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SOCIAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN ITALY

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POVERTY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

In 1989 a Commission was established to investigate poverty and marginalization, with two main objectives: (a) to provide data and information on the spread and the characteristics of poverty in Italy; and (b) to provide decision-makers with instruments for policy assessment.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

The number of poor families includes those who live below the poverty line, i.e., with a per capita consumption that is less than half of the average national per capita consumption.

Based on the data for consumption by families compiled by the National Statistics Institute (ISTAT), in 1995 2.128 million families lived in poverty, for a total of 6.696 people, corresponding to 10.6% of families and 11.9% of the Italian population. Sixty-eight and one-tenths percent of poor families are in the South of Italy; 12.4% in the Center; and 19.5% in the North.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

Social spending as a percentage of the State's total expenditures has gone from 24.4% in 1992 to 18.5% in 1995.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

 

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This information was provided by the Government of Italy to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1997.

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DEMOGRAPHICS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

In 1992 the average number of children per woman in Italy was between 1.25 and 1.26 by comparison to the average EU value of 1.48. In the Center-North of the country, the fertility level is equivalent to 1 child per woman. Italy has the lowest rate in the world. Projections for 2005 indicate three hypotheses: fertility rates of 2.1, of 1.7-1.8, or of 1.3 will lead, leading, respectively, to populations of 59.58, 56.24 and 51.98 million inhabitants. Unlike other countries, in Italy there is not great concern over the problem of sustainable population growth. The issues on which attention is focused are the drop in the birth rate, aging of the population, foreign immigration, and health.

In recent years the government has not taken any significant initiatives on the subject of fertility and births. On the other hand, the cultural, economic and social conditions do not seem to exist for an eventual increase in Italian fertility rates.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

Italy, through the UNFPA, has funded projects in Africa to improve services in the mothers and infants sector, and pilot projects to benefit women in Latin America. Through FAO, it has also financed a project to support the first farm census in China (1986-96). Collaborative activities have started with Mozambique for personnel training and expansion of structures for taking the population census.

 

 

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This information was provided by the Government of Italy to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1997.

Click here for Trends in Europe and North America: ECE statistical data base.

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HEALTH

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

From 1990 to 1996 at least 18 laws were passed to assimilate EU directives in the field of air pollution and industrial risks, affecting productive activities.

Law 626 of 1994 and the later Decree 242 of March 1996 issued new regulations for safeguarding the health of workers on the job (in 1995, 780,000 work-related accidents, including 1,080 fatalities, were reported).

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

A priority objective of action to improve the transportation sector is to protect people's health from air pollution generated by fuel combustion. The road transportation sector is, in fact, responsible for 49% of N0x emissions, 63% of CO, 38% of COV, 62% of Pb, 20% of CO2. The data for 1993 shows that in large cities there is respect for the air quality standards on SO2, while the standards for NO2, CO2, and particularly CH4 are exceeded. In October 1995 a framework law on noise pollution was approved regulating the air, rail, maritime and vehicular transportation sectors. The regions have the duty of defining zoning criteria for municipal territories and acoustic rehabilitation plans.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

 

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This information was provided by the Government of Italy to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1997.

Click here to go to the Health and health-related statistical information from the World Health Organization.
Click here for Italy's National Environmental Health Action Plans

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EDUCATION

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

The education, training and environmental information sector in Italy involves various subjects: local government agencies, environmental associations, ministries, schools, park agencies, and so forth.

In 1993-95, nine of the main environmental associations (NGOs) were responsible for promoting sixty-nine national campaigns.

Programmes and Projects 

Initiatives include the program agreement between the Ministries of the Environment and of Education for teaching environmental issues in schools, teacher training, and the dissemination of educational material. A new strategy was defined in the 1994-96 program at the national and regional level, through the constitution of territorial centers and laboratories, with 14.4 billion liras a year in funding. The Ministry of the Environment has performed activities of sensitization of environmental information, including a campaign on waste (1993-95), programs aimed at small and mid-sized businesses and artisans, schools, etc.

Status  

The regions have implemented training courses on environmental issues: in 1992-93, 218 such courses were held; in 1993-94, 220. Of these, 26% were on territorial issues, and 17 % on environmental techniques.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

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This information was provided by the Government of Italy to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1997.

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HUMAN SETTLEMENTS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

Approximately 50 Italian municipalities are adopting their own documents (Local Agendas 21) for sustainable developments (including Rome and Venice).

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

The inspections of the number of cars in circulation provided for by the new road code will lead to 6% savings in fuel consumption. Car parks designed at intersections with public transportation (Park and Ride) received a subsidy of 3,500 billion liras, for subways and trams 6,000 billion, and for bicycle paths 50 billion.

The average amount of green space per 9.5 million inhabitants of the eleven largest cities in 1993 was 9.8 m2 per person.

Specific initiatives are underway for the 14 areas declared at risk of environmental crisis, in which approximately 11 million people live.

The activities of required consortia allowed the recycling in 1995 of 1.4 tons of trash (double the amount of 1990), primarily in the cities.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

 

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This information was provided by the Government of Italy to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1997.

Click here to access UNCHS "Best Practices for Human Settlements" Western Europe (including Turkey) .
For information related to human settlements and refugees, you may access the UNHCR Country Index by clicking here:


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