jamaica are encouraged to reduce the use of inorganic fertilizers while increasing the application of organic methods such as mulching, and the use of animal dung. 

3.  Prevention of Pre and Post Harvest losses 

·         RADA's training and marketing division facilitates with the training of farmers in the areas of pre- and post-harvest technology. Farmers are trained to detect early traits of infected crops and the required precautionary measures to be taken, packaging crops directly in the fields, and grading.

·         Appropriate cultural practices are recommended to farmers who are incorporated into the Integrated Pest Management programme.

·         Specially designed crates are been used to discourage over-packing and for uniformity. These crates facilitate for easier stacking on the trucks.

·         Farmers are encouraged to store harvested crops away from sunlight.

·         There are established cooling rooms, which are owned by the government but are used by producer marketing organizations.

·         Some farmers gain access to cooling facilities through their association with a co-operative e.g. the Christiana Growers’ co-operative.

·         One responsibility of the Ministry of Commerce and Technology is to ensure that good post harvest management practises are implemented and sustained among private and publicly owned facilities.

·         Through the Agriculture Export Services Project (AESP) refrigerated trucks were made available to farmers in certain areas to transport fresh produce from the farm gate to the point of sale (export or local market). To date these trucks are still being made available to farming groups.  

4. Effective use of external inputs 

Emphasis is now being placed on the Integrated Pest Management programme (IPM).  The IPM programme emphasizes better management of pesticides and reduced use of the more toxic and persistent ones in order to make crop production safer for agricultural workers and reduce the hazards to which users and handlers of pesticides are exposed.Through RADA effective water usage is encouraged by: 

·         Discouraging furrow irrigation while encouraging drip irrigation using sprinkler irrigation system; and,

·         Using mulch in the form of vegetation (grass) and/or plastic. 

Removal of Agricultural Subsidies 

The following reforms were implemented as a part of structural adjustment programme in the 1980s and 1990s: 

·         The Generalized Food Subsidy Programme administered by the Jamaica Commodity Trading Company (JCTC) was abolished. In addition JCTC has ceased to have the monopoly on imports of basic items eg. corn, soybean, wheat, skim milk powder and rice. All general subsidies were eliminated.

·         Credit subsidies were removed and market related credit terms were adopted.

·         The General Consumption Tax that is currently 15% is waived on a number of specified agricultural inputs under the General Consumption Tax law. Machinery and other inputs into the production of agricultural commodities are also exempted from Customs Duties. 

The Domestic Food Crop Project 

The government has allocated $50 million to assist in counteracting the negative effects of the drought as well as contributing to the expansion of production. The Domestic food crop project as it is termed would aim to increase production and productivity of eight selected crops for the export and local markets, through the planting of an additional 1970 hectares in geographical areas, which have demonstrated distinct competitive advantage. 

Fruit Tree Crop Project 

The government has allocated Ja$100 million to implement the Fruit Tree Crop Project over the next three years.  The main objectives of the project are: 

·         To increase long –term income by developing and producing commercial orchards of fruit tree crops;

·         To reduce environmental degradation and encourage long-term conservation measures. This will be done by reducing soil erosion and producing fruit trees on sloping soil thus discouraging the planting of clean cultivation crops on steep hillsides.

·         To encourage the development of the food processing industry by the provision of raw materials;

·         To increase the availability and diversity of economically viable and nutritionally important fruit tree species;

·         To provide foreign exchange through exports of fresh and processed fruits. 

Diversification of Farm and Non-farm Employment 

With the assistance of RADA (Rural Agricultural Development Authority) rural persons are being trained in agricultural and non-agricultural vocations.  Through this initiative women and youths are included in the programs formulated. 

·         Integrated Community Development Programme:

In 1995 the government of Jamaica established the (ICDP), which is a participatory community -based self-help programme aimed at economic, social, community and physical development. Work has continued in 15 communities identified under the programme. 

·         Jamaica Social Investment Fund (JSIF):

JSIF was initiated in 1996 and is aimed at organizational strengthening and improvement in social, economic and physical infrastructure. It has received 902 applications for funding since its inception. At 1998 December, 37 projects benefiting approximately 240,000 individuals has been completed. 

·         Skills 2000 Project:

The main objectives of the Skills 2000 Project are to assist 7500 individuals to establish micro-enterprises following a period of approved vocational and/or entrepreneurial training. Credit support under the post-training component was given for the establishment of small business ventures and assistance with monitoring of businesses established to ensure sustainability. 

·         Lift up Jamaica Programme:

In this programme, the government of Jamaica is targeting providing employment for 40,000 individuals in the areas of roads and works and watershed protection. The "Lift Up Jamaica" Programme is set to end in 2000 December 31. It will involve expenditure of Ja$2.5 billion. The programme's long term aim is to socialise young people into recognizing the value of work and the importance of time, quality, team work and accountability both for personal growth and development. 

·         Eastern Jamaica Agricultural Support Project (EJASP):

This is a Ja$20 million programme scheduled to end in December 2002 funded by the Jamaica Government and the European Union. The aim of the project is to reduce poverty in rural areas by generating employment to decrease rural/urban drift. The project is to be Phase II of the two-year Morant Yallahs Development Project (MYAPD) which began in 1997 and ended in June of 1999. 

