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ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN JAMAICA

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INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

No information available.

 

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TRADE

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CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

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FINANCING

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

The Government of Jamaica has not introduced environmental taxes, levies or charges, nor has it identified any environmentally unsustainable subsidies.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

In the past two years, bilateral support for sustainable development projects has been received from the Canadian International Development Agency, amounting to a grant of Canadian twelve million dollars (Can$12M). This grant is being used to provide technical assistance to develop Jamaica's capacity for solving environmental problems and promote and pursue sustainable development.

 

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This information was provided by the Government of Jamaica to the sixth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: May 1998.

For information on participating States in the Global Environment Facility, click here:
For information about issues and projects in Latin America and the Caribbean from the World Bank, click here:

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TECHNOLOGY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

A Sustainable Development Council has been established, and a National Commission on Science and Technology is in the process of conducting a review of Science, Technology and Innovation Policies (STIP) to develop recommendations. 

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

In the area of waste management, the Scientific Research Council (SRC) is working on the technology, and the Natural Resources Conservation Authority (NRCA) is working on standards and legislation.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

Sectoral strategies that also incorporate science and technology include the Sustainable Tourism Development Project and a draft policy prepared and under review by the Ministry of Water for the promotion of environmentally-sustainable technologies (ESTs) in the area of freshwater resources management.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

The Integrated Wastewater Programme at the SRC addresses the issue of technology for Environmentally Sound Wastewater Management for all sectors. Its overall goal is to reduce the adverse environmental effects of pollution from wastewater.

Private sector companies have been established to provide requisite technical information and expertise in order to help further the transfer of ESTs.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

In Jamaica, ESTs are most urgently needed in the area of Mining.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

Information on environmentally-sound technologies and technology transfer is available on the Internet.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

For information on environmentally-sound technologies and technology transfer, click here.
For information on science and technology in Jamaica's Country Profile for the implementation of SIDS/POA, click here.

 

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This information was provided by the Government of Jamaica to the sixth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: May 1998.

 

BIOTECHNOLOGY

No information available.

Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to go to the Web Site of UNEP's International Register on Biosafety.

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INDUSTRY

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TRANSPORT

No information available.

 

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For information on transport and communication in Jamaica's Country Profile for the implementation of SIDS/POA, click here.

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SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

The Tourism Division of the Office of the Prime Minister, OPM(T), is responsible for tourism policy, planning and administration at the national level. The mandate of the Tourism Division and that of the agencies falling under its purview is to facilitate and encourage growth of a diversified tourism industry in ways which maximize the social and economic benefits for Jamaica, and at the time allow for the conservation and preservation of the environment. 

The government’s product development company- Tourism Product Development Company (TPDCo) and the Resort Boards are responsible for sustainable tourism at the local level.   

The Tourism Product Development Company (TPDCo)’s mission is to develop and improve the tourism product in order to position Jamaica as a preferred destination and to ensure that tourism is sustained as a major contributor to the development of the economy. 

The Resort Boards were established as advisory Boards to the Tourism Product Development Company for each of the 6 resort areas. The Resort Board’s mission is the development, improvement and sustainability of the tourism product within Resort Areas. 

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

All forms of tourism development must be considered in accordance to the legislations under the Natural Resources Conservation Authority (NRCR) Act of 1991, which address the management, conservation and protection of natural resources of Jamaica.  The NRCA Act applies to mandatory environmental impact assessments for all types of developments as well as permits and licenses for the discharge of effluents. 

In fostering the concept of sustainable tourism development within the wider tourism industry, the Tourism Division of the Office of the Prime Minister is working on the following policy initiatives: a policy on Green Tourism Policy and a River Rafting policy.  With regard to providing incentives for attractions, it is intended that there incentives will be performance based linked to environmental management criteria.  

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans     

The Government of Jamaica has currently embarked on the process of preparing a Master Plan for Sustainable Tourism Development. This Plan will provide ways in which the sector can achieve a balance between the built, natural, cultural and human environment. 

A consultative approach is being used to solicit information from a wide cross-section of communities and interest groups across the island. 

Stage one of the planning process for the Sustainable Tourism Development Master Plan has been competed, wherein the strategic option to lead us on the sustainable path would be selected. The next stage focuses on planning the implementation of the selected strategic option. It is expected that the draft Plan will be ready for presentation to the government by September 1999. 

The Master Plan, which is expected to guide tourism development in Jamaica for the next ten years, will take into account the following issues: 

The cultural heritage and traditional elements of local communities will be considered in relation to the wider tourism sector.  Through this enlightened approach to tourism development, emphasis will be placed on environmental protection, environmental management and carrying capacity assessments and will indicate limits of acceptable changes.  A major component of the Master Plan will be the preparation of a locational strategy for future tourism development and the carrying capacity and sanitation studies for all six resorts will be used to inform and guide the strategy. 

Mechanisms will be developed to facilitate greater economic linkages and social interaction between host communities, visitor and the tourism sector generally.  In addition, it is envisioned that efforts will be made to strengthen existing linkages with other productive sectors and establish new linkages where opportunities exist. 

