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Economic Aspects | Natural Resource Aspects | Institutional Aspects | Social Aspects |Georgia

NATURAL RESOURCE ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN GEORGIA

Click here to go to these sections: Agriculture Atmosphere Biodiversity Desertification and Drought Energy Forests Freshwater Land Management Mountains Oceans and Coastal Areas Toxic Chemicals Waste and Hazardous Materials

 

AGRICULTURE

No information is available.

To access the FAOSTAT Data Base for information by country, item, element and year, click here:

Click here for access to FAO country reports on Plant Genetic Resources

Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.

Click here to link to Country and Sub-regional Information on Plant Genetic Resources of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.

Click here to go to Web Site of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, which includes information on the Codex Alimentarius and the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme.

Click here to access the Web Site of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).

Click here to access the sixteen international agricultural research centers that are members of the CGIAR.

For information on agriculture in Georgia, click here.

For information on soils in Georgia's State of the Environment Report, click here.

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ATMOSPHERE

Decision-Making

Legislation, regulations and policy instruments

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was ratified on 29 July 1994 and entered into force on 27 October 1994.

Georgia acceded to both the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layeron 21 March 1996.

Click here for national information from the Web Site of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

For the access to the Web Site of the Ozone Secretariat, click here:

For information on climate protection in Georgia, click here.

For information on air pollution in Georgia, click here.

For information on air in Georgia's State of the Environment Report, click here.

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BIODIVERSITY

Decision-Making

Legislation, regulations and policy instruments

The Convention on Biological Diversity was ratified by Georgia on 2 June 1994. Georgia acceded to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora on 13 September 1996. It is not a Party to the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals.

For access to the Web Site of the Convention on Biological Diversity, click here:

For access to the Web Site of the CITES Convention, click here:

For the Web Site of the CMS Convention, click here:

For the Web Site of the Convention on the Protection of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage, click here:

For the country-by-country, Man in the Biosphere On-Line Query System, click here:

Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.

Click here to go to the Web Site of UNEP's International Register on Biosafety.

Click here for the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Biosafety WebPages

For information on biodiversity protection in Georgia, click here.

Click here to link to biosafety web sites in the European Union.

For information on biodiversity in Georgia's State of the Environment Report, click here.

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DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

Decision-Making

 Legislation, regulations and policy instruments

The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought an/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa has not been ratified by Georgia.

For access to the Web Site of the Convention to Combat Desertification and Drought, click here:

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ENERGY

No information is available.

For information on minerals, including fossil minerals in Georgia's State of the Environment Report, click here.

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FORESTS

No information is available.

For information on forests in Georgia's State of the Environment Report, click here.

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FRESHWATER

Decision-Making

Legislation, regulations and policy instruments

The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands entered into force in Georgia on 7 June 1997.

 

For information on Kolkheti Wetlands in Georgia's State of the Environment Report, click here.

For information on water resources protection, click here.

For information on the marine environment, click here.

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LAND MANAGEMENT

No information is available.

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MOUNTAINS

No information is available.

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OCEANS AND COASTAL AREAS

Decision-Making

In Georgia, the Ministry of Environment and Local authorities are responsible for integrated coastal zone management and sustainable development as well as marine environmental protection, both from land- and sea-based activities. Issues related to the sustainable use abd conservation of marine living resources is the responsibility of the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Agriculture and Food. An Interagency Expert Council was established to facilitate coordination among all of these entities.

Legislation, regulations and policy instruments

The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea was ratified in 1993.

Legislation that has been adopted for integrated coastal zone management and sustainable development and for marine environmental protection includes the following: Marine Code,Law on Environmental Protection, Law on Ecological Examination and Law on Environmental Permit. The Law on Protection of Animals and the Law on Protection of Plants are intended to address the sustainable use and conservation of marine living resources.

Strategies, policies and plans

A National Environmental Action Plan is currently uneder development and will address, among other issues, those related to oceans and seas. Also being drafted are an integrated Coastal Zone Management Action Plan, a Black Sea Rehabilitation and Protection National Strategic Action Plan and a National Biodiversity Action Plan which is concerned with the sustainable use and conservation of marine living resources.