Poverty Eradication Programme 

The programme recognizes that various Ministries and agencies have been addressing poverty over the years, however, their efforts were mainly successful in making poverty more bearable and were rarely aimed at sustainable development. 

The policy towards poverty eradication is centered around:  

·         commitment to promote economic and social development

·         commitment to reduce the number of people below the poverty line

·         desire to eradicate absolute poverty 

The Ministry of Agriculture has a number of projects on stream that targets poverty eradication.  Two of the projects are:  

·         Beekeeping Project

·         Morant/Yallahs Agriculture Development Project 

Some of the national targets are as follows: 

·         Increases in the number of farmers participating in the projects.

·         Increased honey yields.

·         Increased employment creation in the Beekeeping Industry.

·         Increased usage of environmentally friendly practices by farmers in Morant/Yallahs area

·         Increase in mean farm income through increase crop and livestock production

·         Improvement in the standard of living of populations affected by the Ministry’s programmes.

Status 

Agriculture is second largest income earner for Jamaicans.  There are an estimated 150,000 farmers and approximately 600,000 who benefit directly from agriculture.  The Agricultural Sector contributed approximately 8% to G.D.P in 1998.  

The sector needs to become internationally competitive by being able to sell on the domestic market alongside imported goods and in overseas markets alongside goods from other countries. In dealing with the increased level of agricultural imports there needs to be collaboration between the research and the extension arm of the Ministry to produce crops which have a competitive edge.  Cultural practices must be improved through the use of improved technologies and planting material.  The development of a good marketing intelligence and transportation system is necessary to improve the marketing of domestic crops.   

There is also need for improvement in the standards for grading and packing foods for the local and export market. Infrastructural improvement is being undertaken in the rural areas. These include: 

·         Upgrading and resurfacing of roads

·         Increased access to electricity and other forms of energy

·         Increased access to domestic and agricultural water 

Jamaica has highly integrated systems of distribution, which facilitate the movement of produce from the farms to the end user/consumer.  There are three terminal markets where wholesale produce is sold. There are local parish markets dispersed throughout the fourteen parishes of the island. There are also green groceries, which wholesale and retail farmers’ produce. The marketing intermediaries responsible for most of the movement of produce from the farmgate to the terminal and local retail markets are called  “higglers”. They are responsible for the distribution of approximately 60% of the produce sold. Small–medium scale truckers who facilitate the movement of produce from rural to urban areas distribute the other 40% of agricultural produce.  

The table below illustrates Jamaica’s food supply (domestic and imported) for the period 1993 to 1997 in metric tons.

Table 1: Jamaica’s Total Food Supply 1993-1997 (Local and Imported) – “1000 metric tons”

 

 

Products

 

 

1997

 

1996

 

 

1995

 

1994

 

1993

Production

Imports

Production

Imports

Production

Imports

Production

Imports

Production

Imports

 

Cereals

Starchy roots

Sugar crops

Sweeteners

Pulses

Tree nuts

Oil crops

Vegetable Oils

Vegetables

Fruit-excluding Wine

Stimulants

Spices

Alcoholic- Beverages

Meat

Offals

Animal Fats

Milk

Eggs

Fish, Seafood

Aquatic Prod.

 

3

307

2413

238

5

-

117

6

161

431

 

5

12

 

80

82

4

3

53

28

16

-

 

370

12

-

79

3

-

6

27

12

16

 

2

1

 

2

41

6

19

62

2

58

-

 

4

366

2624

239

6

-

118

6

201

434

 

4

12

 

91

79

4

3

53

28

16

-

 

308

10

-

91

1

-

6

22

14

15

 

2

1

 

3

52

8

17

62

2

58

-

 

4

346

2326

250

6

-

118

7

195

430

 

5

11

 

87

71

4

4

53

28

14

-

 

438

8

-

57

2

-

13

15

10

13

 

1

1

 

5

28

8

17

114

2

44

-

 

4

330

2450

224

7

-

118

16

184

425

 

5

11

 

93

70

4

4

53

28

13

-

 

363

4

-

51

1

-

64

15

5

10

 

1

1

 

2

34

6

10

91

3

38

-

 

3

313

2661

220

7

-

118

17

151

426

 

4

9

 

101

70

4

4

53

28

13

-

 

452

2

-

39

2

-

69

9

8

9

 

1

1

 

4

47

8

13

119

2

40

-

Extracted from FAO Food Balance Sheet (http://apps.fao.org/csv_down/) 

Additional agriculture area brought under irrigation since 1992:  

Note A

Source

Total Area (Hectares)

Irrigated Areas

- Private and Public

Underground Water Authority – Document – Water Resources Development Master Plan – March 1990

 

35,640.40

Irrigated Areas

-Private and Public

National Irrigation Development Master Plan – February 1998

25,214.00

   

                                                

Note B

Source

Total Area (Hectares)

Irrigated Areas

- Public (NIC)

National Irrigation Commission Limited

- 1990

18,274.80

Irrigated Areas

Public (NIC)

National Irrigation Development Master Plan

- February 1998

13,781.00

 

 

Additional agriculture area brought under irrigation since 1992 – for NIC Public Systems:

 

District

Total  (Hectares)

-                                                          Mid-Clarendon

-                                                          Hounslow – St. Elizabeth

-                                                          Yallahs – St. Thomas

162

40

78

 

280

 Water 

The National Irrigation Commission has endeavored to institute measures to increase the conveyance efficiency of existing irrigation systems and the efficiency with which the irrigation water is applied to the crops.

