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SOCIAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN ESTONIA

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POVERTY

No information is available. 

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DEMOGRAPHICS

No information is available. 

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HEALTH

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available. 

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The Government of Estonia has provided a legal framework for dividing the responsibilities and tasks among national, community and municipal levels. As a rule, the prevention of environmental risk factors is being financed by the agent of the risk. When it is impossible to identify any specific risk agent, the expenses are accordingly borne by the State or municipalities.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The Government of Estonia has enumerated the following objectives in the area of health:

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

No information is available. 

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available. 

Status 

No information is available. 

Challenges  

No information is available. 

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

Institutions necessary for the training of working environmental health specialists have been created; health education has been introduced to educational institutions; and new strategies for the training of environmental health and public health specialists are being developed.

Information   

No information is available. 

Research and Technologies 

No information is available. 

Financing   

No information is available. 

Cooperation  

No information is available. 

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This information is based on Estonia's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

To access the Health for All On-Line Database (WHO): Europe and CIS countries, click here:
Click here to go to the Health and health-related statistical information from the World Health Organization.

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EDUCATION

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

The Ministry of Education is responsible for pre- and in-service training of teachers. There are three Nature Hobby Centers in Estonia offering in-service training courses for teachers and which coordinate after-school environmental education activities for students. Training has been carried out mainly through the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Education.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available. 

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   

No information is available. 

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

In the field of environmental education, the Government exercises continuous cooperation with basic and vocational schools, as well as with Universities. Environmental Education is one of the four compulsory cross-curricular themes in the Estonian National Curriculum for Primary and Secondary Schools.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available. 

Status

Each school is required to develop its own school curriculum. Environmental education is learned as a part of core subjects through cross-curricular activities and, if the school chooses to do so, through optional courses. Four different curriculum materials of environmental education have been compiled for different levels of education. These materials were made available to schools for free. A new national curriculum will be implemented from year 1997 in grades 1,4,7 and 10.

Challenges  

No information is available. 

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

Raising public environmental awareness and shaping an environmentally-friendly consumer is one of the priorities of the national environmental strategy. Environmental issues are discussed in newspapers and TV and radio broadcasts. Today, due to pressing economic concerns there seems to be less interest in environmental improvement than before UNCED.

In 1995 support was offered to promote environmental education in biology classes at the Estonian Youth Hobby Centre Telo and Rapina Higher Horticultural School. A meeting of young geologists has also taken place in addition to a countrywide competition in biology and establishment of the Environ-Tallinn Nature Conservation Society.

Information   

No information is available. 

Research and Technologies 

No information is available. 

Financing

The Estonian Environmental Fund awarded scholarships to the students of the environmental protection technology and environmental engineering branches of Tallinn Technical University. The University of Turku (Finland) and the Institute of Zoology and Hydrobiology of the Tartu University in Vilsandi National Park have received financial support from the Government.

Cooperation  

No information is available. 

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This information is based on Estonia's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

Tartu Student Nature Protection Circle

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HUMAN SETTLEMENTS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available. 

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

New legislation - the Constitution of 1992, the Land Law, the Property Rights Law, the Law on Privatization, etc. - is regulating issues related to human settlements. These need to be improved since all essential reforms have not yet been fully implemented.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans    

No information is available. 

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

See under Challenges.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available. 

Status

The decades from the 1960s to the 1980s were characterized by extensive construction in towns and in rural areas of standard large-panel apartment buildings for up to 130,000 people. Soviet policy resulted in rapid growth in the urban population and largely depopulated rural areas. Abandoned villages are now being revived since farms are being returned to their former owners. The population in large towns is also decreasing because of migration and the departure of the foreign military.

Currently, the main activity in this area is the planning and construction of "inhabitant-friendly" housing areas and renovation of the large panel buildings of the 1960s. Privatization of housing areas is limited due to the poor conditions of living quarters and to the lack of financial resources of potential buyers. In order to create an environment supporting the sustainable use of natural resources, relatively small enterprises have been established. The privatization of large construction companies has been initiated, and foreign investors have been given priority.

Challenges  

Local authorities are responsible for handling the population's social problems (e.g., housing). One obstacle to the decentralization of management is the lack of expertise within local government. Sustainable and democratic planning methods are being enhanced through the training of planning experts. Estonia has received "know-how" support from the Nordic countries, Germany and the Netherlands. The financial resources of local governments are also limited. Thus, the implementation of the anticipated measures has not been fully satisfactory, for example, purification equipment for sewage has not been installed to anticipated levels. Similarly, energy and transport systems which are comparatively well established have had problems with their maintenance.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available. 

Information 

No information is available. 

Research and Technologies   

No information is available. 

Financing

As an economy in transition, Estonia needs external help in reconstructing and redesigning its economy and structures. In order to renovate housing stock, both national and international funding (e.g., through loans) is necessary. Approximately US$ 722 million of external funding will be required in order to implement all planned activities. The external funding resources include: the Nordic Council of Ministers, the International Federation for Housing and Planning (IFHP), the Nordic Investment Bank (NIB), the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) and the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe.

Cooperation  

No information is available. 

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This information is based on Estonia's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

For information related to human settlements and refugees, you may access the UNHCR Country Index by clicking here:



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