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INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN HUNGARY


Click here to go to these sections: Integrated Decision-Making Major Groups Science Information International Law

 

INTEGRATED DECISION-MAKING

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Hungarian Commission on Sustainable Development was established by government resolution in 1993 as a permanent interministerial body responsible for the coordination of analysis, planning, and implementation of national programmes for sustainable development and for participation in relevant international programmes. The Commission has 23 members which includes representatives from the following ministries: Ministry for Environment and Regulatory Policy, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Culture and Public Education, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Industry, Trade & Tourism, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Transport, Telecommmunication, Water Managment and the Ministry of Welfare, Institue of Public Health. The para-statal bodies, institutions and NGOs asociated with the Commission are: the Commmission on Environment of the Parliament, the Hungarian Statistical Office, the National Atomic Energy Commission and the National Committee of Technological Development, the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the Hungarian Employers' Association, the Chamber of Science Journalists and two non-governmental environmental organizations. In addition the National Environmental Council was established in 1996 as an adviosry body to the government in accordance with the provisions of the 1995 Environmental Act. The main NGO constituencies are represented on the Council (environmental groups, academic institutes, and business organizations).

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

One of the most significant recent steps has been approval of Act No. LIII (1995) on the General Regulations Concerning Environmental Protection. This new law is actually a code comprised of significant environmental legislation, but without detailed regulations. The obligation to prepare the National Environmental Programme is a significant element of this act. The act also introduced fees for the use of the environment and gave added impetus to environmental impact assessment. The act stipulates that environmental principles and the rational use of natural resources should be taken into account in all relevant national socioeconomic and sectoral programmes. Those activities which cause substantial effect on the environment should be reviewed with an environmental impact assessment (Governmental Decree 86/1993).

A series of other specific legal instruments have also been adopted to support the legislation on environmental protection (for example, on nature conservation and on forest protection and sustainable forest management). The National Environmental Programme was approved by the Hungarian Government in September 1996 and submitted to Parliament. All the basic recommendations of Agenda 21 and the relevant documents of both the European Union (EU) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) are reflected in this programme. The programme's emphasis is on the principles of sustainable development, the integration of environmental concerns into economic policies, and the development of environmentally sound production and consumption patterns.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

The National Society of Conservationists organized a year-long project gathering the views of NGOs to formulate an alternative programme for sustainable development in Hungary. The main criticism of the National Environmental Programme (which was under initial preparation at that time) was that it was limited to narrow environmental issues while Agenda 21 took a much broader sustainable development approach. From an NGO viewpoint, the general approach of the programme suggested that switching to a market economy would automatically solve most of the environmental problems yet this had not been the experience elsewhere.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

National Decision-Making Structure

1. National Sustainable Development Coordination Body: YES
2. National Sustainable Development Policy: YES
3. National Agenda 21/other strategy for SD: YES
4. Local/Regional Agenda(s) 21: YES
5. Environmental Impact Assessment Law: YES
6. Major Groups involved in Sustainable Development Decision-Making: IN PROCESS

National Instruments and Programmes

1. Sustainable. Dev. or environmental education incorporated into school curricula: YES
2. Sustainable Development Indicators Program: NO
3. Ecolabel Regulations: YES
4. Recycle/Reuse Programs: YES
5. Green Accounting Program: NO
6. Access to Internet: YES
7. Access to World Wide Web: YES
8. A national World Wide Web Site for Sustainable Dev. or State of the Environment: IN PROCESS

Policies, Programmes, and Legislation

Does your country have either a policy, programme, and/or legislation consistent with Agenda 21 in:  
1. Combatting poverty: YES
2. Changing consumption and production patterns: NO
3. Atmosphere: YES
4. Land Use Planning: YES
5. Forest and Deforestation: YES
6. Desertification and Drought: NO
7. Sustainable Mountain Development: NO
8. Sustainable Agriculture: YES
9. Biological Diversity: IN PROCESS
10. Biotechnology: IN PROCESS
11. Oceans and Coastal Areas: NO
12. Freshwater Management: YES
13. Toxic Chemicals: YES
14. Hazardous Wastes: IN PROCESS
15. Solid Wastes: IN PORCESS
16. Radioactive Wastes: YES
17. Energy: YES
18. Transport: YES
19. Sustainable Tourism: YES