This has resulted in the lining where possible of earthen canals in the irrigation systems and encouraging farmers to adopt more efficient on-farm systems such as sprinklers, and drip systems and even the use of siphon tubes. 

The crest of the recently re-constructed Rio Cobre Dam that diverts water from the Rio Cobre River for agricultural use in St. Catherine was raised an additional 30” to allow for diversion of more water. 

Efforts are also being made to link existing micro-dams currently not in use to irrigation canals.  It is recognized that seasonal storage reservoirs are required in some areas to capture floodwaters for use in periods of high demand and low flows.  To this end, previous studies done on such reservoirs are now being serviced. 

Rural energy transition to enhance productivity 

In 1995 the Demand Side Management of the Jamaica Public Service Limited was formed to influence the pattern of electricity usage in such a way as to improve the efficiency of the electricity system.  This would include where applicable the use of renewable to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.  There are some farms in Jamaica where harnessed energy using a digestion system.  This is on a very small scale. 

Land Zoning 

In hill lands, the designation of forest reserves, protected watershed areas and national parks is made on the basis of low suitability for agriculture, but higher suitability for forestry, water yield and biological conservation/tourism respectively.  This need is well served by the current system of land suitability evaluation. 

The government is hoping to institute a system of zoning for the island. However this is based on the availability of funds.  Such a land zoning system would first, set up objective criteria for defining land of high agricultural productivity, and secondly, map its extent.  The system could be applied first to the high-risk areas for urban expansion.

Consumption of Primary Inputs

                                    Seeds Imported (Tonnes)

Seed Potatoes Other Seeds, Fruits and Spores

            1999                 Not available                                               Not available

1998                 Not available                                              Not available

            1997                 1235                                                     81

            1996                 830                                                      63

            1995                 1212                                                     60

            1994                 1144                                                     87

            1993                 1214                                                     142

           

 

                                    Chemicals Imported (Tonnes)

                                    Insecticides                  Fungicides                   Herbicides

            1999                 Not available               Not Available              Not available

            1998                 Not available               Not available              Not available

            1997                 658                               294                               652

            1996                 1059                             1217                             703

            1995                 555                               1410                             642

            1994                 715                               1297                             605

            1993                 541                               1188                             546

 

 

                                    Fertilizer Imported (Tonnes)        

1999          not available

1998          not available

1997          46030

1996       58567

1995          55635

1994          61632

1993    63894

 Challenges 

Since the liberalization of the Jamaican economy (1991/1992) there has been increased competition from foreign imports.  This for sometime now has caused a decline in local production. This has taken place as a result of Structural Adjustment Programme undertaken in the 1980’s and early 1990’s as part of conditionalities attached to World Bank and IMF loans. The results are being seen in the drastic reduction in agricultural production both for some exports and in domestic production

 The local agricultural sector and in particular, small hillside farmers have been ill prepared and unequipped to deal with the onslaught of the effect of globalization and liberalization of the economy.  The flood of imports of cheap and often second-grade foods, mass-produced using highly mechanized equipment and benefiting from higher economies of scale and subsidies has several, far-reaching effects on the local farm sector. It has affected the competitiveness and stability of local farmers who operate on marginal hillside lands with basic tools. The Jamaican Government is faced with the dilemma of providing adequate training, research and appropriate technology to assist farmers under tight budgetary constraints.   

WTO’s ruling on the European Union vs. USA Re.  Preferential Treatment for ACP/EEC countries with respect to banana imports  

This ruling will have a deleterious effect on the ability of small states like Jamaica to compete with dollar bananas produced in Latin America by U.S. conglomerates under completely different cropping systems than are available here.  The sheer size and complexity of the Latin American operations ensure that the prices at which Jamaican bananas could be sold would be uncompetitive when compared with the prices of dollar bananas in the European market.  The ruling ignores the special link of the ACP countries, through their colonial past with the Europeans, whose citizens are willing to continue paying a premium for these imports.  It is feared that the ruling will strike the death–knell for traditional exports of small under-developed countries.

Land 

·         Extension agents in watershed management and soil conservation are limited by the unavailability of critical financial resources.

·         Land users and people's awareness of the importance of watershed protection is very low.

·         Lack of continuos training constrains the extent to which the technologies can be applied.

·         Very little research has been done on soil erosion and erosion control methods.

·         There is a great need to transfer the knowledge and skills required improving the understanding and management of the land.

·         The land is often not used in accordance with its capability.  Some adjustments to land use will have to be made taking into account land capability capacities. 

Water 

The government makes the provision for water as it recognizes its importance to agricultural production.  However funds do not permit for the provision of irrigation to all agricultural areas. Small farmers depend mostly on rainfall for watering their crops and in some cases farmers use inefficient irrigation techniques. There are irrigation schemes operated by the National Irrigation Commission.  Cost recovery is low, and the sector does not generate funds to finance its own expansion.  Operating efficiency improvements such as canal lining and improvements in leakage from pressurized systems cannot be dealt with as fast as is necessary. Because of these problems, it is often difficult to respond to farmers’ needs as required. 

