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Economic Aspects | Natural Resource Aspects | Institutional Aspects | Social Aspects |Egypt

NATURAL RESOURCE ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN EGYPT

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AGRICULTURE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-MakingLegislation and Regulations

No information is available.

Decision-MakingStrategies, Policies and Plans

A strategy is being implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture to promote and encourage sustainable farming practices and technologies.

Decision-MakingMajor Groups involvement

No information is available

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available

Status

Egypt engages in a number of measures to promote sustainable agriculture and better use the land. These include establishing tanks for protecting and developing water resources, monitoring soil contaminants and promoting soil development, engaging in crop rotation, and building public awareness of the importance of sustainable development.

Challenges 

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

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This information is based on Egypt's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update:  April 1997

For country reports on Plant Genetic Resources, click here.
To access the FAOSTAT Data Base for information by country, item, element and year, click here:
Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to link to Country and Sub-regional Information on Plant Genetic Resources of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
Click here to go to Web Site of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, which includes information on the Codex Alimentarius and the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme.
Click here to access the Web Site of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).
Click here to access the sixteen international agricultural research centers that are members of the CGIAR.

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ATMOSPHERE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

The Egyptian Environment Affairs Agency is responsible for issues relating to protection of the atmosphere.

Decision-MakingLegislation and Regulations

Egypt participates in a number of international efforts to protect the earths atmosphere. It signed and ratified both the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, on 5 December 1994, and the Montreal Protocol on 2 August 1988, as well as its amendments. Egypt submitted its latest report to the FCCC Secretariat in 1995.

Decision-MakingStrategies, Policies and Plans

No information is available.

Decision-MakingMajor Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

With respect to climate change, Egypt participated in the US country Studies Program in a two-phase program on greenhouse gas inventory refinement and vulnerability and adaptation problems as well as a project funded within the same program on drafting a national climate change action plan. Egypt is also implementing a UNDP/GEF capacity building project on climate change.

Status

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

Egypt is grappling with two issues related to the Montreal Protocol: methyl bromide and the recycling of ozone depleting substances and disposal of discarded equipment. The country has benefited considerably from the Multilateral Ozone Fund with effective help, particularly from UNIDO and UNDP.

Egypt is promoting an Arab Ozone Network, and will soon start a Cairo Air Improvement Program.

 

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This information is based on Egypt's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update:  April 1997

To visit Egypt's national Web Site for atmosphere-related information on national coordination, legislation and policy, resources, activities and Focal Point, click here.
For Egypt's National Law (No. 4) for the Environment, including Protection of the air from pollution, click here.
For the national Organization for Energy Conservation and Planning, click here.
For national energy statistics, click here.
Click here for national information from the Web site of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

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BIODIVERSITY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

The Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency, Ministry of Tourism, Ministry of Agriculture and Ministry of Education are responsible for protection of biological diversity.

Decision-MakingLegislation and Regulations

Egypt signed the Convention on Biological Diversity in 1992 and ratified it in 1994. Its most recent report to the secretariat was submitted in 1997. Egypt ratified the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora in 1978 and submitted its latest report to the secretariat in 1996.

With the restructuring of the Egyptian Environment Affairs Agency in 1992, the Nature Protection Department was formed to oversee nature conservation in Egypt, including the implementation of law 102/1983 for the Natural Protectorates and managing the national network of Protected Areas. A total of 17 Protected Areas have been established in Egypt representing a wide range of critical ecosystems. Civil servants and many NGOs are also involved in implementing or disseminating information related to the department action plan.

Decision-MakingStrategies, Policies and Plans

To fulfil the countrys obligations under the Biodiversity Convention, a National Biodiversity Unit (NBU) was established within the Nature Protection Sector. A workshop on Egypts biological diversity was held in November 1992, from which a National Biodiversity Action Plan was formulated. The NBU, in cooperation with the scientific community, has since produced a number of landmark studies of Biodiversity, including the National Habitat Diversity Study in 1993 and the National Biodiversity Country Study in 1995. At present the NBU is establishing a National Biodiversity Data Bank to facilitate the monitoring and management of Egypts biological resources. In 1997 the NBU will begin development of a National Biodiversity Country Strategy. Upon completion of this strategy, it is hoped that the Government will be able to raise funds for Biodiversity projects in Egypt, such as those which have been identified by the National Biodiversity Action Plan. Some of these projects include captive breeding for endangered wildlife, a gene bank to preserve plant and animal genetic resources, and a Natural History Museum to promote biodiversity research and education.

