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NATURAL RESOURCE ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN INDONESIA

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AGRICULTURE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

A variety of successful initiatives to date have helped to develop Indonesia's agricultural resources. Over the past 35 years, the Ministry of Agriculture has implemented a number of programs to rehabilitate and prevent the degradation of land.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

In order to face future challenges, agriculture and rural development strategy should be changed whereby environmental considerations are integrated into agricultural practices, with the final objective being the sustainable provision of food which is safe for public health. The following six Program Areas in the Indonesian Agenda 21 have been appraised to be of priority importance to the implementation of sustainable development in agriculture:

Local supply of rice is a national priority. Under the country's First Long-term Development Plan (PJP 1), Indonesia achieved the goal of self-sufficiency in the production of rice, through both major increases in productivity and expansion of the area under rice cultivation by more than a third. The challenge of self-sufficiency remains, however, due to rapid population growth and pressures on agricultural land. The national demand for rice is expected to converge with the supply at 32.3 million tons in 2003 and then surpass it - projections suggest increasing rice imports in the mid to long term.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

Land reclamation has been a slow and expensive process, however, and results of these activities have been mixed. Other progress has been made in the use of integrated pest management as an alternative to otherwise significant applications of dangerous pesticides. In the late 1980s, following a serious problem with pesticide-resistant brown plant hoppers which attack rice plant, the Government of Indonesia introduced the Integrated Pest Control program. By 1995 this program had trained nearly 200,000 farmers. Despite these efforts, many pesticide products currently remain in common use in Indonesia that have been banned in the countries of origin due to their toxicity.

Agenda 21 - Indonesia proposes a variety of concrete activities to shift towards sustainable agricultural practices. Overall, it recommends the inclusion of both long-term planning and environmental concerns, including soil nutrition and water use, as criteria in all major policy and program activity. In more specific terms, it recommends that the Integrated Pest Control program be expanded immediately, with a goal to train 800,000 by 1998. A variety of other measures are proposed, including strict monitoring and control of pesticide use, legal restrictions on land conversion and agricultural extension programs focused on issues such as soil fertility and uses of crop wastes.

Status 

Agriculture is still by far the largest 'natural resource' sector of the Indonesian economy and is also the way of life of a majority of its people. Villagers will continue to make up a majority of the country's population even at the end of the 25-year planning horizon of Agenda 21. Thus, in Indonesia, issues that relate to rural development and agriculture have special importance for broader attempts to implement sustainable development.
In addition to contributing to the national economy, the agricultural sector also supports the livelihood of a majority of Indonesians who reside in rural areas. However, the current agriculture development strategy focuses on the achievement of short-term production targets to the neglect of ecological considerations.
The agricultural sector is presently transforming due to the increases in both technological intensity and international market pressures. It is expected to become both more efficient, specialized and diversified and concurrently to employ considerably fewer small farmers. This change is one of the dynamics precipitating the urban migration.

The dominant land resource management concern in urban areas is the conversion of agricultural to non-agricultural land. During the period from 1980 to 1995, the urban area in Indonesia increased by an estimated 367,500 ha., an average of 25,100 ha. per year. Almost 60 percent of that development - just under 15,000 ha. per year - occurred in Java. The World Bank estimates that by 2010 roughly 13% of Java's 3.4 million ha. of rice fields may be converted into non-agricultural land. This trend is projected to threaten Indonesia's self-sufficiency in food production. Much of the converted land will be irrigated land, meaning the waste of the major capital investments that have been made in irrigation systems. Individual farmers can make larger profits by selling their land to investors than by using it to produce food.

In rural settings, forest areas at high altitudes and wetlands in the coastal areas are being converted to agricultural uses, with considerable disruption to ecosystem processes. Soil erosion due to these disturbances will cost the country an estimated $300-400 million US per year, 90% of it in the form of loss of land productivity and the remainder in the form of accumulation of sediments in irrigation systems, reservoirs and coastal areas.

Challenges  

See under Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

No information is available.

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Indonesia to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1997.

Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.

Click here to link to Country and Sub-regional Information on Plant Genetic Resources of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.

Click here to go to Web Site of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, which includes information on the Codex Alimentarius and the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme.

Click here to access the Web Site of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).

Click here to access the sixteen international agricultural research centers that are members of the CGIAR.

For country reports on Plant Genetic Resources, click here.

To access the FAOSTAT Data Base for information by country, item, element and year, click here:

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ATMOSPHERE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The management of atmospheric protection is coordinated by the Ministry of State for Environment and the National Development Planning Agency (Bappenas).

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

To address global climatic change and the management of greenhouse gas emissions, Indonesia has enacted numerous pieces of legislation as well as convened a National Committee on Climate and Environment. This committee reports directly to Minister of Environment.

To anticipate future climate change, Indonesia has established a working group of the National Committee on Climate and Environment under the coordination of the State Ministry for Environment (via Ministerial Decree Kep-35/MENKLH/8/1992). This national working group has three sectoral working groups, each having specific responsibilities and its own sub-committee.

In terms of stratospheric ozone depletion and greenhouse gases, Indonesia has taken a variety of steps. In May 1992, by Presidential Decree no. 23/1992, Indonesia ratified the Vienna Convention for the Protection of Ozone Layer, and both its Montreal Protocol and London Amendment. Indonesia has also committed to a phase out of all ozone depleting substances in Indonesia by 1997.

Indonesia participates in the work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the Intergovernmental Negotiation Committee (INC) for the UN Framework Convention on Climatic Change, which the Government signed on 5 June 1992 and ratified on 23 August 1994 by Act No. 6/1994.

Before the ratification of the Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol in 1990, the Ministry of Health had issued Ministerial Decree No. 376/MenkeKs/PER/VIII/1990 concerning the groups of substances that can be used in producing cosmetics. The decree prohibits the use of CFCs in aerosols and the cosmetics industry. A year later, in 1991, the Pesticide Committee, a national body which regulates the production, importation and use of pesticides in Indonesia, banned the use of CFCs in pesticide products. Furthermore, in 1994, the Committee decided to ban the use of methyl bromide from 1997 onward.

Indonesia plans to phase out all Ozone Depleting Substances by the end of 1997, well ahead of the Montreal Protocol phase-out date of 2010 for Article 5 countries such as Indonesia, providing that adequate financial resources are available from the Multilateral Fund of the Montreal Protocol, and provided that appropriate substitute technologies are made available. A National Committee to phase-out of all Ozone Layer Protection and ODS Phase-out has been established under the coordination of the State Ministry for Environment to oversee the process of reducing, and eventually phasing out the use of ODS. One of its tasks has been to develop a Country Program for the phase-out of ODS in accordance with the protocol guidelines.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The principles of equity and shared responsibility among government institutions, the private sector and the general public, are the basis on which to address issues of climate change.

The Indonesian Agenda 21 identifies four program (priority) issues in this area:

The Indonesian National Committee has identified three principles as the foundation for the national response strategy to address climate change, namely:

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

The Indonesian Country Program details the combined efforts of the Government, industry and non-government organizations. To formulate sector components of the action plan and to oversee project formulation, five technical sector working groups have been formed which report to the National Technical Committee.
The sector groups concentrate on foams, refrigeration and air conditioning, halons, aerosols and solvents respectively.

