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INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN INDONESIA


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INTEGRATED DECISION-MAKING

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry of Environment is the key national sustainable development coordination body. Three other governmental bodies play an important role in related environmental matters: Ministry of Forestry, Directorate General for Forest Protection and Nature Conservation and Ministry of Agriculture.
There is no institution yet to oversee and evaluate the implementation of sustainable development. The concept of establishing a National Council for Sustainable Development (NCSD), with representatives from government agencies, as well as the private sector, the NGO and the academic community, is still under discussion.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

At the policy level, many regulations contain provisions on people participation in various ministries such as agriculture, forestry, environment and population. The latest attempt at formulating policy for people's participation is Government Regulation No.69/1996 on Implementation of Rights and Obligations, Form and System of Community Participation in Spatial Planning. This is derived from Act No.24/1992 on Spatial Planning. The regulations contains provisions on the right of the community to participate in the process of spatial planning, to know spatial plans in detail, benefit from spatial use and acquire compensation for conditions created as a result of development activities. However, the regulation is yet to be disseminated and understood by the general public. Also it does not contain provisions on sanctions if any rights were violated, thus the enforceability may be weak.

The Environmental Impact Management Agency (Badun Pengendulian Dampak Lingkungan-Bapedal) was established through Presidential Decree no. 23/1990. Its main task is to exercise functions and activities in environmental impact control. Its strategies include developing environmental compliance, strengthening of institutional capacity and strengthening relationships within the community. The agency was strengthened in 1994 through the establishment of regional offices in Ujung Pandang, Pekanbaru, and Denpasar.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

At the policy level, the commitment to the results of the Earth Summit is reflected in the 1993 Broad State Guidelines (Garis Besar Haluan Negara or GBHN) which were translated into the sixth Five Year Development Plan (REPELITA VI). Environmental policies in REPELITA VI (1994-1999) include: Selection of development site; Waste reduction; Waste management; Determination of environmental standards; Nature conservation and rehabilitation of natural resources and the environment; and Institutional, community participation, and human resources development.
In addition, environmentally sustainable development policies are also included in various sectors, such as regional development, land resources and spatial planning, urban and rural development, housing and settlement sectors.

At the program level, an outstanding achievement is the completion of the Agenda 21 Indonesia document at the end of 1996. This was done through the Post-UNCED capacity building project, undertaken by the Ministry of Environment, with support from UNDP. The project involved 22 national consultants who formed working groups comprising government officials, NGOs, academics, the private sector, and the general public. The document contains recommendations for sustainable development up to the year 2020 for each sector of development.

The Indonesian Agenda 21 consists of four sections:

  1. Human services (poverty alleviation, changing consumption patterns, demography, human health and environment, human settlement development, economic instruments and environmental accounting);
  2. Waste management, (atmospheric protection, hazardous chemical management, toxic waste management, liquid and solid waste management, and radioactive waste management);
  3. Land resource management (land resource planning, agricultural and rural development, forest management, and water resources and water quality); and
  4. Natural resource management (biodiversity, biotechnology development, and marine and coastal zone management).

The Indonesian Agenda 21 is at present being disseminated and discussed at various levels of the government and the community at large. Plans are underway to integrate the Agenda 21 Indonesia into the Five Year Development Plan (Repelita VII) and to develop Local Agenda 21. In order to carry out the full integration of the basic principles and concerns of the Agenda 21- Indonesia into development plans, two major phased activities will be conducted. These are: 1) communication and consultation process, and 2) integration of the Agenda into sectoral and regional planning including the enhancement of community participation in sustainable development.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

The role of major groups in sustainable development decision-making is perhaps one of the weakest aspects in Indonesia, although some progress has been made. There has been little effort to disseminate the results of Earth Summit to various level of the society, thus the participation level is low. The Ministry of Forestry for instance, has policies in line with the Forest Principles and CBD in terms of sustainable resource management, but has weak policies and programs on people's participation. The Ministry is currently reviewing the Basic Forestry Law of 1967, including the concept of people's participation and how to genuinely implement it. However, this is done mainly in consultation with academics rather than grass root based groups. In the same manner, Agenda 21 is not much known at the local government level.

Programmes and Projects 

Various field level programs related to sustainable development and environment have been initiated in Indonesia. They include, for example:

Clean River Program (PROKASIH) which began in 1988 and will be extended up to the year 2000. The Prokasih Program is basically aimed at reducing the pollution load entering the rivers and improving river quality. By 1995, 31 river basins and 1395 factories in 13 provinces were involved in the program.

Business Evaluation Program (Proper Prokasih) has been conducted by Bapedal since 1994. The program aimed at promoting the compliance of businesses and industries to environmental regulations.

National Commitment on the Implementation of Cleaner Production was announced by the government in 1995 although it was already introduced by Bapedal in 1993. This program consists of technical assistance, information systems development, training and awareness, and incentives development. At present 60 industries participate in the Cleaner Production Program.