Decision-MakingMajor Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available.

Status

Protected Areas have proven to date to be the most important management tool to protect the nations biodiversity. As of 1995, approximately 7.5% of the country was protected under law 102/1983, and it is expected that coverage will expand to 15% by the year 2010. The European Community (EC) has been working closely with EEAA (Nature Protection Department) since 1988 in the field of national park management. Collaboration began with the project to develop the management and infrastructure of Bas Mohammed National Park, and was subsequently expanded to establish a protected area network in South Sinai with Napaq and Abu Gallum Protected Areas and Katherine protectorate.

Egypt is rich in diverse habitats as well as species. Each habitat has its own unique fauna and flora. The National Habitat Diversity Study identified the main habitats occurring in the country. These can be broadly characterized as desert, marine and coastal environs, inland wetlands, and the cultivated lands of the Nile Valley and Delta. The habitats with the greatest species richness and diversity are the wetlands, in particular the coral reefs on the Red Sea, and the Nile River and lakes. These are followed by the terrestrial habitats of: Gabel Elba, St. Katherine and the North Coast. Of these all except for the inland wetlands and North Coast, are adequately regarded as Protected Areas. To further the development objectives of the nation, these and other representative habitats with cultural, scientific, education and economic value need to be protected under Law 102.

Hunting management also plays a role in Egypts biodiversity strategy. Many different types of hunting take place in Egypt; these are classified as hunting for sport, tourism, subsistence or commercial trade. Hunting has tended to be excessive in Egypt, leading to the depletion of the nations wildlife. Since 1992, Egypt has made significant improvements in hunting management with steps taken to organize sport hunting for game birds, in particular for tourism. To control illegal hunting, a system has been set up to monitor hunting in the desert, and raids have been carried out on shops selling protected species of wildlife. In 1996 a study was conducted with support from DANIDA to explore ways to enhance the implementation of the provisions of Law 4/1994 pertaining to hunting. The study recommended that a hunting management system be devised in Egypt to manage hunting on a sustainable basis with a coordinating body established to oversee implementation of the system.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

No information is available.

Information

Due to its strategic geographic location at the juncture of three continents and its diverse habitats, Egypt has rich plant and animal life. The National Biodiversity Country Study inventoried the plant and animal species in the country. However, because much of the existing information is outdated, field studies are required to assess the current status of Egypts biological resources. Indications are that Egypts biodiversity is being lost at an accelerated rate, with habitat destruction, pollution and over exploitation the main threats to the countrys wildlife. For example, based on current trends, unless mitigation measures are taken, Egypt in the next ten to twenty years will stand to lose most of its large animal populations.

It has been recognized that there is a need to enhance the management of other protected areas around the country and create new reserves in order to establish a viable and comprehensive national park system. As the first phase to develop the national park network, a country-wide assessment took place in 1997 to evaluate existing protected areas and identify new conservation areas.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

In addition to UNEP, the European Commission has been involved in nature conservation efforts in the Department; the Ramsar Convention Fund also supports a one year wetland Education Programme. Additional financial support comes from USAID and GEF, who are funding Protected Areas in the Red Sea, and from the Italian Government, which has initiated a project for the Wadi El Rayan Protected Area in El Fayoum. In light of the successes in South Sinai, there has been increasing interest in Natural Protectorates. It is envisaged that there will be further projects once new conservation areas have been identified and priorities determined.

International cooperation is an important component of Egypts biodiversity strategy. Egypt has signed more than eight international agreements having provisions for nature conservation. The

Nature Protection Sector has been active in the conventions and following-up on convention compliance. The Government of Egypt has played a major role in the Biodiversity Convention, and was one of the first countries to sign the agreement in 1992. During the past two years, steps have been taken to improve regulation of international trade in endangered wildlife as obligated under the CITES convention of 1979. However, there needs to be greater compliance in Egypt of CITES and other international agreements stipulating the wise and sustainable use of natural habitats and wildlife. Egypt cooperates with a number of international organizations, including UNEP, the European Union, WWF, IWRB, and Birdlife international.

 

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This information is based on Egypt's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update:  April 1997

For access to the Web Site of the Convention on Biological Diversity, click here:
For access to the Web Site of the CITES Convention, click here:
For the Web Site of the CMS Convention, click here:
For the Web Site of the Convention on the Protection of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage, click here:
For the country-by-country, Man in the Biosphere On-Line Query System, click here:
Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to go to the Web Site of UNEP's International Register on Biosafety.
Click here for the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Biosafety WebPages

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DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

No information is available.