Many companies, such as those using ODS containing solvents, have already converted their production processes to non-ODS technologies and are phasing out ODS without external assistance. Other firms have benefited from the assistance of the State Ministry for Environment, the World Bank and the UNDP and have been preparing projects for submission to the Multilateral Fund of the Montreal Protocol. These projects range from those which are near completion to those which are in the process of development. The Government has also been working with relevant sectors to develop trade regulations which will discourage the import of ODS. These regulations are planned to take effect in July 1997.

Over the course of the past few years, the government and the industrial sector have also been focusing on the phase out of ozone depleting substances, which can directly or indirectly impact on climate change. Furthermore, Indonesia's reforestation program, forest conservation program and land and forest fire prevention program are concrete steps to improve the sequestration capacity of forests and to reduce net emissions.

Programmes and Projects 

In accordance with the above policy framework, Indonesia has developed activities which are scheduled to start during the Sixth Five Year Plan (REPELITA VI, 1995-1998). The activities of the lndonesian response to global climate change can be divided into five categories which are: Research and Development, Monitoring and Analysis Related to the Greenhouse Effect and Climate Change; Efforts to Reduce the Effect of Greenhouse Gases; Adaptations to Climate Change; The Role of Public Participation and the Business Community in Anticipating Greenhouse Effects and Climate Change; and Evaluation of the impacts of Climate Change on the Environment.

Many of these activities are already underway. For example, a number of studies have been conducted to improve national data and information on climate change, its impacts and potential response strategies including: an analysis of sea level rise in Indonesia; a report on the management of tropical marine systems in relation to atmospheric changes; a study of strategic responses to global warming and climate change and their adverse effects, a report on ecostrategies for terrestrial CO2 fixation; and the Indonesian Country Study on Climate Change.

One of the environmental compliance programs, The Blue Sky Program, is aimed at rehabilitating the quality of air in urban and industrial areas, maintaining the air quality in non-polluted areas and improving the institutional capacity as well as community participation in controlling air pollution. Fifty one industries in four provinces have affirmed their participation in the program which will be undertaken by Bapedal. Four factories have been selected as a demonstration project in Jakarta, Cilegon (West Java), Cilacap (Central Java) and Sidoardjo (East Java). As part of the Blue Sky program, Indonesia will phase out leaded gasoline by 1999 and issue regulations on the emission level of road vehicles. Meanwhile Indonesia now has 31 air quality monitoring stations in Jakarta, Bandung (West Java), Semarang (Central Java), Surabaya (East Java) and Denpasar (Bali) to help check increasing air pollution arising from motor vehicles in large cities.

Status 

The Indonesian waste stream with the most obvious potential for global effects is atmospheric pollution. However, atmospheric pollution will also be a serious local issue in Indonesian urban centers - for example, air pollution levels in Jakarta are expected to increase 600% between 1990 and 2018. The primary source of atmospheric pollutants (i.e. carbon monoxide, suspended particulate matter, volatile hydrocarbons, sulfur dioxide) is the combustion of fossil fuels, although in rural areas the combustion of crop and timber residues as well as that of fuelwood are also significant contributors.

Atmospheric emissions have even slightly exceeded economic growth rates in Indonesia - as an aggregate, they have been increasing at approximately 9.5% annually for more than 20 years. The etiology of these pollutants is spread primarily between vehicle use and power production, although other industrial and household sources are significant contributors. A recent study of air pollution in Jakarta reported that vehicular pollution was responsible for almost 100% of airborne lead, 89% of hydrocarbons, 64% of nitrogen oxides and almost all carbon monoxide. Given vehicular use projections provided by the World Bank, pollution projections are dire - by 2020, urban air pollution in Indonesia is expected to grow 800% for particulate, 900% for lead and 1400% for nitrogen oxides. The health and social effects of these increased atmospheric loading will be significant, as will be longer term economic effects.

Indonesia's contribution to macro level atmospheric problems is at present not very significant. Indonesian industry consumes less than 1% of the world's ozone depleting substances and produces between 1.6-1.8% of the world's greenhouse gas emissions. Indonesia contributed only about 2.7 tons of CO2 per capita in 1991, if all emission are included, and 0.84 tons if only fossil fuels are considered. This compares to a world average of 4.2 tons per capita, a German average of 2.7 tons in 1991 and an average of 20.66 tons for the USA in 1990. Interestingly, while most local atmospheric pollution threats originate from fossil fuel combustion, most greenhouse gas emissions come from rural land use changes, principally forest fires used to clear forested land for agriculture.

Energy use in Indonesia has increased 9.5% annually since the commencement of the First Long Term Development Plan - this increase compares with a 2% annual increase in energy use globally and a 4% increase annually among ASEAN nations in the same time period. Increases in air and water pollutants are expected to parallel increases in consumption: Projections are for urban air pollution (70% derived from transportation) to increase 6%-8% annually, to a potential tenfold increase between the years 1990 and 2020. Similarly, sulfur dioxide (SO2) from industry is expected increase from 200,000 tons to 1.5 million tons over the same time period.

Indonesia is acutely aware that global temperature change might result in sea level rise. Such a rise in sea level will have serious consequences for Indonesia as an archipelagic country with 17,500 islands and a coastline of more than 81,000 kilometers. The industries infrastructure, urban populations and most fertile agricultural lands are concentrated in low lying coastal areas. Of a total of about 180 million Indonesians, approximately 110 million live in coastal areas. Indonesia will therefore suffer significant physical and socio-economic impacts from even very small rises in sea level.
Given those risks and their socio-economic implications, Indonesia has very strong reason to anticipate, mitigate and prepare for future climate change, even though Indonesia only makes a small direct contribution to the greenhouse effect.

Indonesia does not produce or export any Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS). The local demand for these substances is completely met by imports from other countries. The country's calculated consumption of ODS in 1992 had an Ozone Depleting Potential (ODP) of 6,567.3 tons which amounted to a per capita consumption of around 0.03 kg, or less than 1% of total world consumption. However, it is estimated that cumulative consumption of ODS, based on unconstrained demand from 1992 to 2010, would have been almost 500,000 tons of ODP equivalent.
ODS consumption is mostly CFC-12 which accounted for 63.4 %. The remainder is halons (14.8%), and CFC- 11 (14.2%), with CFC-113, CFC-115, 1,1,1 trichloroethane (TCA), with carbon tetrachloride (CTC) making up the balance. In the industrial sector, the ODP usage distribution in 1992 showed that the refrigeration and air conditioning industry was the largest user accounting for 31.9% of the total. Other user were for aerosols (30.5%), foams (15.6%), halons 14.8%), and solvents (7.2%).

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

Energy efficiency in the industrial sector can reduce emission (by as much as 30%) in the industrial sector. To realize some of these efficiency gains, Agenda 21 - Indonesia recommends the establishment of more stringent emission standards and the application of selective emission reducing production process technologies. In the residential sector, proposed initiatives include a program to replace kerosene usage with gas and electricity in urban centers. Not only will these alternative technologies be more efficient; but usage will shift away from highly subsidized kerosene products.
Urban sources of greenhouse gas will be managed in the short term by improved efficiency standards and in the longer term, by imposition of carbon taxes.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

No information is available.