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

The basic elements of the environmental action programmes (EAPs) were developed within the framework of pan-European cooperation coordinated by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE). The Sofia ministerial meeting reinforced the importance of national EAPs. Hungary actively took part in this collaboration, as well as in the World Health Organization's (WHO) initiative for the preparation of environmental health action programmes. These international mechanisms of cooperation substantially contributed to strengthening national level decision making. The obligations set forth in various international environmental conventions are also significant in this context. Their fulfillment has necessitated the integration of specific objectives into national decision making (for example, emission reduction).

This information was provided by the Government of Hungary to the fifth and sixth sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997 and 1998. Last Update: 12 February 1998.

For Hungary's State of the Enviroment Report, click here.
Click here for Hungary's Human Development Report.
For information on Environmental Law around the World, click here:

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MAJOR GROUPS

WOMEN

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

In Hungary, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women was signed on 6 June 1980 and ratified on 22 December 1980.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Policies and strategies are being formulated to achieve equality in all aspects of society and to eliminate obstacles to full participation of women in sustainable development. In addition, mechanisms to assess the implementation and impact of development and environment policies and programmes on women are being developed.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

Women's issues have not been, and are still not, on the agenda of any Parliamentary committees. As a result of an initiative launched by all female parliamentarians, a joint subcommittee on women's issues was established in 1995. This subcommittee examines bills submitted to Parliament from a women's perspective. An office for the coordination of these assessments, decision preparation, information dissemination, and the relevant actions has been established in the Ministry of Labour. The proportion, and the actual role of women in politics, substantially decreased after the political changes in 1989/90 and during the first years of the transition period. The proportion of women in government was 5.7% in 1990 and 10.3% in 1994; in parliament it was 30%, 7.3%, and 11.2% in 1980, 1990, and 1994 respectively; and at the local government level it was 30% in 1980 and 16% in 1990.

The level of women's educational attainment is on a par with that of men. Curricula and educational material already promote gender relevant knowledge. In general, women and men have equal opportunities to obtain education and higher degrees. Supporting motherhood and child care are high national priorities. A nation-wide network of institutions to help mothers before and after childbirth, and a network of pediatricians and child care nurses have been established.

In the economy, 50% of full-time wage-earners are women. Women in blue-collar and white-collar positions earn, respectively, 30-40% and 50-60% less than their male counterparts. Under the current social and political transition, Hungary is coping with severe economic constraints. These conditions adversely affect the enforcement of economic, social, and cultural rights; including the effective recognition of women's rights and the development of an attitude conducive to the full acknowledgment of female equality.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

Hungary participated in the Fourth World Conference on Women. It is significant that, at this Conference, a special focus was placed on the economic difficulties facing Central and Eastern European countries in transition.

 

 

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This information was provided by the Government of Hungary to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

For information on WomenWatch in different countries, click here:
For information on national plans of action in the follow-up to the Beijing Conference, click here:

 

CHILDREN AND YOUTH

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

The Association of Hungarian Pioneers, with the legacy of extensive nature conservation and recyclable waste collection activities, is the biggest youth organization with 75,000 members. During the years of political and economic transition, additional new organizations were established. These represent 5% of the 10-25 year-old children and young people. There are a few purely environmentally-oriented organizations, including the Green Heart and the Hungarian Association of 4H Groups. The Scout organizations were revitalized after the political changes in 1989/90 and are active in promoting the importance of nature conservation and other aspects of sustainable development. Other significant youth groups include the Nature Conservation Club of the Eötvös Lorand University of Budapest, and the Green Circle of the Technical University of Budapest. In general, youth groups play an ad hoc role in national processes related to sustainable development. Registered societies can request funding from the Fund for Youth and from Parliament.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

The importance of the role of youth in overcoming the present crucial socioeconomic problems, to achieve recovery of the economy, and to successfully solve the problems of transition to an "ecological-social" market economy is recognized by the Hungarian Government. The goal set by Agenda 21 that more than 50% of youth on a gender-balanced basis have access to appropriate secondary education or vocational training has been reached. A high-level interagency council has been established for the identification of priorities and for supervising funds provided for the implementation of basic programmes and projects.

