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SOCIAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN INDONESIA

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POVERTY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The Indonesian Constitution (1945) framed development based on the democratization of the economy and on 'brotherhood principles' - hence, the major public initiatives for the alleviation of poverty. Poverty is defined in the REPELITA (Five Year Development Plan) as "a situation of inability to meet basic needs due to limited access to capital, insufficient value for commodities produced, and restricted opportunity to participate in the development". The poor are typically also unable to access natural resources and/or social services such as health, education, transportation and sanitation.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Agenda 21 - Indonesia extends much of this activity into the future. The proposed long term goal of policies and programs is to create a sustainable increase in income and quality of life through the eradication of poverty in Indonesia. Financing from 1998-2003 from the Indonesian national budget is expected to amount to approximately ten percent of the entire state expenditure. The following Program Areas (priority areas) of the Indonesian Agenda 21 deal with poverty:

Policy and program activities to manage consumption to sustainable levels are intimately connected with those to manage and alleviate poverty.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

Policy and program action is necessarily inter-related. Much of it is concerned with the alleviation of many of both the causes and the effects of poverty. In REPELITA VI, development policy was explicitly framed around principles of equal distribution of and equal access to food, clothing, housing, education and health services, business and development activities. The main target of the REPELITA Vl poverty alleviation program is the improvement of the role of small businesses, particularly in the agricultural sector where the majority of the poor reside, through the development of cooperatives and businesses in the informal sector. This program is aimed specifically at the 6% of Indonesia's population living in conditions of 'absolute' Poverty.
Through this policy initiative, more than 39,000 cooperatives and 8,700 new village cooperatives (KUD) have been established. Other small business initiatives include the development of credit systems for small scale investment (KIK), small scale business (KUK), permanent working capital (KMPK) and rural loans (KUPEDES).

Status 

Indonesia's population (1993) is estimated at 185 million and is projected to increase to 257 million by the end of the planning horizon of Agenda 21 - Indonesia (2000). Of the 185 million people, approximately 25.9 million are living in 'poverty' as defined by international absolute standards. The impact of the changing economy of these people, the demands that the people place on the development of public infrastructure and the impact that such changes will have on the environment at local and regional levels need to be both conceptualized and engaged in an integrated fashion.

Of those deemed 'poor', 8.7 million live in urban areas and 17.2 million live in rural areas. Generally, the poor are classified as farmers, fishermen or 'urban poor'. Each category (the farmers group is numerically the most significant) has a distinct constellation of problems and issues to which development initiatives must respond.
Trends indicate that, in the future, poverty will be encountered more in urban areas due to increasing urbanization. Nevertheless, rural poverty, particularly in relation to farmers and fishermen should also be alleviated.

It is predicted that job opportunities in urban areas will grow both in speed and diversity, and that the poor who live in urban areas will have greater job opportunities. However, the poor in urban communities are faced with a number of constraints, including inadequate education and severe competition. Thus, it is necessary to improve human resources, both vertically and in terms of future job opportunities. Such a policy requires partnership between government, business and social sectors, and provision of adequate social services, particularly health care and clean water supply.

Challenges

In overcoming rural poverty, especially among farmers and fishermen, it is necessary to preserve the functions of natural resources which are the sources of people's livelihood, such as forests, the sea and mining areas. The preservation of these resources should be accompanied by an atmosphere which is conducive whereby poor communities are given just and equal access, and facilities to take advantage of these resources.
Poverty is also thought to be one of the reasons for the decline in environmental quality. Conversely, the decline in environmental carrying capacity may create an increase in poverty. Poverty alleviation and environmental management are therefore important co-dependent targets for Indonesia in relation to sustainable development.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

No information is available.

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This information was provided by the Government of Indonesia to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1997.

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DEMOGRAPHICS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

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Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Agenda 21 - Indonesia proposes to engage population issues in the near-term by:

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

Indonesia has succeeded in lowering its annual population growth rate from 2.34%, during the 1970-1980 period, to 1.98% during the period 1980-1990. This was done through the ongoing national family planning program. However, even population distribution has yet to be achieved so that in certain areas the carrying capacity of the environment has been surpassed, particularly in relation to agricultural productivity. To date population distribution has been dealt with separately from environmental management.

Status 

Indonesia's population (1993) is estimated at 185 million and is projected to increase to 257 million by the end of the planning horizon of Agenda 21 - Indonesia (2000).
Overall, the population growth rate has decreased from 2.3% per annum (1971-1980) to approximately 1.66% per annum during the 1990s. It is projected that the growth rate will decrease to 0.68% by the end of the planning horizon of the Indonesian Agenda 21. Both the raw numbers of this increase, as well as demographic changes will precipitate major changes in Indonesia. For example, increased urbanization and population growth are expected to increase Indonesia's urban population to 132.5 million (i.e. 50% of the total population) by 2020.
While poverty and consumption have clear and tangible needs for management, the population dynamics of Indonesia have been less readily engaged to date. Population affects human services and broader social and environmental factors in a variety of complex and recursive manners. As indicated earlier, the rate of growth of the Indonesian population is decreasing and the mobility of the population is increasing.