Blue Sky Program is another important environmental compliance program which will be conducted along the lines of Prokasih and Proper Prokasih programs. This program is aimed at rehabilitating the quality of air in urban and industrial areas, maintaining the air quality in non-polluted areas and improving the institutional capacity as well as community participation in controlling air pollution.

Integrated Conservation and Development Program in national parks such as the Kerinci Seblat National Park in Sumatera.

Status 

National Decision-Making Structure

1. National Sustainable Development Coordination Body: Yes
2. National Sustainable Development Policy: Yes
3. National Agenda 21/other strategy for SD Yes
4. Local/Regional Agenda(s) 21: In process
5. Environmental Impact Assessment Law: Yes
6. Major Groups involved in Sustainable Development Decision-Making: In Process

National Instruments and Programmes

1. Sustainable. Dev. or environmental education incorporated into school curricula:  
2. Sustainable Development Indicators Program: No
3. Ecolabel Regulations: Yes
4. Recycle/Reuse Programs: In process
5. Green Accounting Program: In process
6. Access to Internet: Yes
7. Access to World Wide Web: Yes
8. National World Wide Web Site for Sustainable Development or State of the Environment: No

Policies, Programmes and Legislation

1. Combatting poverty: Yes
2. Changing consumption and production patterns: Yes
3. Atmosphere: Yes
4. Land Use Planning: Yes
5. Forest and Deforestation: Yes
6. Desertification and Drought: No
7. Sustainable Mountain Development: No
8. Sustainable Agriculture: Yes
9. Biological Diversity: Yes
10. Biotechnology: Yes
11. Oceans and Coastal Areas: Yes
12. Freshwater Management: Yes
13. Toxic Chemicals: Yes
14. Hazardous Wastes: Yes
15. Solid Wastes: Yes
16. Radioactive Wastes: In process
17. Energy: Yes
18. Transport:  
19. Sustainable Tourism: No

Challenges  

See under Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available.

Information 

The 'new methods of accounting' program area will be operationalized by the preparation of a National Economic, Resources and Environmental Balance Sheet that will assess social, economic and environmental progress in a much more thorough and comprehensive manner than coarse indicators such as GNP. In the longer term, strengthened international cooperation is proposed as a means to transfer new methodologies and expertise to Indonesia to facilitate the development of more comprehensive national accounting systems.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation

Indonesia's commitments to sustainable development cannot be undertaken alone. Certainly international cooperation is part of this effort. Indonesia has actively participated in GEF programs both at the government as well as NGO level. Some programs under the cleaner production drive are supported by GTZ, UNEP, and the Australian and Canadian governments. Indonesia is also active in regional cooperation such as ASEAN cooperation on the environment. In recognizing the importance of UNCED, the Fourth Meeting of ASEAN held in July 1993 in Bangkok, agreed on the need for a new ASEAN Action Plan. With the support provided by UNEP and ESCAP, and in consultation with all member countries, The ASEAN Strategic Plan of Action on the Environment was endorsed and adopted.

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This information was provided by the Government of Indonesia to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1997.

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MAJOR GROUPS

WOMEN

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Indonesia signed the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women on 29 July 1980 and ratified it on 13 September 1984.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available.

Status   

No information is available.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

No information is available.

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This information was provided by the Government of Indonesia to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1997.

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INDIGENOUS PEOPLE

No information is available.

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NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

Environmental non-governmental organization (NGOs) have more or less been active in providing input to the government on sustainable development issues particularly in sustainable resource management and community participation. They have been particularly active in the planning and implementation of activities related to the Convention of Biological Diversity such as sustainable management of national parks, formulation of regulations on biosafety and marine resources conservation. In anticipating the fifth anniversary of the Earth Summit, NGOs have provided an outlook of conditions for Indonesia's sustainable development and country assessment on the implementation of the Earth Summit commitments.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available.

Status   

No information is available.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

No information is available.

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This information was provided by the Government of Indonesia to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1997.

 

LOCAL AUTHORITIES

No information is available.

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WORKERS AND UNIONS

No information is available.

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BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

Although at the non-governmental level the level of knowledge about Agenda 21 is low, there have been activities that are in line with the results of the Earth Summit. For instance, the Indonesian Business Council for Sustainable Development (MUIPB) was formed a year after the Earth Summit. It began its activities with seminars and discussions on the benefits of environmental management to the business society and how the industry can comply with environmental laws. But lately MUIPB has not been particularly active.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

No information is available.

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This information was provided by the Government of Indonesia to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1997.

 

SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITY

No information is available.

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FARMERS

No information is available.

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SCIENCE

No information is available.

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INFORMATION

No information is available.

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INTERNATIONAL LAW

No information is available.

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