The present socioeconomic problems have adverse implications to this major group. Youth unemployment is one of the critical symptoms. The level of youth unemployment as a percentage of the total unemployment rate was 4.1% in 1992 and 7.5% in 1995.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

In 1995, the Parliament approved a new National Core Curriculum with environmental education now an integral part of teaching and a compulsory subject in public education. Approximately 92% of the compulsory education students are taught the concept of sustainable development in formal education.

In addition, the Körlánc Environmental Education Programme was established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Hungarian Ministry for Environment and Regional Policy. The programme was designed to create a model to promote environmental education in Hungary. Since the beginning of 1995, the Ministry of Environmental and Regional Policy and the Ministry of Culture and Public Education have provided financial support for the programme. This programme, operating through five regional work-groups, develops, assesses, and implements curricular programmes where local communities are involved. It also disseminates textbooks and other publications of local pedagogic innovations. At present, more than 500 nurseries, primary and secondary schools, museums, national parks, NGOs and zoos belong to the Körlánc organization. In 1994, Körlánc was integrated into the Foundation for the Development of Ecological Culture.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

 

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Hungary to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

 

INDIGENOUS PEOPLE

Strengthening arrangements for the active participation of indigenous people in national sustainable policy development is not relevant in Hungary.

 

 

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This information was provided by the Government of Hungary to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

 

NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

The role of the non-governmental organizations with respect to various environmental problems in Hungary has increased significantly over the last 10-15 years. Today there are hundreds of local, regional, and national environmental NGOs. The economic transition and the extensive privatization process have led to a substantial growth in influence of business NGOs, their interest groups, and the various chambers and associations.

Mechanisms already exist which permit NGOs to play their partnership role responsibly and effectively. NGO inputs can be ad hoc or through formal structures. NGOs, for example, participate in the National Environmental Council that was established in 1996.

Programmes and Projects 

NGOs have their own initiatives at both the regional/local levels and in terms of country-wide programmes. In 1996, as part of independent preparations for the pan-European meeting of environmental ministers in Sofia, environmental NGOs produced the framework programme for the sustainable development of Hungary.

Status 

This advisory body to the government consists of representatives of the three NGO constituencies; namely, the environmental NGOs, the representatives of scientists, and the business organizations. The basically interministerial Hungarian Commission on Sustainable Development has also offered several seats to NGO representatives. In addition, there are more or less regular national consultative meetings of the environmental NGOs.

Some of the environmental NGOs, academic organizations, and professional societies produce analytical or position papers; and organize programmes, conferences, and roundtables on specific sectoral or cross-sectoral questions of sustainable development.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

 

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Hungary to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

 

LOCAL AUTHORITIES

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The recently adopted law on environment clearly expresses the idea of integrating environmental aspects in regional planning. This law also includes provisions for the establishment of local environmental protection funds.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Policy implementation at the local level is one of the key features of the political and socioeconomic transition. It is recognized that adequate regional, sub-regional, and local planning are essential elements for the implementation of sustainable development.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

Many local authorities have developed environmental, nature conservation, and regional/local development programmes of various scope. Full-scale local Agenda 21 programmes have not, however, been prepared.

Since 1991, a number of regional programmes called Community Environmental Action Projects (CEAP) have been initiated to promote regional development. Originally the CEAPs were introduced in four small towns and five rural villages around a water-catchment area. In these programmes, local authorities cooperate with governmental authorities, while the local population is encouraged to formulate pertinent visions and objectives. As of 1995, projects implemented in four towns follow three phases: organizational and introductory training; risk identification, data collection and priority ranking; development and implementation of an environmental action plan. The city of Sátoraljaújhely, for example, has introduced a pilot recycling programme, originally for 500 households. The formulation of a series of CEAPs was assisted by the Institute for Sustainable Communities, Vermont USA, in cooperation with the Independent Ecological Center, Budapest.