Challenges

It is necessary to develop institutions and implementation procedures to manage the interaction between development, population and environment. These institutions should focus on the development and management of information, as well as policy formulation, and implementation.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available.

Information 

Data needs to be gathered and integrated to link demographic and environmental variables. Following this, demographic analysis will be included in a more integrated manner in a variety of development planning tools, including Environmental Impact Analysis (AMDAL).

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

No information is available.

 

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This information was provided by the Government of Indonesia to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1997.

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HEALTH

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Improvements in health services are framed in the Indonesian Agenda 21 as part of Indonesia's drive to sustainability. Proposed program areas (priority areas) include:

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

While primary health care has improved with the growth of the Village Community Health Development Program which operates through the 'posyandu' network (this program more than doubled its organizational members to 200,000 between 1984 and 1989), the near-term objective is to implement primary health care for all people through the expansion of the community-based posyandu primary health care model. The financial requirement of this proposed program is estimated to be US $ 8,3 million per annum.

Status 

Many health issues have been improving in Indonesia. The infant mortality rate decreased from 145 per 1,000 live births in 1967 to 62 per 1,000 in 1990. The average life expectancy of men and women both increased significantly over the same period. However, regional variation in program implementation and effectiveness remains quite significant and services tend to be uniformly distributed, whereas human resources in the health sector differ from place to place. It is recommended that, in the future, health services be based on spatial approach and improvement in self-sufficiency.

Challenges

Given the demographic trends already discussed, growth in the production of solid wastes is projected to increase dramatically. The resulting deterioration of water quality will increase health problems, particularly for the urban poor. Due to increased urban and industrial activities, more attention should be paid to water and air pollution control, clean water supply, and other environmental measures.
Furthermore, health services should be improved for populations most vulnerable to infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, cholera and malaria. These diseases must be eradicated, and urban community health services must be developed in line with urban community growth. A long term plan is to eliminate a variety of significant diseases (e.g. cholera, hepatitis B, rabies). Mass immunizations and institutional development programs will require an expenditure of approximately US$ 52 million.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

No information is available.

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This information was provided by the Government of Indonesia to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1997.

Click here to go to the Health and health-related statistical information from the World Health Organization.

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EDUCATION

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HUMAN SETTLEMENTS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Indonesia's goals to date are consonant with broad international goals of 'shelter for all' and have been represented by substantial progress thus far.

Since 1974, the Kampune (hamlet) Improvement Program has attempted to address broader settlement issues than simply housing. More recently - since the Five Year Development Plan REPELITA IV (1984-1989) - policy has attempted to engage all aspects of housing and residential areas management in a single integrated process. Recent developments have followed Habitat's Shelter For All strategy and have stressed community empowerment and involvement in the community design process. Thus far, however, housing policy has not reflected the importance of environmentally sound and sustainable human settlements development as a primary conceptual and planning frame for housing development in Indonesia.

According to the Indonesian Agenda 21, the integration of social and environmental conditions will serve as the basis for action to guarantee an improvement in quality of life, whereby each person can enjoy a better life, respect one another, have access to infrastructure facilities and good housing services, and be able to enhance the quality of their environment. Based on this, all persons are treated, and expected to treat themselves, as equal to each other, and everyone has a role in the decision-making process. In achieving this objective, it is necessary: (l) to change the concept of 'housing development' into 'settlement development', which places emphasis on social, functional and ecological integration; and (2) to create an atmosphere conducive for settlers to maintain their own settlements with a view to improving their welfare.

The above objectives are described and analyzed in the following Program Areas (priority areas) of the Indonesian Agenda 21:

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Status 

Within the context of improving the housing development process and developing environmentally-sound development regulations, public sector resources will be targeted toward both development planning and the actual development of housing and institutions. It is suggested that total investment in housing and settlement services will require between 7% and 18% of GDP. Publicly funded construction will be limited to the development of major infrastructure systems and the construction of housing to assist low income communities. At the macro level, the new objectives of settlements policy will be to improve infrastructure and social amenities while maintaining environmental carrying capacity. At the regional level, it is anticipated that indigenous sources of revenue for settlement development will complement state funds.

Challenges  

Human settlement issues for much of Indonesia are confounded by poverty, resource scarcity, pollution and population density. There are qualitative and quantitative needs for more and better housing. Recent studies suggest that approximately 750,000 new housing units will be needed by 2020, and much of it will be required in densely populated urban centers. This will reflect not only population growth but also a demographic change in housing from extended families to nuclear families.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

No information is available.

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This information was provided by the Government of Indonesia to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1997.

Click here to access UNCHS "Best Practices for Human Settlements" in Asia (including Iran, Afghanistan, Japan).

For information related to human settlements and refugees, you may access the UNHCR Country Index by clicking here:


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