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This information was provided by the Government of Indonesia to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1997.

Click here for national information from the Web site of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

For the Montreal Secretariat, click here:

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BIODIVERSITY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Indonesia signed the Convention on Biological Diversity on 5 June 1992 and ratified it on 23 August 1994. It acceded to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) on 28 December 1978, and to the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage on 6 July 1989. The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands entered into force in Indonesia on 8 August 1992 by Government Regulation PP No.27 of 1991 on Wetlands. This regulation addresses the use of wetlands for development purposes, and includes a regulation on the protection of deep peat swamps as water resource areas.

To support the commitment to conservation of biodiversity, Indonesia has enacted several pieces of legislation. For instance, in 1990, Indonesia promulgated Act No.5 on the Conservation of Natural Resources and their Ecosystems. This Act encompasses policies on protection of biological diversity in accordance with the various treaties signed by Indonesia.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Indonesia is one of the few countries in the region to have a strategy, a country study and an action plan on biodiversity. In 1992, the Office of State Minister for Population and Environment compiled a country study prior to the Earth Summit. Then in 1993, the National Strategy on Management of Biological Diversity was also compiled by the State Ministry of Environment.

The strategy proposes the formation of the National Commission on Biological Diversity to stimulate and create cooperation between various agencies and organizations in managing biodiversity. The Biodiversity Action Plan for Indonesia was compiled by the Ministry of National Development Planning and the National Development Planning Agency (Bappenas), also in 1993. This document provides plans for the in-situ and ex-situ conservation of biodiversity. It also proposes three additional steps: the expansion of data and information on Indonesia's biodiversity; the dissemination of information to policy makers and the public; and the promotion of sustainable uses of biological resources. Plans are underway to review and revise the Biodiversity Action Plan to suit the present and future needs, in accordance with various developments at the national and international level.

In the National Biodiversity Action Plan (NBAP) in REPELITA VI (Five Year Development Plan), the government committed to set aside 10% of Indonesia's ecosystems by 1999. This policy document also committed to a variety of means of conserving biodiversity outside protected areas.

Agenda 21 - Indonesia addresses the following program (priority) areas:

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

By 1995, there were 368 units of established protected areas in Indonesia, covering 49.1 million ha. The proposal in NBAP is for the protection of an additional 15.7 million ha. in 308 additional sites. These existing and proposed sites, however, do not assure biodiversity conservation. Most of them have inadequate human resources for management and regulation enforcement. Only 31 sites have complete management plans and most other sites have not even been accurately surveyed or mapped. Some sites also conflict with mining and oil exploration initiatives.

Conservation areas have been established or designated on major islands and island groups to cover all major habitats. The goal of REPELITA VI is to officially gazette 18.7 million ha of protected forest or 60% of the target of 30 million ha. Another goal is to effectively develop 354 units of conservation area covering 18.7 million ha which is 75% of the targeted conservation area and 31 units of national park covering 7.9 million ha. This includes marine zones, where 8 units of marine natural reserve have been established covering an area of 253, 780 ha. The government has established a target of expanding protected areas to cover 10% of Indonesia's land area by the end of REPELITA VI. By the year 2000 the goal is to establish 20 million ha of marine protected areas, 19 million ha of terrestrial protected areas and 30 million ha of protected forests (PHPA, 1995).

In the long term the protected area network may not be sufficient to conserve the entire biological wealth of Indonesia because of various constraints. For instance, certain habitats such as lowland forests, mangroves and wetlands are not well represented. In addition, protected areas face pressures such as low local community participation, inadequate management framework for identifying and controlling resource use, inadequate human power, excessive centralization in management and lack of funding. The total number of existing and proposed parks, reserves and protected areas, for example, is over 700, including marine areas. Of these, 79 are of priority in terms of biodiversity protection, but only 31 have clear management plans, and not all have been implemented (World Bank, 1994). A large part of the 368 established protected areas at present have not been surveyed, mapped or have clear boundaries (ADB, 1995).

Status 

Indonesia is one of the centers of mega-biodiversity in the world, with 47 ecosystem types ranging from ice fields and alpine meadows in Irian Jaya, to a wide variety of humid lowland forests, from deep lakes to shallow swamps, and from spectacular coral reefs to sea-grass meadows and mangrove swamps. Approximately 17% of the total number of species in the world are found in Indonesia. The country harbors at least 11% of the world's known flowering plant species, 12% of the world's mammals 15% of all amphibians and reptiles, 17% of all birds and at least 37% of the world's fish.

The diversity of ecosystems and species naturally leads to genetic diversity. Indonesia is the center of genetic diversity for many important food and economic crops such as bamboo, orchids, rattan, nutmeg, cloves and tropical fruits. Genetic diversity is further developed through traditional agroforestry and cultivation systems. This is reflected in the numerous varieties of rice, taro, bananas and mangoes (not native to Indonesia) and other cultivated crops in Indonesia.

Indonesia also harbors great knowledge on the uses and development of biodiversity embedded in the cultural forms and knowledge systems of its many and varied traditional communities. Some 6,000 plants, 1,000 animals and 100 microbe species are used by Indonesian communities in their daily life. Knowledge on medicinal and food values of wild and cultivated species are interlinked with cultural systems that are fast disappearing in Indonesia. Thus, it is obvious that the erosion of Indonesia's biodiversity and traditional knowledge on biodiversity is not just a matter of national concern, but of international concern as well. Opportunities to develop new varieties of food crops, new medicines and new industrial raw materials will be lost with the erosion of Indonesia's biological and cultural diversity.

With a growing population, a modernizing economy and still marked regional disparities, biodiversity management issues are bound to be prominent in a biologically diverse region such as the Indonesian archipelago. The biodiversity in Indonesia is nearly unparalleled worldwide and yet the qualitative and quantitative demands placed on Indonesian terrestrial and marine ecosystems by the Indonesian population poses many threats at both the species and ecosystem level. This threat is significant for Indonesian society as well - the degree of Indonesian society's dependence on renewable biodiversity (i.e. natural resources) for economic and social needs is widely recognized. In order to elaborate contemporary natural resource issues relating to biodiversity, the Indonesian baseline must first be established. Indonesian biodiversity is among the richest in the world - there are at least 42 distinct natural terrestrial ecosystems and five marine ecosystems.

The importance of natural resources to Indonesian society is massive. Approximately 40 million people depend directly on forest, marine, coastal and agricultural ecosystems for their living. In their daily lives, more than 6000 species of plants and animals are used in Indonesian communities. Timber taken from naturally regenerated forests comprises more than 10% of Indonesia's non-oil export earnings annually.

Given the Indonesian dependence on their tremendous biodiversity and the growth dynamics of the Indonesian population, natural resource management issues and biodiversity conservation problems are significant. Ecosystem degradation and habitat destruction are serious at present. It is estimated that only 61% of original natural habitat remain in Indonesia, although this may be as low as 9% in Java and Bali. Between 900,000 and 1,300,000 ha of forests are cleared each year for forestry, agricultural and human settlement purposes. In marine ecosystems, 68% of coral reefs are in either very bad or degraded conditions and only 5% remains in 'natural' condition.