A regional programme has also been developed for the Tisza Valley. The planning process was undertaken by an interdisciplinary team, in close cooperation with the Government and the Association of Local Governments. The overall aim of the programme was to promote modernization in deprived areas and to strengthen inter-community links by the coordination of programmes and actions to promote sustainable economic development.

Status  

During recent years, a set of new legal instruments, decision making structures, and financial mechanisms have been adopted. Based on these mechanisms, many more initiatives to formulate and implement comprehensive local/regional integrated development programmes with particular emphasis on environmental priorities are expected in the near future. Some existing regional sustainable development initiatives are outlined in more detail below.

Challenges

Governmental funding has been drastically reduced due to the ongoing economic restructuring. This, combined with the lack of trained personnel, hinders local initiatives and the implementation of new development projects.

The basic reasons for the lack of full-scale local Agenda 21 programmes are most probably related to the extensive socioeconomic changes that have recently characterize Hungary as a transition country. These changes have had significant impacts on the role and functioning of local governments, the division of mandates, responsibilities, labour, and resource levels between central government and local authorities.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

The Sokoro Foundation has played a very important role in the formation and organization of a sustainable development programme for the Sokoro region. The primary goal is to create a sustainable system based on the development of family production units. Human resource development, accomplished through a series of workshops and educational programmes, is central to the success of the programme. One of the main goals is to create the Sokoro Ecological Park and Folk School where educational programmes about the environment, the economy, and sustainable development can be offered.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

For the region of Ráckeve-Soroksár, the sustainable development planning process has been undertaken through Canadian-Hungarian cooperation involving the Canadian Urban Institute, the local and county governments, and planning organizations. It represents a demonstration programme undertaken as an open, participatory process, with the involvement of local governments, professional and social organizations, local enterprises, and the inhabitants of the region.

 

 

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Hungary to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

For national information on local authorities in Hungary, click here.

 

WORKERS AND TRADE UNIONS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Hungary has ratified the Conventions of the International Labour Organization (ILO).

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

The country participates in various ILO programmes and conventions, in particular those which are relevant to awareness raising and the involvement of employees in safety regulations and conditions of the work place environment.

In general, workers do not yet participate in National Agenda 21 discussions or implementation. However, the interests of employees are represented by trade unions on the National Conciliation Council; a high level body composed of representatives of government, and employer and employee organizations. Of the unions, the most powerful in terms of membership is the Federation of Hungarian Trade Unions with more than one million members. Its represents 54 member-organizations from various sectors, as well as the interests of young people, women, pensioners, etc. In addition, many new autonomous trade unions have been established during the transition period. Workers and their representatives take part in tripartite discussions at national and local levels on planned regulatory and financial/tax mechanisms that may affect various sectors, the unemployment rate, the wage-system, the effects of the state budget reforms, and methods for minimizing disadvantages to employees.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

Measures to facilitate the creation of new working opportunities for the unemployed are adopted and introduced by the government. Regional development policy also focuses on unemployment. Part-time employment and an extension of the education system to help workers get into the labour market are suggested as solutions to support a sustainable employment policy.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

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This information was provided by the Government of Hungary to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

 

BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

One of the positive signs of the socioeconomic transition in Hungary is the increased environmental awareness within the industrial sector. Most big enterprises and a few small and medium sized enterprises have themselves adopted sustainable development policies. The Government supports this trend through policies to encourage increasing the efficiency of resource use, including reuse, recycling, and waste reduction. Interest groups and representatives of enterprises track new environmental regulations and comment on planned changes. One of the most active organizations in this context is the Environmental Committee of the Hungarian Federation of Employers.

Enterprises in the energy production and distribution sector, the chemical industry, refineries, several producers of building materials, paper factories, food producers and some other enterprises have adopted, to some extent, the stewardship concept and, based on it, formulated and introduced environmentally sound technological, managerial standards and practices. This progress is reinforced by changes to international trade regulations, the increasing share of trade with the industrialized countries, and the related environmental requirements. Changes to the tax and price systems related to natural resources, energy and raw materials represent a further essential factor. Environmental product charges and fines for environmental pollution also contribute to these changes.