Farmers have now come to recognize that irrigation and drainage goes “hand in hand”.  Through the Government effort of educating farmers, an increasing number of them are now grading their lands before planting crops.  More of them are now constructing open ditches for draining the lands to prevent and remedy water logging. Service gates to farms are locked in periods of heavy rain to stop irrigation flows to the lands.   

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

See also under Programmes and Projects. 

The Rural Agricultural Development Authority (RADA) in collaboration with the Jamaica Information Service (JIS), JAMPRESS and other auxiliaries are jointly responsible for publications, short television programmes and other press releases. Most recent promotional programmes undertaken are: 

·         The Pink Mealy Bug awareness campaign

·         Integrated Pest Management campaign

·         Eradication of New Screw Worm Project campaign 

Each year agricultural shows are held across the Island.  This medium is used to showcase agricultural production and to motivate and train farmers to carry out proper cultural practices.  The 4-H Clubs are used to target young individuals through its presence in primary and secondary schools across Jamaica. 

One of the many initiatives undertaken by this unit of the Ministry of Agriculture is a project called “Twickenham Bammies”. With this project young women and men are trained in the art of making indigenous bread made from cassava, known as  “bammy”. The Home Economics unit also encourages a more direct involvement of women in the ownership, management of on-farm production, agro-processing, and cottage industries. 

RADA home economics unit

  The main objectives of the Social Services/Home Economics Section of RADA are to bring about an effective involvement of rural women in the upliftment of the family and community through:  

·         Education programmes

·         Food and Nutrition

·         Home Food Production

·         Clothing and Craft

·         Income Generation

·         Child Development and Family Life

·         Home Management and Resources

·         Group Organization

·         Workshops/Seminars

·         Public Exhibitions

·         Mass media Presentations 

4-H Clubs 

The 4-H clubs is a statutory organization in the Ministry of Agriculture, with objectives to mobilize, educate and train young persons between the ages of 9 and 25 years in agriculture, homemaking, leadership and social skills which will prepare them for careers in agriculture and agro-related fields. 4-H clubs are represented in primary and secondary schools islandwide. 

Agricultural Education 

Jamaican youth interested in agriculture have access to agricultural education from the primary to the tertiary level. There are two agricultural institutions, which target students leaving primary school.  Students having completed their tenure of study at these two institutions and the other secondary schools are provided the opportunity of obtaining tertiary education at the College of Agriculture and the University of the West Indies. 

Training and extension 

RADA (Rural Agricultural Development Authority) of the Ministry of Agriculture offers training and extension services to all farmers. In addition there are extension divisions (e.g. Coffee Industry Board, Cocoa Industry Board) in statutory organizations which control the marketing of export crops and deliver extension services to their members. RADA’s major activities include the following: 

·         To provide a technical extension advisory service primarily to farmers in rural Jamaica in an effort to increase agricultural production and productivity.

·         To train and develop extension personnel at all level through in-service training programme geared towards improving their efficiency.

·         To administer farmer -training programmes, thereby rendering farmers more knowledgeable and capable.

·         To administer Social Services/Home Economics programmes to women and farm families to enable to acquire the knowledge and skills necessary for improving their quality of life.

·         To assist farmers and intermediaries in organizing cooperative marketing ventures and to disseminate timely marketing information to farmers.

·         To develop and operate rural agriculture service centres at strategic locations, thereby bringing service closer to the farmers. 

Information 

Types of National information on Sustainable Development

(a)                Contribution to G. D. P

(b)                Agricultural Interest Rates

(c)                Government Policies

-                      Rural Development Policy

-                      Forest Policy

-                      Commodity and Institutional policy

-                      International Trade Policy

-                      Financial Policies

-                      Economic Policies 

(d)                Cost of Production

(e)                Volume of Agricultural Production

(f)                 Guide to sustainable hillside agricultural practices

(g)                Sustainable agriculture development for small hillside farmers in Jamaica

(h)                Integrated Pest management

(i)                  Integrated Nutrition Management

(j)                  National Resource Conservation Authority’s Web site (nrca.com)

(k)                Food and Agriculture Organizaton's Web site (fao.org)

(l)                  Planning Institute of  Jamaica-Economic and Social Survey of Jamaica (ESSJ)

(m)              Bank of Jamaica’s Web Site (BOJ.org.jm) 

One of the major concerns addressed in Chapter 14 is the need to analyse and collect information on various production systems and technologies.  Please mark the appropriate box(es) if your Government has initiated the following activities 

[x] Development of on-farm and off-farm programmes to collect and record indigenous knowledge

[x] Regular survey on farmers' perceptions on effectiveness of available technologies and access to these technologies

[ ] Analysis of the overall effects of technological innovations and incentives on farm household income

[ ] Others (specify)  

Overriding Issues

According to the multi-year programme of work of the CSD, the overriding issues in each of the CSD sessions are poverty and consumption and production patterns.  

Research and Technologies

 Under the national IPM policy government ensures that local research capability is maintained at effective levels.  

·         Firstly by ensuring that the budgetary allocations for Research and Development in the Ministry of Agriculture as well as the structure and organization of its programmes are in keeping with national priorities.