Habitat degradation and natural resource exploitation threaten individual species as well as ecosystems. Indonesia presently has a long list of endangered species, with 126 birds, 63 mammals and 21 reptiles included on it. Already a number of plant and animal species are thought to be extinct and others are threatened.

Indonesia' s marine ecosystems warrant special mention. As a world center of coral diversity (500 species), with 81,000 km of coastline and 5.8 million km2 of marine area, Indonesia's important marine resources represent a significant management challenge to achieve sustainable levels of development. Approximately 60% of Indonesia's population lives in coastal areas. Their impact on the marine ecosystem derives from both the removal of resources and the introduction of increasing quantities of sewage and industrial pollution.

Major Indonesian marine resource management issues include the growth in mining of coral reefs and the over exploitation of living coral sites; the increase in phosphate, nitrate and sediment loading of marine estuaries from upstream intensive paddy cultivation; the conversion of intertidal zones (i.e. salt marsh and mangrove) to rice paddy (sawah); and the incursion of mechanized and technologically sophisticated foreign fishing fleets. The exploitation of oil and gas deposits on the sea floor as well as the transportation of oil and gas produced also pose significant potential problems for marine resource conservation. Indonesian fisheries remain one resource that may be under exploited (in aggregate terms) to this point. Marine fisheries production in 1992 was 3.5 million tons - only 66% of a conservatively derived calculation of maximum sustained yield (MSY). This finding is, however, at variance with other estimates which show pelagic fish production at levels above those of the Total Allowable Catch (TAC).

Challenges  

See under Status.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

Indonesia is also trying to improve its institutional capacity to enhance national capacity in the sustainable management of biodiversity. In 1994, with support from USAID, the Indonesian Biodiversity Foundation was established as a non-government body to provide funding and technical assistance to biodiversity conservation efforts and research by various institutions, particularly those in the non-government sector.

Information 

In order to have a better knowledge about the richness of the nation's biodiversity, Indonesia conducted a project to establish Biological Diversity Inventory and develop a User Advisory Group Information System by 1999. The program was established under the Indonesian Sciences Institute (LIPI) with support from the Global Environment Fund (GEF) through the World Bank and has been in progress since October 1994.

The existing data on wetlands is readily accessible at the offices of both PHPA and Wetlands International, in the form of a comprehensive wetland library. There is also a fully computerized Indonesian Wetland Database (WDB), developed by Wetlands International - Indonesia Program (WI/IP) and operated at its office in Bogor and Jakarta. Agencies, experts and students make use of these facilities, and there are plans to install more WDB stations at the National Institute of Sciences (LIPI), the Ministry of Public Works and the Ministry of State for the Environment. Under the ongoing UK-Indonesia Tropical Forestry Management Project, a Geographical Information System (GIS) facility is also being developed to facilitate mapping, monitoring and data analysis of Indonesia's wetlands and forestry areas. The development of a link between WDB and GIS is being researched. At the request of the Minister of Forestry, AWB recently made an inventory of existing protected areas and priorities for expanding the existing network of protected wetland areas including 676,992 ha of mangroves, 295,166 ha of lakes, and almost 2 million ha of other wetlands.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation

In accordance with provisions of the CBD, Indonesia established the National Clearing House on Biodiversity at the Ministry of Environment. The clearing house has several working groups, such as biosafety, intellectual property rights, access to genetic resources and agricultural biodiversity. Discussions are underway to form the National Coordinating Body on Biodiversity to supervise and plan all activities related to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. Indonesia has also been active in the international negotiations on biodiversity under the CBD. For instance, Indonesia hosted the Second meeting of the Conference of Parties, in 1995 and the Marine Experts meeting in March 1997.

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Indonesia to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1997.

Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.

Click here to go to the Web Site of UNEP's International Register on Biosafety.

Click here to link to biosafety web sites in the European Union.

For access to the Web Site of the Convention on Biological Diversity, click here:

For access to the Web Site of the CITES Convention, click here:

For the Web Site of the CMS Convention, click here:

For the Web Site of the Convention on the Protection of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage, click here:

For the country-by-country, Man in the Biosphere On-Line Query System, click here:

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DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

Indonesia has not ratified the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification [as of 17 June 1998].

* * *

 

For access to the Web Site of the Convention to Combat Desertification and Drought, click here:

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ENERGY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Energy Ministry administers energy issues in Indonesia.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

In accordance with the action plan on climate change, a Presidential Decree on the conservation of energy has been issued, which has resulted in increased energy efficiency in a number of sectors. For example, there have been notable improvements in energy production and transmission in the electricity sector and a reduction in distribution losses from about 21 % in 1983 to 12.4% in 1990 (11.8% in Java and 13.8% outside of Java).

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

One of the program (priority areas) of the Indonesian Agenda 21 deals with energy, production and consumption patterns. To realize energy efficiency gains in the industrial sector, the Indonesian Agenda 21 recommends the establishment of more stringent emission standards and the application of selective emission reducing production process technologies. In the residential sector, proposed initiatives include a program to replace kerosene usage with gas and electricity in urban centers. Not only will these alternative technologies be more efficient; but usage will shift away from highly subsidized kerosene products.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

Measures have been taken to reduce industrial emissions including the establishment of ambient air quality and emission standards for coal fire power plants, the use of low sulphur coals, the increased use of natural gas in combined cycle power plants, and the requirement for an environmental impact assessment for power projects.

Status 

To date, there has been relatively little direct management of either total energy use or energy use efficiency in Indonesia. Progress to date has consisted more of the development of a clearer understanding of the social, economic and environmental impacts of energy use.

Indonesia has significant coal, oil and gas reserves - coal reserves are projected to be adequate for hundreds of years. Energy use has increased 9.5% annually since the commencement of the First Long Term Development Plan - this increase compares with a 2% annual increase in energy use globally and a 4% increase annually among ASEAN nations in the same time period. The largest consumer is the industrial sector at 49%, with transportation requiring 32%, and the remainder being used for domestic needs. The shift in economic structure from an agricultural to an industrial economy throughout Indonesia has resulted in increased energy consumption and a corresponding increase in emissions. To prevent and overcome this impact, the production and use of energy resources should be managed carefully.

There are at the present time, no energy-producing nuclear reactors in Indonesia, although the growth in energy demand on Java and Bali is projected to produce a shortfall in non-nuclear energy production by approximately 7000 Mw by 2015. This is equivalent to the energy produced by 7-12 large commercial reactors.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

Research on new policy instruments to manage energy prices is proposed.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

No information is available.

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Indonesia to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1997.

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FORESTS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The Ministry of Forestry has developed laws and regulations on, sustainable for management. For instance in, April 1993, the Minister of Forestry issued a decree (No. 252/Kpts-II/1993) on the Criteria and Indicators for the Sustainable Management of Natural Production Forests for application at the national level. This was followed by the decree (No. 208/Kpts/IV-Set/1993) of Director General for Forest Utilization concerning Technical Guidance on Criteria and Indicators for management at the unit (concession) level.
The Ministry of Forestry is also reviewing several policies with a view to make them more compatible with the principles of sustainable forestry management. Notable among those being reviewed are the Act on Basic Provisions for Forestry and the concept of people participation in forest management.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

In accordance with the Tropical Forestry Action Plan (TFAP), Indonesia developed the Indonesian Forestry Action Plan (IFAP) in 1992, and established a Consultative Group on Indonesians Forests to co-ordinate bilateral and multilateral projects.