Business ventures focusing on environmental protection have increased rapidly in Hungary. The large scale privatization process has also contributed to changing attitudes. The State Property Agency which coordinating privatization, takes into account "inherited" environmental problems and sets the environmental criteria for new owners. Quality control systems and certificates, in relation to the International Standards Organization standard ISO 9000 for example, are spreading within Hungarian industry. Businesses are becoming "green" enterprises, such as the Hungarian State Railways Conference which is expanding its services in an environmentally sound way. In the banking sector, environmental concerns and responsibilities have increasingly been taken into account.

Challenges

Despite these positive signs, the state has not adequately regulated industry from an environmental point of view. Price regulations on certain environmentally hazardous products (for example, detergents and fertilizers) have not been introduced.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

 

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Hungary to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

 

SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL COMMUNITY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

Under the changing conditions and requirements, scientists seek new goals and opportunities in relation to the new socioeconomic challenges, the problems raised by the transition process, the modernization of the country, and sustainable socioeconomic development. In this context, the scientific community has already established ways to accommodate sustainable development. Increased opportunities for the research community to participate in international programmes, especially those of developed countries, for example, are considered very important.

The Hungarian Academy of Sciences has presented the views of the scientific community on the state of science in the country and recommended the long term direction. The proportion of the expenditures for research and development today hardly exceed 1% of the GDP. Before the present transition period it was around 2.5%. Consequently, the number of staff in research institutes has decreased by half. Between 1988 and 1993, for example, the staff in R&D institutes decreased from 7378 to 4062, while those in industry decreased from 11157 to 3305. The Academy's assessment concluded that, despite the current complicated economic and financial circumstances, the competency levels, capabilities and infrastructure of the scientific community are consistent with the requirements of developed countries, in particular those of the European Union.

Similarly, according to a comprehensive governmental initiative, scientists and experts in technology, education, and culture have a key role in the long term modernization process. It is recognized that a high level of national scientific activity should be maintained; supported by the qualitative development of a research network and improvements to material-technical conditions. It has been accepted that the financial resources for the research programmes of the scientific community should reach 1.8-2.0% of GDP. Research related to sustainable development represents one of the highest priority areas. This would include the introduction of energy-saving technologies, the development of environmentally sound technologies, the development and utilization of biotechnology, research on updating food-farming, and medical studies to safeguard public-health.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

 

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Hungary to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

 

FARMERS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

Agriculture has always been a key sector of the national economy in Hungary. About 70% of total land area is suitable for agriculture production. Between 1948 and 1960, an intense process of developing collective farms took place resulting in profound structural changes to land use and agriculture as a whole. As a consequence of these structural changes, an intensive, specialized, and concentrated large scale farming system was established between 1960 and 1989.

Major laws have been adopted for the transformation of the property pattern since 1990. This includes legislation on compensation and the break up of cooperatives. As a result, this sector is undergoing radical changes in ownership systems and land tenure. The active agricultural population is decreasing: its percentage of the total labour force is about 8%. Today, agriculture contributes about 7% to the GDP.

As a consequence of this privatization process, "land fragmentation" may have adverse impacts on the sustainable use of the agricultural area. It is clear to decision makers that more attention should be paid to extensive grasslands, small-scale livestock operations, traditional practices such as small-scale mixed farming and extensive livestock grazing, extensive arable land management, river floodplains, set-aside practices, fish ponds, wetlands, and woody grasslands. The introduction and general application of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) are considered important. Policy to facilitate the practical implementation of an integrated GAP system is generally supported. Such a policy would cover an "Integrated Plant Nutrition System," an adequate level of efficiency and profitability for agriculture, a suitable living standard for the rural population, and the importance of improvements to the state of the environment.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

 

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Hungary to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

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SCIENCE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The most senior decision making structure is provided through a scientific policy committee chaired by the Prime Minister. Another important forum is the recently established National Environmental Council, where one third of the members represent the scientific community. This council serves as the advisory body to government and assesses all programmes and planned legal instruments from an environmental point of view.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

A comprehensive National Environmental R&D Programme and the National Environmental Programme (1996) pay great attention to the scientific requirements for decision makers. These requirements include research on environmental impacts; environmentally sound policies and technologies for various sectors; the innovation program; the development of monitoring networks and information systems for the detection of changes in the state of the environment and identification of adverse impacts; relationships between the environment, the economy, and society; and adjustments to environmental regulations of developed countries and the European Union. These programmes already take into account the changes in the structure and mandate of the scientific community, and the provisions of recently adopted legal instruments such as the Act on Environmental Protection (1995) and the Act on Nature Conservation (1996). According to the former, environmental R&D is to be increased and better coordinated.