·         Secondly by encouraging the commodity boards and working closely with them to research and develop cost effective management strategies which use less chemical pesticides.

·         Thirdly, by continuing to give financial support to regional institutions such as University of the West Indies and the Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute in order to enhance research initiatives.

·         Finally, by assisting all entities involved in approved IPM activities to access funds from local or external agencies. 

Sustainable use of Plant Genetic Resources (PGR) 

PROCICARIBE (The Caribbean Agricultural Science and Technology Network System) was inaugurated in 1998.  Included in this network is CAPGERNET which is the Caribbean Plant Genetic Resources Network. 

The primary function of the regional Plant Genetic Resource (PGR) is to facilitate national PGR programmes.  It functions as a vehicle to convey information, technology materials etc, between the national and international levels. 

Jamaica's CAPGERNET is co-ordinated by Don McGlashan (Ministry of Agriculture).  A number of institutions comprise the network.  To date these are MINAG, UWI, CASE, SRC, Institute of Jamaica, Public Gardens, and NRCA.  It is perceived that this committee will be expanded to include as many players involved in PGR in Jamaica; so as to be able to develop a comprehensive plan of work for the management of PGR. 

At the last regional CAPGERNET meeting held in Trinidad, 12th August 1999, the following priority areas were identified:

 ·         Training

·         Information Systems

·         Germplasm management and exchange

·         Policy on access to Germplasm

 The conservation of Jamaica's domestic animal genetic resources has been approached from various angles over the years. Jamaica is member of the FAO/DAD-IS Global Programme for the management of Farm Animal Genetic Resources. The country is represented by a National Co-ordinator and National Focal Point. Jamaica presently has 4 Cattle Breeds Societies, and recently formed a Goat Breeders Society.  These Societies have as a mandate the role of breed and animal conservation.

  The Government also maintains nuclear herds (in situ conservation). Sheep and pigs, although with out Breeders organisations are monitored by the Livestock Research & Development Division of the Ministry of Agriculture which also maintains breeding herds. The Ministry through the Veterinary Division maintains an Artificial Insemination Unit with a semen inventory. (ex situ conservation) Recent research has explored the use of multiple ovulation and embryo transfer. Herd recording occurs at various levels for each class and breed of animal. A national breeding/conservation policy is being reviewed for implementation.  

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

See also under Programmes and Projects.

 Credit facilities

·         The Agricultural Credit Bank  (ACB) acts as a wholesaler of agricultural loans.  Small farmers are able to access concessionary agricultural loans from the Peoples Co-operative Banks (PCB) branches found in rural areas islandwide.  The PCBs onlend to farmers using ACB funds.

·         There are a number of micro-enterprises such as Micro Investment Development Agency (MIDA) and ASSIST, which facilitate self-starting entrepreneurs who are desirous of contributing to the productive sector.

·         Government has created the Social Investment Fund, which is intended to attack the root causes of poverty and hunger through the provision of community training, institutional building, and employment creation through small business development. 

Tax 

The General Consumption Tax, which is currently 15%, is waived on a number of specified agricultural inputs under the General Consumption Tax Law. Machinery and other inputs into the production of agricultural commodities are also exempted from Customs Duties. However, public services such as electricity, transport and water are not supplied on a concessional basis to the sector.  

WTO 

Jamaica did not include in its WTO schedule the use of any export subsidies and therefore has no obligation to reduce export subsidies. 

Jamaica does not supply any trade distortion support measures and is therefore not required to reduce their measures.  All the domestic support measures fall in the category of “the Green Box” and are not subject to reduction. 

The section of “Access Quotas – Tariff Rate Quotas” in the WTO agreement is not applicable to Jamaica as it does not use quotas or any form of quantitative restrictions on imports.  

Cooperation 

Regional economic integration  

Jamaica achieves regional economic integration through the CARICOM Single Market and Economy.  The Caribbean Community Single Market and Economy works for the economic integration of the member countries in order to achieve sustained economic development, international competitiveness, co-ordinated economic and foreign policies, functional co-operation and enhanced trade and economic relations with other countries. CARICOM’s focus on sustainable agriculture is realized through the Regional Transformation Programme (RTP). 

RTP has as its mission, “to transform the sector to international competitiveness, improve the income of all participants and contribute to more equitable income distribution, through the application of modern, scientific, research methodologies for improved agricultural production and the development of sustainable and ecologically balanced production system, which protect the natural resource base.” 

Arising out of an analysis of the agricultural sectors of the region, CARICOM has identified the need to develop regional programmes in nine (9) areas. These are: 

·         Agricultural Policy Support

·         Human Resource Development

·         Technological Generation, Validation and Transfer

·         Agri-business Development

·         Marketing Development

·         Fisheries

·         Forestry

·         Water Resource Management

·         Institutional arrangement for implementation of the Action Plan 

Under the CARICOM Single Market and Economy participating countries are given the opportunities of free movements of goods; free movement of services; and free movement of capital.  Each member country has the autonomy to decide on the type and extent to which these opportunities are made available.  

The Government is a part of the regional project called Caribbean Planning for Adaptation to Climate Changes and under the project two (2) Sea Level Climatic Monitoring System were established. The systems are located at South Port Royal and North Discovery Bay in Jamaica.  The data is analysed based on collaboration between Meteorological Service and Government Survey Department.