Forests play an important role in Indonesia from economic, socio-cultural and ecological perspectives. Yet, in line with population and national economic growth, pressure on forest resources is constantly increasing. This is evident from the high deforestation levels (deforestation rate of approximately 1 million ha. per year). To deal with the issue, a forest management strategy should be prepared, not only in terms of forest utilization, but also in terms of price determination in accordance with the potential of forest resources; institutional strengthening; laws and regulations which benefit all parties; and tax regulations which support sustainable forest management. Within a sustainable management system, forests must be seen from a new perspective, not only as an economic resource, but as serving multiple purposes. As such, the practice of forest management must change from "tree management" to "ecosystems management," where forest dwelling communities also play an important role in forest management. In the Indonesian Agenda 21 efforts to achieve these objectives are outlined in the following five Program Areas:

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

Recommended and proposed activities include development and testing of environmentally and socially sensitive forest harvesting practices; a complete review of logging concession policy; dissemination, monitoring and enforcement of existing forest sustainability decrees; the development of strong sanctions for violations of sustainable forest management practices; and pursuit of the ecolabelling approach such that ecolabels apply to the marketing of all forest products by 2005.

Indonesia has been intensifying the maintenance of its allocated 49.5 million hectares (about 25 of its land mass) "totally protected areas" (TPA) in order to conserve its wildlife and ecosystem richness. The TPA consists of protection forests (30.7 million hectares) and conservation areas (18.8 million hectares) to include national parks, nature reserves, game reserves, hunting parks, recreation parks, and grand forest parks.

To ensure minimum damage to forests due to development, all forestry planning and operations which are likely to cause significant biophysical, socio-economic, cultural or environmental impact must be preceded by an environmental impact assessment (AMDAL. Operations subject to this regulation include sting operations and timber estate development.

As required by ITTO, the Government of Indonesia has declared its intention to ensure that its forest exports come from sustainably managed forests by the year 2000. One current effort in this direction is the development of criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management.


In June 1994, the criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management set out by the Indonesian Ecolabelling Working Group were tested in three concession areas in Riau, East Kalimantan and Central Calimantan. The results of the test were discussed in the International Conference on Forest Product Certification System, September 1994 at the Pacet, West Java. In 1996, the working group developed the decision-making procedure for certification. The second version to the criteria and indicators as well as the decision making procedure were then tested again in 11 logging concessions in Aceh, North and West Sumatera, Riau, East and West Kalimantan. Full System testing out was assisted by experts from various backgrounds grouped into expert panel, evaluation team, and task force. The field assessment was assisted by forestry consultants who acted as assessors.

A refined certification system for sustainable natural forest management at the field management unit level has now been established. The system consists of procedure for certification of natural production forest management; logical framework for evaluation of production forest management; decision making procedure with Analytic Hierarchy Process; criteria and indicators of sustainable forest management; chain of custody for certified timber. The system is now proposed to become the national standard for certification of forest management to the relevant agencies.

In addition to the above programs several other programs have been undertaken, through international cooperation. They are, among others:

Status 

Despite its relatively small land area, Indonesia has the third largest area of tropical forests in the world, with diverse forest ecosystems ranging from tropical lowland and highland to peat swamp and mangrove forests. Mixed hill forests, which account for about 65% of the country's natural forests, are the most important ecotype in terms of timber production. Data on Indonesia's forests is incomplete - a significant complicating factor in sustainable forest management - but recent Ministry of Forestry estimates state that the nation's forests cover 140.4 million ha., of which 30.7 million ha. are protected forests, 18.8 million are nature reserves or national parks, 64.3 million ha. are production forests and 26.6 million ha. are "convertible forests," designated for non-forest uses such as agriculture, settlement and transmigration.

Timber extraction has been an important source of foreign exchange. In 1993, forest products accounted for 26.9% of non-oil export earnings. Along with related downstream (secondary and tertiary sector) manufacturing, they contribute approximately US $9 billion per year to the economy, or 7% of Indonesia's GDP. The demand for forest products is expected to grow in coming years due to population increase, economic growth and international trade.

Recent regulations have strengthened environmental policy and enforcement in forest extraction, particularly through new approaches to concession management and inspection. For instance, with a World Bank loan, a study is being conducted to improve concession management and inspection services. The inspection system developed is being tried out in three provinces: Riau, East Kalimantan, and Maluku. On active logging concessions, the Indonesian Selective Cutting System is slowly being replaced with the Production Forest Management Unit (KPHP) concept. At the field level, the Ministry of Forestry has revoked the licenses of several logging companies for failure to comply with existing regulatory measures, particularly regarding environmental protection. In many cases, the Ministry has taken over the management of these concessions through state forestry enterprises.

Challenges

Given the importance of the industry, a shift towards sustainable forest management is accepted as a key national challenge that is essential to Indonesia's longer term economic development. Linked to this is a growing focus on the needs and views of local communities in forest planning and an increasing emphasis on the economic and other values of non-timber forest products such as rattan and medicinal plants.

Given the Indonesian dependence on their tremendous biodiversity and the growth dynamics of the Indonesian population, natural resource management issues and biodiversity conservation problems are significant. Ecosystem degradation and habitat destruction are serious at present. It is estimated that only 61% of original natural habitat remains in Indonesia, although this may be as low as 9% in Java and Bali. Between 900,000 and 1,300,000 ha of forests are cleared each year for forestry, agricultural and human settlement purposes

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

The Government of Indonesia maintains a National Team for Forest Fire Control to anticipate the occurrence of forest fire during the dry season. The government also launched a "Forest Fire Awareness Campaign" led by several cabinet ministers related to forestry. In addition, the government conducted "National Regreening and Conservation Movement Campaign" as well as "Million Tree Planting Movement Campaign" annually.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation

At the international level, Indonesia is an active member of the Inter-governmental Panel on Forests (IPF) established under the UN Commission on Sustainable Development. Responsibility for Indonesian input and action on IPF recommendations lie with the Ministry of Forestry. For Indonesia to fulfil its commitments to Forest Principles adopted at the UNCED Earth Summit in Rio Janeiro in 1992, cooperative efforts with the international community will need to continue and expand.

In 1993, Indonesia was also appointed as host of the Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR). Since then, Indonesia, in cooperation CIFOR, has conducted various forestry seminars and meetings, among others, the CIFOR dialogue on Science and Forests which was held in Bali in late 1994.

At the regional level, the Government of Indonesia in cooperation with the Government of Malaysia, launched a joint conservation Transboundary Reserve BentuangKarimun and Lanjak Entimau, located in northern Kalimantan. Launched in October 1994, this project was supported by the ITTO. This transboundary biodiversity conservation area covers over one million hectares with natural tropical forests which is the habitat of some important endangered species such as orangutan and proboscis monkey.

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This information was provided by the Government of Indonesia to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1997.