Currently policy directions outlined in the National Industrial Policy speaks to the approach of eco-tourism and nature-based tourism in sustainable tourism development and addresses the need to diversify our tourism product to other areas such as nature-based, cultural, heritage and health tourism. 

Product development relating to ecotourism activities will be concentrated in areas being designated as national parks and protected areas, while other appropriate attractions will be encouraged along nature tourism guidelines.  

There are initiatives being taken under the Environmental Audits for Sustainable Tourism (EAST) programme to monitor continuously the progress of tourism development in order to make the necessary corrections or revisions to ensure sustainability. It is expected that other mechanisms will be developed in the Master Plan once completed. 

The NRCA’s Policy for Jamaica’s System of Protected Areas has identified over 150 areas which are possible candidates for Protected Areas. 

Other policy initiatives which indirectly assists/ensures that the tourism industry is developed in a sustainable of manner are the Ministry of Health’s policies pertaining to environmental and pollution control. 

The Government of Jamaica through the NRCA is working on a Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan Development Project. One of the sectors being examined under this project is Tourism. 

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement     

The Office of the Prime Minister (Tourism) has involved the following public private sector groups in the sustainable tourism planning process: 

-          The Resort Boards which are found in all resort areas. (Public/Private)

-          Individual Local Environmental NGOs, which are found in twelve parishes.

-          The Local Advisory Committee in the Blue and John Crow Management National Park. 

The relationship which the Tourism Division of the Office of the Prime Minister has with its agencies, the private sector tourism interests, other public sectoral groups and the community based and environmental non governmental organizations is that of a participatory mode which embraces a public-private sector partnership. 

The following steering committees or technical working groups are chaired either by the Minister of Tourism or the Director General and are represented by a wide cross section of stakeholders: 

-          The Master Plan for Sustainable Tourism Development;

-          The Tourism Industry Advisory Council;

-          The Resort Boards; and,

-          The Green Tourism Networking Groups. 

In addition to the steering committees chaired by OPM (Tourism) heads, there are other Steering Committees or technical working groups of other Ministries which OPM(T) are members of, namely:  Council of Coastal Zone Management; Coastal Water Improvement Project (CWIP); South Coast Sustainable Tourism Project; Spanish Town Redevelpoment Committee; and, the National Integrated Watershed Management Programme. 

Programmes and Projects     

In our drive towards sustainable tourism development in Jamaica, it is envisioned that the quality tourism demanded is achievable. In fact, the World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) and Green Globe International have selected Jamaica as the pilot destination to launch the Green Globe Hotel Certification Programme. The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) funds this programme under the Environmental Audits for Sustainable Tourism (EAST) initiative which is implemented by the Jamaica Hotel and Tourist Association (JHTA). In this regard, Negril and Port Antonia, which are two of our six resort areas in Jamaica, became the first destination in the world to have hotels selected, audited and registered for this certification programme. The ten (10) hotels in the Greening Negril 2000 Programme being implemented by EAST in conjunction with the Negril Chapter of the JHTA are as follows: Sea Splash; Grand Lido; Negril Tree House; Negril Gardens; Sunshine Village; Coral Seas Gardens; Negril Cabins; Rondel Village; Mariner’s Inn; and, T Water Cottage. 

Fern Hill hotel in Port Antonio is the first hotel in Port Antonio to undergo the audits for the EAST Programme. The second phase of the EAST Programme was launched in Port Antonio. Four hotels- Dragon Bay, Jamaica Crest, Goblin Hill and Trident plus one attraction – Blue Lagoon were audited. By becoming “Green properties,” these hotels will be required to establish environmental management system which incorporates ISO 14000 standards.  Hotel operations therefore should reflect energy efficiency, water conservation and waste management practices. 

To date, four Jamaica hotels became the first hotels in the world to attain certification by Green Globe as green hotels. These hotels are Mockingbird Hill, Beaches Negril, Spa Splash and Negril Cabins. 

The NRCA recently developed a policy for Jamaica’s System of Protected Areas and one of the goals through this policy is to provide recreational and educational opportunities to improve the quality of life for all Jamaicans and visitors. 

Ecotourism and nature based tourism are being promoted and marketed as community based cultural and ecological events. The examples are as follows: 

1)      The Blue and John Crown Montain National Park has developed a nature trail – “the Oatley Mountain Trail,” in the parish of Portland;

2)      There is a community based NGO, “Valley Hikes,” which promotes and develops ecotourism activities in the Rio Grande Valley through their hike and other outdoor activities; and

3)      In the parish of Trelawny, the local environmental NGO, the Southern Trelawny Environmental Association, promotes and markets a cultural event which is the “Yam Festival.” 

Blue and John Crow Mountain National Park are geared both to sustainable tourism and to ecotourism and nature-based tourism. 

Status 

The government’s product development company, the Tourism Product Development Company (TPDCo), has developed guidelines/checklists for ecotourism, nature-based tourism, and heritage tourism developemts. These conditions are, however, voluntary. 