 

* * *

 

This information was provided by the Government of Jamaica to the eighth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: September 2001.

Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to go to Web Site of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, which includes information on the Codex Alimentarius and the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme.
Click here to access the Web Site of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).
Click here to access the sixteen international agricultural research centers that are members of the CGIAR.
For country reports on Plant Genetic Resources, click here.
To access the FAOSTAT Data Base for information by country, item, element and year, click here:

| Jamaica | All Countries | Home |

ATMOSPHERE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

No information is available. 

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

The main issues relating to climate change in Jamaica are (1) increased rise of the sea level; (2) increased levels in the risks to human health; (3) higher frequency of storms and floods; and (4) increased levels of salt water intrusion. 
Jamaica is affected by sea-level rise. The main road to the town of Morant Bay in St. Thomas is threatened by encroachment of the sea, a threat that did not exist when the roadway was constructed.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

It is proposed under the project Caribbean Planning for Adaptation to Climate Change (CPACC) in May, 1998, to provide information on Climate Change and Sea-Level Rise on the Internet, at the address provided below.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

Financing for the four-year project Caribbean Planning for Adaptation to Global Climate Change, at a cost of 6.3 million US dollars, is provided by the Global Environmental Facility, through the World Bank. The executing agency is the Organization of American States.

Cooperation

The Government of Jamaica signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change on 12 June 1992 and ratified it on 6 January 1995.
Jamaica ratified the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, and the London Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on 31 March 1993, and the Copenhagen Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on 6 November 1997.

Jamaica and ten other CARICOM countries are involved in the four-year project, Caribbean : Planning for Adaptation to Global Climate Change.

For information on climate change in Jamaica's Country Profile for the implementation of SIDS/POA, click here.
Click here for information on Climate Change and Sea-Level Rise in Jamaica.
Click here for national information from the Web site of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
For the Montreal Secretariat, click here:

 

* * *

 

This information was provided by the Government of Jamaica to the sixth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: May 1998.

| Jamaica | All Countries | Home|

BIODIVERSITY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

To protect and conserve biological resources, the Government of Jamaica has adopted a Policy on land use and management plans for endangered species, a Policy on a System of Protected Areas, a National Environmental Action Plan, and a National Forestry Plan, as well as the following laws and other measures: a new Forest Act which includes Biodiversity Conservation; Draft Bills for Trade in Endangered Species Convention and Fisheries Industry; a Permitting and Licensing System for the use of Jamaica's resources; development of an atlas of an integrated approach to coastal zone management; and regulations for the importation of plants that have been genetically modified. In addition, there has been an increase in budgetary allocations for this purpose and the establishment of a National Park Trust Fund which is managed by a Local Environmental Non-Governmental Organization (ENGO).

Decision-Making: Major Group Involvement

Community participation is encouraged in the review process of Policies and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA); in Environmental Committees for the formulation and implementation of management plans for protected area and species, and through representation on the NRCA Board of Directors.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status

The main issues relating to biodiversity management in Jamaica are removal of mangrove forests, sedimentation in bays and coastal areas from coastal erosion and degraded upland watersheds; increases in coastal development and human pollution; discharge of nutrient rich waste into the sea and over-fishing.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

The information available on coastal and terrestrial biological resources is limited. However, as it relates to marine resources, there has been extensive scientific research conducted in this area over the years. Information is available on the following: (1) Biological data on fish catch and effort; (2) Distribution and population of Sooty Tern birds, bats, manatee, iguana, etc.; (3) Status of the resources in the Blue and John Crow Mountains National Park and the Montego Bay Marine Park; (4) Corals and Coral Reefs; and (5) Wetlands and mangrove forests.

Presently there is no biodiversity Internet service available. The government agency that is responsible for the Clearing House Mechanism under the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD) is the Institute of Jamaica (IOJ). IOJ is presently awaiting funding from CBD/Global Environmental Foundation (GEF) Enabling Activity Project to establish an Internet service on biodiversity.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

The Government of Jamaica signed the Convention on Biological Diversity on 11 June 1992 and ratified it on 5 January 1995.
Jamaica ratified the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage on 14 June 1983 and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, on 22 June 1997. It is not a Party to the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals [as of 1 September 1997].

The Government of Jamaica participates in regional arrangements on biological diversity, such as the contaminated Bays and Harbours of the Wider Caribbean (Cuba, Jamaica, Costa Rica and Columbia). This regional cooperative arrangement will provide a framework for an integrated investment action plan.

The government receives international assistance for the following projects:

For information on biodiversity resources in Jamaica's Country Profile for the implementation of SIDS/POA, click here.
Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to go to the Web Site of UNEP's International Register on Biosafety.
Click here to link to biosafety web sites in the European Union.
For access to the Web Site of the Convention on Biological Diversity, click here:
For access to the Web Site of the CITES Convention, click here:
For the Web Site of the CMS Convention, click here:
For the Web Site of the Convention on the Protection of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage, click here:
For the country-by-country, Man in the Biosphere On-Line Query System, click here:

 

* * *

 

This information was provided by the Government of Jamaica to the sixth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: May 1998.

| Jamaica | All Countries | Home|

DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

The Government of Jamaica ratified the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification on 12 November 1997.