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FRESHWATER

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands came into force in Indonesia on 8 August 1992 by Government Regulation PP No.27 of 1991 on Wetlands.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Among the key proposals in Agenda 21 - Indonesia for upgraded water resource management are the encouragement of reduced use of water supplies, the provision of safe potable water for all Indonesians, and the development of additional laws, regulations and control policies for water resource management. The following four Program Areas (priority areas) are further elaborated within the Indonesian Agenda 21:

The Agenda 21 - Indonesia proposes that water resources be managed in a much more coordinated manner, and be planned on a watershed basis. It also proposes a shift from a research orientation to one of more active management of the water resource. In addition Indonesian Agenda 21 proposes that policy changes commence with the agricultural sector due to its predominant role in overall water consumption. The report also provides a variety of recommendations to promote the development of better liquid and solid waste treatment facilities in major centers throughout the country. These recommendations require the commitment of significant capital resources to implement. From a public administration perspective, it is also recommended that development in highly populated areas be coordinated with accurate estimates surface and ground water resources carrying capacity. Agenda 21 Indonesia suggests that most of these water resource management measures be paid for by water users, based on the quality and quantity of water required. A pollution prevention approach is recommended for all users, and where water quality is damaged, a "polluter pays" principle would be applied.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

To date, water resource management policy and program activity has been more oriented toward baseline research than demand management or rehabilitation programs. Among the major activities are the Clean River Program (Prokasih) launched in 1989, and its extension , the Business Evaluation Program (Proper Prokasih) begun 1994. The Prokasih Program is basically aimed at reducing the pollution load entering the rivers and improving river quality. By 1995, 31 river basins in 13 provinces were involved in the program, with participation from 1395 factories. The Proper Prokasih Program is aimed at promoting the compliance of businesses and industries to environmental regulations through classifying performance into five categories of compliance (from a category of "no efforts at environmental management at all" to a category for industries that "have met all the requirements indicate serious and significant efforts in air pollution control, zero discharge and cleaner production"). Most industries fall into the middle categories and none of the industries has reached the top level. The Indonesian Agenda 21 recommends that the existing Prokasih program be continued, upgraded and receive additional resources.

Status 

The dependence of all of Indonesia's multiple development activities (both land resource and industrial) on the availability of adequate supplies of unpolluted water resources cannot be understated. This key resource is essential for everything from household consumption to industrial production processes, agriculture, transportation, power generation and waste disposal. Yet at present the inefficient use of water in Indonesia is degrading its supply in both qualitative and quantitative terms - a problem which has already reached a critical level in some densely populated areas. This problem threatens human services provision and economic development in the affected regions with failure or serious disruption.

Once believed to be an unlimited resource, the supply and quality of water in Indonesia's major cities is now questionable. Growing levels of consumption, environmental damage, and pollution have made it necessary to begin sustainable management efforts so that water will not become a scarce resource in the years to come. The increasing population and the use of irrigation on 70% of paddy fields of Java is expected to yield qualitative and quantitative water demand problems before 2020, as the water carrying capacity of the island is outstripped. Issues of population, consumption and poverty all have important relations to Indonesian health issues.


The pollution of watercourses and aquifers in centers of high population densities is projected to increase 800% during the same time period. The deterioration of water quality will increase health problems, particularly for the urban poor.

The agricultural sector dominates fresh water consumption, using about 98% of Indonesia' s water resources. 1991 data show that national water requirements for irrigation and fish-farming ponds amounted to 74.9 billion cubic meters. This volume is projected to rise by an average of 10% per year to the year 2000 and 6.7% per year to the year 2015, for a total in that year of 116.96 billion cubic meters. It is uncertain whether this projected volume can be supplied through existing collection and storage systems.

Domestic water use, meanwhile, stood at 3.1 billion cubic meters in 1990. Projected increases are 10% per year to the year 2000 and 6.67% per year over the following 15 years. Domestic demand is greatest on the islands of Java, Sumatra and Bali, which have the highest populations and are the most urbanized. Water scarcity has already begun to impact on large urban centers in Java, such as Jakarta, Bandung and Surabaya. Groundwater resources are in serious condition, with the level in key aquifers dropping by up to several meters per year.

Total industrial demand is projected to increase nine folds to 6.4 billion cubic meters by 1998, and will continue to grow very rapidly in the future. In terms of water quality, industrial waste discharges are damaging water in a number of regions of Indonesia, particularly in Java. An estimated 250,000 tons of industrial waste were released there in 1990; by the year 2010 this is projected to increase to 1,200 million tons per year, including 1 million tons of hazardous materials such as heavy metals, pesticides and highly toxic and persistent organic compounds. The supply of safe water for domestic use is also a critical issue. At present, a great majority of Indonesia's poor, particularly those in large cities, live without access to clean running water. As urban populations grow this will contribute to a significant decline in the quality of life, and the prevention of water-borne diseases by already overburdened public health programs will become even more challenging and pressing.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

No information is available.

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Indonesia to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1997.

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LAND MANAGEMENT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The existing Spatial Planning Law of 1992 is intended to integrate conflicting uses, preserve intended spatial function and prevent long term negative environmental impacts. A major 25-year plan to register and issue land titles was also launched in 1992. Supported by the World Bank, the National Land Agency (BPN) is currently compiling a major integrated database of laws, regulations and court decisions regarding land with the intent of facilitating analysis and streamlining of the system.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Given the vast importance of land resources to Indonesia, a broad array of land resource management initiatives have been implemented to date. Nevertheless, a strategy for efficient, fair and sustainable land resource management must be developed. In the Indonesian Agenda 21, the strategy is comprised of the following four Program Areas (priority areas):

Agenda 21 - Indonesia proposals on land-use planning are premised on the development of a more coherent land-use decision making framework. Once in place, it proposes to grant greater autonomy to Level II governments to facilitate decentralization of land resource decisions. Active public disclosure of plans and greater public participation in planning are also recommended. An overhaul of land taxes and permits is also urgently required to control destructive land speculation at the rural-urban interface. In terms of degraded land, Agenda 21 - Indonesia proposes an inventory of the location and condition of critical sites, and systematic action to restore land productivity. A proper national land information and data system will also be required to facilitate sound planning and resolve the current fragmentation, duplication and inefficiency of land data. New technologies of aerial photography, digital mapping, remote sensing and satellite imaging will play a critical role. A major human resource development effort is required to create the capacity to manage this system. Furthermore, one of the measures proposed in the Indonesian Agenda 21 towards sustainable agricultural practices concerns legal restrictions on land use and land conversion.

To date, the growing need for capacity to manage and control land conversion has been met with limited success. There has been an attempt to manage conflicts over land use priorities through coordination of planning at the national and regional levels. BAPPENAS (the National Development Planning Board) is currently in the process of preparing the National Strategy for Spatial Planning Scheme Development, which is expected to become the guideline for the development of spatial plans in the Level I and Level 2 regions.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

The dependence on Indonesia society on the land resource suggests an ongoing tension between the provision of current needs and the maintenance of sustainable levels of resource quality and quantity for use in the medium and long terms. This tension is likely to be exacerbated by the prevalence of poverty in rural agricultural areas and by high population density and inadequate physical infrastructure in urban areas. The problems associated with the increased pressure on land are exacerbated by lack of agreement between various interest groups and economic sectors. In addition, the regulatory system is extremely complex and largely irrelevant to the community's socio-economic conditions. What often results is inconsistent and inefficient land resource management.