Since the major plans are still in the process of being drafted, programmes for their implementation have not yet been developed.

Major Groups

Involvement of Major Groups in decision-making varies. Business and industry are actually complete masters of the situation. Local Authorities are involved most heavily in the early stages of decision-making. Non-Governmental organizations are taken into account, and their involvement is growing. Participation by indigenous people and workers and unions is reflected in law, but not in reality. There is almost no involvement by either the scientific and technological community or by farmers, and no participation at all by women or children and youth.

Status

The major current uses of the coastal areas in Georgia are primarily for the oil pipeline, fishing and tourism. An extremely small percentage of the economy is contributed by fishing (counted by hundredths of a per cent), and there are no methods in place to encourage sustainable use and conservation of marine living resources.

There are not any existing port waste reception faciities or oily water reception facilities in Batumi and Poti, nor are they any adequate disposal sights for treatment plants. An oily water treatment plant is operating at half-capacity. At the same time, there is little impact of industries on the sustainble development of coastal areas because most of the industrial facilities are inactive.

The primary source of sea-based pollution of the marine environment is spills; of land-based pollution, sources include municipal sewage, agriculture (pesticides), erosion and industry.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

Both study tours and technical workshops related to ICZM have been used to educate policy-makers in the concept and policy design of sustainable coastal management and its aspects. The TACIS/PHARE Black Sea Project provides training in environmental impact assessment, enviornmental audit, public participation and ICZM. Training has also been provided for the responsible planners and relevant industries through the First National ICZM Workshop (Tbilisi, April 1995).

Constraints to capacity building are due primarily to lack of funds, lack of effective policy, lack of public awareness and political conflicts.

Technology

The determining factors for decision-making in the choice of technologies are that the technologies be easily operational, the specificity of particular industrial activity, local properties of waste and self-determination by local authorities.

Choice is also determined or constrained by a lack of funds, lack of appropriate experience (e.g., of cleaner production practices), reliance on foreign investments and demand for and interest in waste processing technologies (at the coastline).

Information

Information related to fishery resoruces is available from the Department of Fisheries at the Ministry of Environment, the Department of Fisheries at the Ministry of Agriculture and Food, and the Department of Biological Diversity. Information related to marine pollution is collected by the Department of Black Sea Protection at the Ministry of the Environment and the Department of Sanitation and Hygiene at the Ministry of Public Health.

Information on mineral resources is found in the Department of Geology at the Ministry of the Environment, the Ministry of Economy and the Department of State Inspection of Guards of State Secret. The Department of Biodiversity at the Ministry of the Environment and the Department of Protected Territories, Reserves and Hunting Economy provide information on living resources other than fish. Information related to critical uncertainties (e.g., climate change, sea-level rise, etc.) is available from the Department of Hydrological Meteorology at the Ministry of Environment, Department of Radiation at the Ministry of the Environment.

There is a surveillance system in place to monitor implementation of relevant laws and regulations, but Geographic Information Systems are not used for this purpose. A small-scale GIS-based ICZM data is under development, but it is practically inaccessible for purposes of monitoring legal compliance.

A Global Resource International Database Center has been officially established in the capital, Tbilisa, and work has begun there on developing sustainable development indicators. Financing

This sector is financed both through private sector partnerships (e.g., Georgian Pipeline Company supported several small-scale environmental projects) and through external assistance. (International donors include GEF, TACIS and UNDP, among others.)

Cooperation

Georgia is a Party to the following Conventions and Agreements relevant to oceans and seas:

b. Other related agreements, particularly regional and sea-specific agreements, to which your country is a Party.

* * *

This information is based on Georgia's Report to the 7th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1998. Last update: October 1998.

To access the Web Site of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, click here:

For information on the marine environment, click here.

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TOXIC CHEMICALS

No information available.

For information on toxic contamination in Georgia's State of the Environment Report, click here.

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WASTE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Decision-Making

Legislation, regulations and policy instruments

Georgia has not ratified the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal .

For information on waste management, click here.

For information on toxic contamination in Georgia's State of the Environment Report, click here.

For direct link to the Web Site of the Basel Convention, click here:


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