For access to the Web Site of the Convention to Combat Desertification and Drought, click here:

 

 

* * *

| Jamaica | All Countries | Home|

ENERGY

No information is available.

 

* * *

For information on energy in Jamaica's Country Profile for the implementation of SIDS/POA, click here
Click here for basic statistical data for countries in the ESCAP region, including statistics on demographics, education, employment, energy, national accounts, external trade, finance and production, land use, transport and international tourism.

| Jamaica | All Countries | Home|

FORESTS

No information is available.

 

* * *

| Jamaica | All Countries | Home|

FRESHWATER

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

The Water Resources Authority is responsible for managing, protecting and allocating the water resources of Jamaica. There are no other agencies, neither at regional, district, local, or river-basin levels, established for this purpose.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

The regulatory framework is provided in the Water Resources Act of 1995, the Water Act of 1922, the Watershed Protection Act, 1963; the Natural Resources Conservation Authority Act, 1991; the Irrigation Act, 1949 (amended 1955, 1956, 1989), the Milk River Bath Act, 1927 (amended 1961), the National Water Commission Act, 1963, and the Water Supply Act, 1953 (amended >65, 1973, 1980, 1988).
Of particular relevance to the use of water for agriculture are the National Irrigation Commission Law, 1990; the Parishes Water Supply Act, 1957; and the Parochial Water Works Charges Act, 1913. The National Water Commission Law of 1980 addresses water use by both industry and households.
New water legislation allows the declaration of water quality zones to prevent pollution and force clean-up if pollution occurs, based on the Polluter Pays Principle. New environmental legislation also protects the water supply by requiring permits and environmental impact assessments for development.

The cost of water use is subsidized; only about thirty-five percent is recovered through pricing. The Government intends to increase this percentage gradually.
WHO standards are used to measure water quality.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

The National Water Resources Development Master Plan identifies the resources and demands  and proposes integrated scenarios and simulation models for development.
There is also a policy for disaster preparedness, and the Office of Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Management (ODEPM) has established a flood and a drought Task Force.

The allocation of water is determined in the light of the National Industrial Policy. Special needs of the poor are taken into account through "locally social water," which is of high quality, subsidized by the Government and supplied to a central collection point or water shop.

Decision-Making: Major Group Involvement

A mechanism exists in some instances to provide for participation of all major stakeholders in the decision-making process. There is no need for special participation by women, since they are already well-represented within the system at all levels. Major stake-holders are usually involved at all phases of the discussion.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status

Freshwater is conserved both by controlling allocation through a system of permits that are renewable annually and through public education of water users. Freshwater supplies are augmented through the repairing and upgrading of water catchment tanks to harvest rainfall.

The private sector is involved in the freshwater sector primarily through the use of consultants and the provision of expertise at cost.

Challenges

The major constraints faced by the Government in achieving its objectives in these areas are lack of financial support and lack of qualified personnel to implement policies.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

Each agency and private user submits abstraction data to the Water Resources Authority. Well construction water quality, water levels, and stream flow are all monitored by the WRA on a monthly-basis, island-wide. Information is distributed in quarterly reports, annual reports and special data reports of the WRA. It is available electronically, in a database, as well as on the World Wide Web, as indicated below.

Research and Technologies

There is sufficient technological capacity to treat and recycle waste water.

Financing

The Kingston Harbour Rehabilitation is estimated to cost US$ 400M over a period of twenty years.

Cooperation

The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands came into force in Jamaica on 7 February 1998.

In addition to the Ramsar Convention, the Government of Jamaica is a party to the following international legal agreements of relevance to both freshwater and oceans: the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matters (London); MARPOL 73/78; the Cartagena Convention, 1983; the Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982; and, at the regional level: the Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean and the Protocol on Cooperation in Combatting Oil Spills.

 

* * *

 

This information was provided by the Government of Jamaica to the sixth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: May 1998.

For Jamaica's information on well construction, water quality, water levels, and stream flow, click here.
For information on freshwater in Jamaica's Country Profile for the implementation of SIDS/POA, click here
Click here to visit the Web Site of the Ramsar Convention.
For information on water resources in Jamaica, click here.

| Jamaica | All Countries | Home|

LAND MANAGEMENT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

The Government of Jamaica has developed a comprehensive National Land Policy outlining policies, strategies, projects and programmes relating to land in Jamaica. It has prepared Town Plans for major urban land areas and integrated rural development plans to zone and govern various land users (although a lot more plans are needed). Jamaica has implemented a programme known as Operation PRIDE to make available government owned lands at reasonable prices to low income earners for various types of uses and enter into legal agreement with the beneficiaries to assist with development of the infrastructure on an incremental basis to an acceptable standard. The existing Town and Country Planning Act has been reviewed to make it more effective, and the National Resources Conservation Authority/Act has been strengthened to enable greater enforcement of environmental laws.