In rural settings, forest areas at high altitudes and wetlands in the coastal areas are being converted to agricultural uses, with considerable disruption to ecosystem processes. In urban areas, the dominant land resource management concern is the conversion of agricultural to non-agricultural land.

Challenges  

In Indonesia, the total area of degraded, denuded and waste land is presently estimated at 30 million ha., two thirds of it in Java. Without serious efforts to address this problem, waste land areas can be expected to increase by 1-2% per year.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

No information is available.

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Indonesia to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1997.

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MOUNTAINS

No information is available.

* * *

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OCEANS AND COASTAL AREAS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

In Indonesia's fifth Five-Year Development Plan (REPELITA), many of the development activities take place in coastal areas. Furthermore, for the shift to sustainable marine and coastal resource management, Agenda 21 - Indonesia recommendations include more integrated planning and management of these environments, better monitoring and protection of these environments, more extensive research on marine resources and intensive community development initiatives to empower and improve coastal communities. The recommended means to engage these expansive recommendations are multiple and complex - they range from funding intensive training and organizational development to develop Indonesia's institutional capacity for sustainable marine management to the provision of credit-providing financial institutions to coastal communities to finance the development of higher value-added fish-processing businesses.

The following Program Areas (priority areas) are discussed in the Indonesian Agenda 21:

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

Indonesia' s marine ecosystems warrant special mention. As a world center of coral diversity (500 species), with 81,000 km of coastline and 5.8 million km2 of marine area, Indonesia's important marine resources represent a significant management challenge to achieve sustainable levels of development. Approximately 60% of Indonesia's population lives in coastal areas. Their impact on the marine ecosystem derives from both the removal of resources and the introduction of increasing quantities of sewage and industrial pollution.

Major Indonesian marine resource management issues include the growth in mining of coral reefs and the over exploitation of living coral sites; the increase in phosphate, nitrate and sediment loading of marine estuaries from upstream intensive paddy cultivation; the conversion of intertidal zones (i.e. salt marsh and mangrove) to rice paddy (Sawah); and the incursion of mechanized and technologically sophisticated foreign fishing fleets. The exploitation of oil and gas deposits on the sea floor as well as the transportation of oil and gas produced also pose significant potential problems for marine resource conservation.

Indonesian fisheries remain one resource that may be under exploited (in aggregate terms) to this point. In 1992, fish production was 3.5 million tons, or equaling 53% of the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) of 6.6 million tons. It is predicted that, by 2000, this will increase to 4.25 million tons, and by 2020, to 6.04 million tons. On the other hand, this will also cause an increase in pollution. Waters off the Surabaya coast show the existence of large volumes of domestic and industrial waste, and the water quality is reported to be the second most polluted in Indonesia after Jakarta Bay.

Indonesian waters are frequently navigated by foreign container ships and fishing boats. Law enforcers face problems in preventing ship traffic, which is protected by agreements. Relatively weak control in eastern Indonesia creates other problems in dealing with the frequent violations, such as disposal of toxic and hazardous waste and trespassing in the catchment zone.

In Indonesia, there are 116 small islands and groups of small islands which are ecologically susceptible, particularly to global warming and natural disasters. The potential result is a decrease in the quality and quantity of biodiversity. Due primarily to globally significant coral reef ecosystems, aquatic biodiversity is particularly striking - Indonesia's fishes represent 37% of the world species total. Given the isolated and highly specialized nature of many Indonesian species, endemism is also high. In marine ecosystems, 68% of coral reefs are in either very bad or degraded conditions and only 5% remains in 'natural' condition.

Indonesia is acutely aware that global temperature change might result in sea level rise. Such a rise in sea level will have serious consequences for Indonesia as an archipelagic country with 17,500 islands and a coastline of more than 81,000 kilometers. The industries infrastructure, urban populations and most fertile agricultural lands are concentrated in low lying coastal areas. Of a total of about 180 million Indonesians, approximately 110 million live in coastal areas. Indonesia will therefore suffer significant physical and socio-economic impacts from even very small rises in sea level.

Existing marine and coastal management initiatives have been subject to severe constraints on their effectiveness. Many policies have not been implemented due to lack of funds and organizational resources. Other policies have been unsuccessful due to a paucity of adequately trained technical and managerial personnel. One of the most significant and intractable constraints on sustainable marine and coastal management, however, remains the poverty and lack of viable alternatives present in the people who live in coastal communities across Indonesia.

Challenges

See under Status.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation

Indonesia ratified the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on 3 February 1986.

In the multilateral context, Indonesia has been a member of regional marine research and management programs such as the East Asian Seas Management Plan (UNEP-COBSEA), the South China Sea Forum. Policy research, marine science research and education has been developed and funded for numerous projects by the national government, multilateral assistance organizations (e.g. the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank), Indonesian universities and international and local NGOs such as the World Wildlife Fund.

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Indonesia to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1997.

To access the Web Site of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, click here:

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TOXIC CHEMICALS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

To achieve the goals, four Program Areas (priority areas) have been recommended in the Indonesian Agenda 21:

Agenda 21 - Indonesia provides for the improved management of toxic chemicals through a variety of instruments. Key initiatives include a proposed 'community right to know' policy and program, human resources development for both administrative staff and field managers on the management of toxic chemicals, and improved liaison with international bodies such as the International Registry for Potentially Toxic Chemicals to facilitate rapid information uptake and dissemination in Indonesia.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

The widespread and ever increasing use of chemicals in all fields has been followed by the accumulation of its negative effects, including the contamination of land, water and air. Better management of these chemicals globally is essential. In the Indonesian context, there are a number of activities which can be undertaken such as: the uniform classification of toxic substances; the development of a labeling system for products, which is based on the internationally-approved system; the use of international data and the dissemination of information through the Prior Informed Consent (PIC) procedures; the application of a life cycle analysis to production processes related to chemical management; and increased national ability to detect and reduce the import of toxic products.

Status 

Indonesia's success to date in the management of toxic chemicals has been mixed. On one hand, many categories of hazardous and toxic materials are at least partially managed by major public institutions and regulatory agencies with significant legislative backing. However, typically these agencies have paid inadequate attention to public health and environmental concerns - and there remain many toxic chemicals that have not yet been designated the responsibility of any particular institution.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

No information is available.

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Indonesia to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1997.

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WASTE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Solid Waste and Sanitation

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

In REPELITA VI (Five Year Development Plan), a commitment was made to extend solid waste service coverage to more than 60% of households in medium sized cities and small towns and to more than 80% of populations in large cities and metropolitan areas. Similar extension of waste water collection and treatment were proposed in the Human Waste and Domestic Wastewater Management Strategy in REPELITA VI (Five Year Development Plan). Industrial wastewater management was targeted for improvement in 1989 with the establishment of maximum pollution loads for 24 of the most polluted watercourses in Indonesia - this program has been deemed ineffective, largely due to inadequate monitoring and enforcement capabilities in the necessary public agencies.