There is general acceptance to these codes/guidelines; however there is some degree of antagonism displayed in individual cases. For one of our major river based attraction – “YS Falls”- the operations have instituted a carrying capacity for the number of person visiting the waterfall, which is very effective. 

Tourism expenditure for 1997 is US $1,121 billion. The industry employees 71,568 people with 33,927 in accommodation sector. The 1997 JTB Economic Impact Analysis reveals that 7.6% (71,568) of the workforce is employed in the sector. 

The current impact of tourism on the sustainable development pertains to the following: 

Environment

-          Beach erosion, beach pollution, maintenance and development

-          The introduction of Green Technologies to support the EAST Programme

-          The commissioning of environmental impact assessments for river based attractions along the Black River and the Rio Grande. 

Preservation of culture

-          The commission of a cultural heritage tourism study

-          The restoration of Georgian Architecture in the town of Falmouth, Trelawny, which is a declared heritage site by the government of Jamaica.

-          The Restoration of the Historic core of Spanish Town, St. Catherine. 

There is also the Green Tourism Network Group, whose mission is to ensure the sustainable development of Jamaica’s tourism. One of the main objectives of this group is to facilitate co-operation of environmentally friendly tourism interests with segments of the tourism sector such as government agencies as well as international donors. 

Environmental initiatives being implemented by the Jamaica Hotel and Tourist Association (JHTA) are:

-          Healthy Hotels initiative; and,

-          Solid Waste Management project with the theme being “BE green and be clean.” Through this initiative, each chapter of the JHTA will sensitize organizations to implement sustainable solid waste management projects. 

The marketing of tourism products to attract the environmentally conscious tourist is being done through the Green Globe Programme, for the four Jamaican hotels which have become the first hotels in the world to be certified as Green Hotels. Similarly, individual hotels, such as the Half Moon Hotel and Golf Club which has won on an annual basis international awards as an environmental steward does its own marketing. 

Challenges 

The resources are not always available to sustain training in sustainable tourism.  Further the educational process to promote sustainable tourism initiative is slow. 

Capacity-Building, Education, Training and Awareness-Raising 

Team Jamaica Programme is provided for employees in the tourism industry to assist them in understanding, applying and promoting sustainable tourism. 

The ENACT Programme, which is sponsored by the Canadian International Development Agency, has sustainable development programmes/projects targeted at the public and Private Sector.  

Public awareness on the issues pertaining to sustainable tourism are achieved through the Jamaica Tourist Board public education programmes, the tourism infusion programme in primary and all age schools and the community consultations and seminars held to discuss the Master Plan for Sustainable Tourism Development. 

Information 

The Office of the Prime Minister (Tourism) prepared a synopsis on the diagnosis and strategic options of Jamaica’s tourism industry. This 30-page booklet was circulated to the general public for their information and feedback which will help guide the development of action plans for the Master Plan. 

Research and Technologies  
Sewage Treatment

Currently, new secondary sewage treatment facilities, financed partially by international donors are under construction in the three major tourist resorts --- Montego Bay, Ocho Rios, and Negril. Additional Systems are being planned for Antonio.

 Water Supply

With regard to water supply, infrastructure projects have either been completed or are in the pipeline for the resort areas. Montego Bay: water supply was recently upgraded and the supply for the treatment plant is sufficient to meet demand for the next ten years. Negril: the Lago Water treatment plant is being upgraded at present in order to move it from a treatment capacity of 3.5 million gallons per day to 7 millions/day. Ocho Rios: the region has excess freshwater capacity. 

Financing  

See also under Cooperation

Commonwealth Secretariat partially funded the Master Plan for Sustainable Tourism Development in Jamaica, Carrying Capacity Studies and Sanitation Studies for three resort areas.   

Funds are provided by USAID to the following projects: Coastal Water Improvement Project (CWIP) Programme; Ridge to Reef; Hillside Agriculture Project; Trees for Tomorrow; and, Environment Audits for Sustainable Tourism (EAST).  

Watershed project in the Buff Bay Pencar Area is funded by CIDA.   

European Union provides support to Morant Yallahs project and Beach Erosion and Coral Reef Degradation.   

Projects of Rio Grande Valley Agro Forestry, River Rafting, and EIA are funded by Netherlands Government.   

Inter-American Development Bank provides funds to Watershed Management Programme in Hope River and Great River Watersheds, Solid Waste Management Project, South Coast Sustainable Development project, and, Cultural Heritage Tourism Project. 

Cooperation 

See also under Financing

With the help from UNDP, the Jamaican government launched the following projects: Forestry capacity project; and, Planning and Managing of Heavily Contaminated Bays and Coastal Areas in the Caribbean ---Global Environmental Fund.  

Jamaica participates in the CARICOM Resource Assessment and Management Programme (CFRAMP).

This information was provided by the Government of Jamaica to the sixth and eighth sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: October 2001.

For information on tourism in Jamaica's Country Profile for the implementation of SIDS/POA, click here.



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