In preparation of the National Land Policy a series of nationwide fora were held and comments and recommendations from community groups and the general public were incorporated in the policy where feasible. Participation of community groups are encouraged in the preparation of Development Plans, land management projects, etc. These groups, which include NGOs, play an important role in the implementation of environmental conservation projects, promotion of sustainable development and pollution monitoring and control.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status

The main issues relating to land use in Jamaica are limited affordable and accessible land for low income earners; the lack of a comprehensive cadastral map; and a lengthy and costly land titling process which has resulted in approximately 50% of total land parcels existing without titles. Roughly fifty to seventy percent of all development takes place outside the formal system (i.e. without approval). In addition, there is a high incidence of squatting; lack of sufficient Town Plans and a lengthy and cumbersome planning approval process; under utilization of large areas of arable lands and small and inefficient fragmentation of others; and scattered small human settlements and linear developments with poor infrastructure.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

Information on land management is available on the Internet.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

 

This information was provided by the Government of Jamaica to the sixth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: May 1998.

To access information on land management at the Natural Resources Conservation Authority, click here.
To access information on land management at the Water Resources Authority,click here.
For information on land resources in Jamaica's Country Profile for the implementation of SIDS/POA, click here
Click here for basic statistical data for countries in the ESCAP region, including statistics on demographics, education, employment, energy, national accounts, external trade, finance and production, land use, transport and international tourism.

| Jamaica | All Countries | Home|

MOUNTAINS

No information is available.

 

* * *

| Jamaica | All Countries | Home |

OCEANS AND COASTAL AREAS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

The main issues relating to climate change in Jamaica are (1) increased rise of the sea level; (2) increased levels in the risks to human health; (3) higher frequency of storms and floods; and (4) increased levels of salt water intrusion.
The main road to the town of Morant Bay in St. Thomas is threatened by encroachment of the sea, a threat that did not exist when the roadway was constructed.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

It is proposed under the project Caribbean Planning for Adaptation to Climate Change (CPACC) in May, 1998, to provide information on Climate Change and Sea-Level Rise on the Internet (see below).

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

Financing for the four-year project Caribbean Planning for Adaptation to Global Climate Change, at a cost of 6.3 million US dollars, is provided by the Global Environmental Facility, through the World Bank. The executing agency is the Organization of American States.

Cooperation

The Government of Jamaica ratified the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on 21 March 1983.

Jamaica and ten other CARICOM countries are involved in the four-year project, Caribbean : Planning for Adaptation to Global Climate Change.

For information on Climate Change and Sea-level Rise is available, click here.
For information on Marine And Coastal Resources in Jamaica's Country Profile for the implementation of SIDS/POA, click here.
To access the Web Site of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, click here:

 

* * *

 

This information was provided by the Government of Jamaica to the sixth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: May 1998.

| Jamaica | All Countries | Home|

TOXIC CHEMICALS

No information is available.

 

* * *

| Jamaica | All Countries | Home|

WASTE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Solid Waste and Sanitation

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

The Ministry of Local Government is responsible for solid waste management. 

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

Sewage effluent standards are in place for the disposal of sewage, supporting regulations to be completed by March 1998. 
 The Natural Resources Conservation Authority (NRCA) is working with other agencies to develop guidelines and codes of practice for waste management in the industrial sectors such as chemicals, food and agro- industries and medical wastes.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

The National Solid Waste Management Project is being implemented to rationalise disposal sites, upgrade two existing dumps to landfills and to develop two new landfill sites for a total of four regional disposal sites.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status

The main issues relating to waste management in Jamaica are (1) Air pollution from motor vehicles and industry; (2) Improperly treated sewage; and (3) Solid waste disposal - lack of sanitary landfills and hazardous waste disposal facility.

The waste problems have several impacts. Water-borne diseases persist as rivers which are used as a sink for waste are also used as a source of untreated water supply, particularly for low income persons. Mangroves and the coastal water quality are adversely affected, and this also ultimately impacts on the health of swimmers. And, finally, coral reefs and sea grass beds are affected, thereby reducing the fish population.

Challenges

Major constraints encountered by Jamaica in implementing sound waste management policies and programmes are financing, human resources, and competing priorities. Technology needs for sound waste management include hazardous waste disposal technology, air quality management and incineration.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

Information on waste management is available on the Internet (see below).

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

For information on waste management in Jamaica, click here.
For information on the management of wastes in Jamaica's Country Profile for the implementation of SIDS/POA, click here.

 

* * *

 

This information was provided by the Government of Jamaica to the sixth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: May 1998.

Hazardous Wastes

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

The NRCA is in the process of identifying a hazardous waste disposal site. Currently, the NRCA recommends that hazardous waste be stored or exported to a country which can dispose of these substances.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

Major constraints encountered by Jamaica in implementing sound waste management policies and programmes are financing, human resources, and competing priorities. Technology needs for sound waste management include hazardous waste disposal technology, air quality management and incineration.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

Information on waste management is available on the Internet as indicated below.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

The Government of Jamaica has not signed or ratified the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal [as of 3 March 1998]. However, the Natural Resources Conservation Authority (NRCA) is working on local regulations to become a signatory.

For information on wate management in Jamaica, clickhere.
For direct link to the Web Site of the Basel Convention, click here:

 

* * *

 

This information was provided by the Government of Jamaica to the sixth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: May 1998.

Radioactive Wastes

No information is available.

 

* * *


| Economic Aspects | Institutional Aspects | Social Aspects |

| Jamaica | All Countries | Home|