The principles of solid and waste water management, within the context of sustainable development, are that waste may not accumulate so as to disturb material and nutrient cycles; that waste disposal should be limited to a level not exceeding the environmental carrying capacity to absorb pollution; and that closed systems of material utilization, such as recycling and composting, should be maximized. Based on these principles, the following four Program Areas have been identified in the Indonesian Agenda 21:

In order to obtain effective results, these four Program Areas should be planned and implemented in an integrated manner and by applying economic instruments.

Given the rapid growth in solid and waste water volumes projected across the planning horizon of this report, Agenda 21 - Indonesia proposes a variety of additional policy and program measures to manage waste streams more successfully in both environmental and social terms. First and foremost, it is proposed that waste prevention and minimization, rather than recycling or disposal, be chosen as the primary objective of national waste management programs. It is suggested that at least two percent of the national expenditure for solid and wastewater treatment and disposal be reallocated toward waste minimization. Related to this is a proposal to institute volume based pricing for residential solid waste disposal.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available.

Status

Progress to date on the management of the high and increasing volumes of solid waste and waste water has been significant but is still inadequate compared to the scope and growth of the problems. Action has been taken to reduce waste - pilot projects in a variety of Indonesian industries showed one to five year playback on capital investments in waste reducing process improvements. There is at present an 8.1% recycling and composting rate in Indonesia through scavengers, material producers and 'green waste' used in gardens and soils.

Nontoxic residential and industrial wastes have a variety of effects in Indonesia, but their most significant one is the pollution of acquires and watercourses which are the source of drinking water and also economic livelihood for millions. Waste water has been collected and managed from many households, but has not kept up with population increases.

At present there already exists a massive backlog in the provisions of sewerage in high density urban areas. It is estimated that 90 years of construction would be required to service the backlog alone. The expenditure proposed in Agenda 21 -Indonesia to deal with additional future demand growth is estimated to be in excess of Rp 3 trillion. Thus, the principal change in policy orientation recommended in Agenda 21 - Indonesia is the shift of the central government's role from a provider of wastewater services to an enable and a partner of other service-providing organizations. This shift, and a concurrent shift towards the institution of full cost user fees for residential and ICI users is hoped to enable the extension of solid waste and sewerage service to between 85%-100% of households by 2003.

In 1993, only 52% of families had sanitation considered adequate, and even many of these had septic tanks and leach pits which can be significant sources of polluted groundwater and surface runoff. Only 40% of the urban population of Indonesia has its solid waste collected, and formal waste collection systems are almost unknown in rural areas. Uncollected solid wastes are typically either burned or disposed of in streams or in open land.

Challenges  

Given the demographic trends already discussed growth in the production of solid wastes is projected to increase dramatically. This will pose serious environmental and social challenges given the already low collection and management rate. Solid waste production is projected to increase 500% by 2020 for the domestic sector and 1000% for the manufacturing sector. The resulting pollution of watercourses and aquifers in centers of high population densities is projected to increase 800% during the same time period. The deterioration of water quality will increase health problems, particularly for the urban poor.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Indonesia to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1997.

 

Hazardous Wastes

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Many categories of hazardous (and toxic) materials are at least partially managed by major public institutions and regulatory agencies with significant legislative backing. However, typically these agencies have paid inadequate attention to public health and environmental concerns - and there remain many toxic chemicals that have not yet been designated the responsibility of any particular institution.
The successful control and environmentally-sound management of B-3 waste will depend on interaction between legal and social infra-structure, institutional capacity, human resources quality, technological capacity and NGO advocacy.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The following Program Areas are addressed in the Indonesian Agenda 21:

In order to minimize the volume of hazardous and toxic, production systems should be reoriented, from end-of-the-pipe approaches to cleaner production and cradle to grave. This is especially important for hazardous waste which is a growing problem in Indonesia.

Hazardous (B-3) wastes have been approached from an integrated 'cradle to grave' approach since a 1987 Indonesian Ministry of Environment report on the subject. Management regulations on B-3 wastes were enhanced, developed and separate from more generic toxic waste management in 1994. These regulations and the framework which surrounds them provide for the safe management of hazardous wastes at points of production, storage, transportation, treatment and final disposal. Similar robust regulations govern the import and export of hazardous and toxic materials. These policy activities are described in Agenda 21 - Indonesia as limited for a variety of reasons relating to inadequate institutional capability. These limitations are framed in human resource, technical, legal and financial resource terms, and they are particularly troublesome given the manifold increase in hazardous waste volumes projected for the next two decades in Indonesia.

To conform the regulation, additional B-3 waste treatment centers must be established, bioremediation of polluted sites will be required and the existing regulatory framework will require additional resources to implement. In the longer term, a national target for the reduction of hazardous waste by 50% by 2020 is proposed. Agenda 21 - Indonesia also proposes a complete ban on the import of B-3 waste in 2003 and the development of the requisite regulatory and monitoring tools to enforce this ban.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available.

Status 

Waste streams described variously as 'toxic', 'hazardous' and 'radioactive' originate primarily (90%) in the industrial/commercial/institutional (ICI) sector rather than the domestic/residential sector. These streams tend to constitute local rather than macro level environmental management challenges, and their environmental effects are in many cases poorly documented or uncertain. However, given the rapid industrialization of the Indonesian economy, the use, production and potential discharge of toxic, hazardous and radioactive materials are likely to grow into at least the medium term of the planning horizon considered in Agenda 21 - Indonesia.

Hazardous (B-3) waste production is projected to grow in tandem with.the rapid industrialization of Indonesia' s economy. Total waste volumes are projected to grow from 200,000 tons to 1,000,000 tons between 1990 and 2010. However, because of a commensurate increase in the toxicity of these materials such as bio-accumulative heavy metal pollutants, the absolute pollution burden is projected to increase 1000% by 2010.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation

Indonesia signed the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal on 22 March 1989. The convention came into force on 19 December 1993.

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This information was provided by the Government of Indonesia to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1997.

For direct link to the Web Site of the Basel Convention, click here:

 

Radioactive Wastes

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

To date, only a minor legal and regulatory apparatus has been required to manage radioactive waste in Indonesia because of the small role that such products have played in Indonesia's economy.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The radioactive waste management strategy proposed in Agenda 21 -Indonesia is primarily at the level of macro frameworks. A major policy infrastructure is proposed, which would include regulatory, legal and institutional supports. One strongly proactive initiative is a recommendation for the acquisition of nuclear waste storage and disposal technology and expertise prior to the creation of large quantities of medium and long term radioactive wastes.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available.

Status 

There are at present no energy-producing nuclear reactors in Indonesia, although the growth in energy demand on Java and Bali is projected to produce a shortfall in non-nuclear energy production by approximately 7000 Mw by 2015. This is equivalent to the energy produced by 7-12 large commercial reactors. Approximately 90% of radioisotopes presently produced in Indonesia's three research reactors are used in nuclear medicine.
However, given the expected growth in radioisotope production and application in Indonesia (particularly if nuclear energy is chosen as an energy production option), new management strategies will be required.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

No information is available.

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This information was provided by the Government of Indonesia to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1997.


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