Status 

The current socioeconomic transition has affected research institutions and the scientific community considerably. The current resources available for science hardly exceed 1% of the GDP, while in previous periods the index fluctuated around 2.5%. With budget constraints, the network of research institutes has substantially narrowed and funding has decreased for study groups. Unfortunately opportunities for R&D within the private sector are not strong enough to provide additional resources.

The importance of science is recognized by the Hungarian government. The government has a comprehensive initiative to enhance national scientific activities, the qualitative development of the research network, and the improvement of material-technical conditions necessary for its effective operation. The primary goal is to increase funding. The identification of the high priority study areas follows the principles of sustainable development. A special cooperative agreement has been developed recently between the Government and the Hungarian Academy of Sciences on the conduct of scientific analysis, the provision of scientific advice on key issues of socioeconomic development and its international conditions and tendencies, and the R&D aspects of environmental requirements.

The scientific contribution has been significant for particular areas. In 1995, for example, a group of experts, commissioned by the Ministry of Agriculture, completed a strategy for sustainable development in agriculture for Hungary. Another group studied the various environmental scenarios and objectives for the country. A similar analysis has been prepared for the transport sector resulting in a Transport Policy Concept that shaped the long term policy directions of the government. Scientists have examined the future of water management policy with special emphasis on environmental protection ("Hungary's Water Management at the Turn of the Millennium"). Other areas have been investigated by various academic institutes and discussed by the specialized committees and groups of the Academy of Science.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

 

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Hungary to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

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INFORMATION

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

The availability and quality of sustainable development information at the national level can be summarized as follows:

Agenda 21 Chapters

Very good

Good

Some good data but many gaps

Poor

Remarks

2. International cooperation and trade    

X

   
3. Combating poverty    

X

   
4. Changing consumption patterns      

X

 
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability  

X

     
6. Human health  

X

     
7. Human settlements  

X

     
8. Integrating E & D in decision-making    

X

   
9. Protection of the atmosphere  

X

     
10. Integrated planning and management of land resources  

X

     
11. Combating deforestation  

X

     
12. Combating desertification and drought  

X

     
13. Sustainable mountain development          
14. Sustainable agriculture and rural development    

X

   
15. Conservation of biological diversity  

X

     
16. Biotechnology    

X

   
17. Oceans, seas, coastal areas and their living resources          
18. Freshwater resources  

X

     
19. Toxic chemicals    

X

   
20. Hazardous wastes    

X

   
21. Solid wastes    

X

   
22. Radioactive wastes  

X

     
24. Women in sustainable development    

X

   
25. Children and youth    

X

   
26. Indigenous people          
27. Non-governmental organizations    

X

   
28. Local authorities  

X

     
29. Workers and trade unions      

X

 
30. Business and industry    

X

   
31. Scientific and technological community  

X

     
32. Farmers      

X

 
33. Financial resources and mechanisms    

X

   
34. Technology, cooperation and capacity-building    

X

   
35. Science for sustainable development  

X

     
36. Education, public awareness and training  

X

     
37. International cooperation for capacity-building    

X

   
38. International institutional arrangements  

X

     
39. International legal instruments  

X

     
40. Information for decision-making    

X

   

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

 

This information was provided by the Government of Hungary to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

To access GRID Budapest, click here.
Click here for the Sustainable Development Networking Programme/National Technical Infor mation Centre
Click here for the Sustainable Development Networking Programme/National Technical Infor mation Centre (in English)
Click here to access the UNEP/ENRIN Assessment of Environmental Information in Hungary.

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INTERNATIONAL LAW

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Major international agreement and conventions relevant to Agenda 21 implementation in Hungary include:

 

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

 

This information was provided by the Government of Hungary to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.



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