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NATURAL RESOURCE ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN GHANA

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AGRICULTURE

No information is available.

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ATMOSPHERE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Environment Protection Agency and the Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology are the main coordinating bodies and this is done through regular meetings at committee level.

The lowest level of public authority is at district and town levels.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   

The strategy of the Government is to phase out the use of Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) according to the ODS phase out schedule for Article 5 countries under the Protocol.  To ensure this phase-out, the country carries out projects listed below:

Ghana's short-term and long-term goals concerning: Reduction of green house gas emissions; conserving and increasing greenhouse sinks; mitigating ozone depletion; and mitigating transboundary air pollution include:

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

NGOs, local authorities, business and industry, scientific and technological community, policy makers.  Their role has been mainly advisory.

Farmers and fishermen are mostly affected by atmospheric pollution and climate change.  In Ghana, there are no compensation schemes available.

Programmes and Projects   

Planned Activities in Industry

Ongoing

The main activities have been in the refrigeration sector which consumes as much as 98% of the total ODS consumption in Ghana.

Afforestation, Management of degraded land and Agro-forestry are some of the measures been taken by Ghana to increase greenhouse gas sinks.

Involvement in regional network for systematic observation and building capacity for adaptation to climate change are programmes aimed at promoting a better understanding of the processes and consequences of changes in the atmosphere.

Status   

Ghana's vulnerability assessment indicated that:

Ghana is not directly involved in the chemical analysis/measurements of emissions of ozone depleting substances.  The country has however, seen a reduction in the quantity of ODS imported.  Since 1999, its current consumption stand at 43.65 tonnes as compared to 101.4 tonnes in 1991.

Challenges  

National ambient air quality monitoring results indicate that air quality of Ghana's urban centres is generally good as most monitoring stations do not capture any disturbing levels of gaseous emissions.  The major structural deficiency regarding the minimization of ODS's is the lack of legislation for ODSs.

Terrestrial

Marine

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

Three policy dialogues have been held.   One in the southern sector, the other in the middle belt and the last in the northern sector of the country.  The media was involved in all activities.  General workshops on awareness creation and capacity building have also been carried out.

Primary and secondary school education curricula promote an early awareness of the adverse effects of climate change by:

Planned activities

Information   

Ghana plans to have the country's national reports on climate change placed on the Environmental Protection Agency's website.  Abstracts are already there.

www.epa.gov.gh

Information dissemination is done through the media and by the help of some environmental NGOs.  Stakeholders workshops are also held.

Research and Technologies   

Meteorological Stations, Radio telephones.

There is some early detection systems but not adequate concerning changes and fluctuations in the atmosphere.

Technologies are yet to be assessed.  Ghana planned to conduct a technology needs assessment under the Phase II (Expiated Financing) of the Enabling activities.

Financing   

The government encourages the private sector in the development of viable projects especially projects that can attract private investors under the CDM.

Cooperation

Main sources of funding for activities are from: UNDP/GEF; and Netherlands Government.  Ghana has enjoyed good cooperation in the building vulnerability and mitigation assessment from these two donors.

Ghana ratified the Montreal Protocol in October 1998, and has since ratified the various amendments including the Copenhagen.  The Montreal and Beijing amendments are yet to be ratified.

A significant move is the West African Gas Pipeline Project which has enjoyed support of our government.  This project aims (environmentally to reduce flaring of volatile fractions (methane) in Nigeria.

Development of renewable energy sources under the Danish

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This information was provided by the Government of Ghana to the 9th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: April 2001.

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BIODIVERSITY

No information is available.

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DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

No information is available.

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ENERGY

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FORESTS

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FRESHWATER

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LAND MANAGEMENT

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MOUNTAINS

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OCEANS AND COASTAL AREAS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology acts as Coordinating Ministry for decision-making in all three areas included under this issue; that is, integrated coastal zone management and sustainable development; marine environmental protection, both from land-based activities and from sea-based activities; and sustainable use and conservation of marine living resources (both of the high seas and under national jurisdiction).

In order to facilitate coordination, there are a number of arrangements in place. These include:

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Legislation that has been passed in the area of integrated coastal zone management and sustainable development includes the following:

Legislation for marine environmental protection and the sustainable use and conservation of marine living resources is contained in the Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan(Draft) and the Coastal Wetlands Strategy.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

For all three issue areas, the following Plans apply:

In addition, with specific reference to marine environmental protection, there is a

All of these Plans, plus the

Seek to provide for the preservation and sustainable use of fragile ecosystems, such as those that include mangroves or coral reefs.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

Major groups are involved actively in the decision-making process dealing with oceans and seas. They are also engaged in the various training programmes relating to oceans and seas.

Programmes and Projects   


Among the major programmes in place for the three issue areas are the following:

Status 

The major current uses of the coastal areas in Ghana are fishing, human settlements, tourism, industrial development, mining – sand winning, and oil and gas exploration. Fishing contributes about 1.7% to the country’s GDP.

The sustainable use and conservation of marine living resources is encouraged through legislation, regulations, education and awareness creation programmes as well as the enforcement of existing regulations and legislation.

The major problem associated with the impact of shipping on the sustainable management of coastal zones relates to pollution of coastal waters beaches, especially from residual fuel as well as residual oil from cleaning the ballasts of oil tankers.

Coastal and marine based industries tend to pollute coastal areas by the discharge of untreated wastes into the marine environment. Tourism encourages the establishment of human settlements and associated industries which, when not properly planned, lead to the pollution of the coastal environment, and consequently unsustainable coastal development.

The primary sources of land-based pollution of the marine environment come from industries and human settlements along the coast. The wastes generated from these activities tend not to be treated.

The primary sources of sea-based pollution of the marine environment are discharges of untreated wastes from ships and other vessels and oil from oil tankers.

Challenges  

Priority constraints to implementing effective programmes in these areas include:

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

There are no formalised programmes for educating policy makers on sustainable coastal management. However, the training components of a number of projects include in them programmes which have been used in this respect. These include:

No specific campaigns to exist primarily devoted to awareness creation on the oceans and seas. However, the International Year of the Ocean was celebrated in Ghana with special programmes specifically aimed at children to create greater awareness in them on issues relating to sustainable development with respect to the oceans and seas.

Information   

Information on the sustainable management of fishery resources is contained in fish stock survey reports.

In the area of marine pollution, there are survey data. With respect to living resources other than fish, there are studies on various living resources such as seashore birds, aquatic plants and some marine animals.

Information is also collected on sea-level rise from climate change and erosion.

A Monitoring, Compliance and Surveillance system is being put in place to ensure the implementation of the various programmes in the marine environment. GIS is used in this effort.

Information is available only on request. It is not available on the Internet and there is no National World Wide Web address.

A national programme on Indicators for Sustainable Development is being developed. This will include indicators related to the oceans and seas.

Research and Technologies 

No specific issues have been identified with respect to technologies used in the marine and coastal zone.

The critical factors for determining the choice of technologies include:

Financing   

Financing for activities in the sector are primarily supported from the national budget. However, donor support – bilateral and multilateral – has also been obtained for specific programmes, such as the World Bank sponsored Fisheries Sub-sector Capacity Building Project.

Cooperation  

Ghana is a Party to the following agreements:

Ghana also participate in the Gulf of Guinea Large Marine Ecosystem Project.

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This information was provided by the Government of Ghana to the 7th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: April 1999.

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TOXIC CHEMICALS

No information is available.

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WASTE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

No information is available.

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