Decision-MakingLegislation and Regulations

No information is available.

Decision-MakingStrategies, Policies and Plans

Desertification is the biggest threat to Egypts farmlands and flora, and Egypt is one of the main countries that have developed and implemented a Strategy for Combating Desertification.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects  

No information is available.

Status  

No information is available.

Challenges 

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

Egypt ratified the International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Drought and/or Desertification Particularly in Africa on 7/7/95.

 

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This information is based on Egypt's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update:  April 1997

For access to the Web Site of the Convention to Combat Desertification and Drought, click here:

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ENERGY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status

Egypts energy consumption in 1992 was 493 kg of oil equivalents per capita. Policies are in place to improve energy efficiency among all social sectors.

Challenges 

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

 

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This information is based on Egypts submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update:  April 1997

For the national Organization for Energy Conservation and Planning, click here.
For national energy statistics, click here.

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FORESTS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

The Ministry of Agriculture has responsibility for forest resources, which are limited due to the countrys arid, dry North African climate.

Decision-MakingLegislation and Regulations

No information is available.

Decision-MakingStrategies, Policies and Plans

No information is available.

Decision-MakingMajor Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

The `El Kasr Project is a pilot project, implemented in a region near the City of Marsa Matrouh, which aims at desertification abatement and the sustainable development of the region through community participation with the residing bedouins.

Status

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

Internationally, Egypt fully supports all initiatives to combat desertification and conservation of the existing forest resources of the world.

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This information is based on Egypt's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: April 1997

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FRESHWATER

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

The focal point for management of freshwater in Egypt are Ministerial committees with the Ministry of Public Works and Water Resources (represented by EPADP, Planning Sector and National Water Research Centre). The Cabinet of Ministers, the Egyptian Environment Affairs Agency and the Ministry of Health also have responsibilities for this sector. In addition, there are Drainage Directorates at the district level, Drainage Centres at the local level and Drainage Sub-Centres at the river basin level. The mandate for these agencies is contained in Presidential Decree No. 158 of 1973.

Decision-MakingLegislation and Regulations

The Nile is the major freshwater resource of Egypt. Law No. 4 of 1994, has been issued to confirm all the requirements for the protection of the river Nile, including Law 48 of 1982 for preventing water courses from pollution. A National Programme addressing pollution of the Nile from industrial, domestic and agricultural wastewater sources is being developed.

In addition to Laws No. 4 and 48, the general legislation and regulatory framework for water management is as follows: (Titles and years of last updates):

Pricing of irrigation water is not an objective of the Egyptian Government. With respect to agricultural use, while irrigation and drainage water is not priced, the costs of implementing sub-surface drainage networks are recovered on twenty years interest free annual instalments according to law. The costs of water supply to factories is recovered in full. Maintainance of open and subsurface drainage networks is currently undertaken by EPADP. In general, pricing is not for water but for the provision of water-related services. The greater the increase of the national standard of living, the higher is the increase in the cost of these services.

Decision-MakingStrategies, Policies and Plans

National policies are discussed at the Parliament with participation of the peoples' representatives -- including women -- and points of view of stockholders are taken into consideration before acting. In addition, the responsible Government bodies cooperate with a number of major groups, including NOPWASD (National Organisation for Potable Water and Sewage Drainage), Environmental Monitoring Center, Water Research Center, and Nile Research Center.

The Ministry of Public Works and Water Resources has prepared a Strategy for the Management of Water Resources defining and addressing the needs of the various sectors.

Policies for efficient allocation of water are drawn up and carried out by the Ministry of Public Works and Water Resources, taking into account the requirements of agriculture, industry, domestic use, electricity, navigation, and so forth. The Egyptian water policy takes into account the irrigation and drainage demand of lands and crops in both old and new lands.

There are also plans for saving irrigation water to keep the aquatic balance and to reuse wastewater on a large scale through, for example, the inclusion of industrial waste treatment in all factories (especially facing the river Nile). This target could be obtained by reducing the customs duty on imported equipment, decreasing the taxes requested from the companies that follow environmental protection rules, and providing loans to them. Planning is underway now for locating all new factories in desert areas, far away from the river Nile.

Egypt also has a policy for disaster preparedness. It implements projects of deepening and widening of open drains and rehabilitation and construction of drainage pumping stations in order to accommodate excessive flood water.

Decision-MakingMajor Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

The National Programme for pollution of the Nile comprises low cost/no-cost and cleaner technology measures for industrial pollution prevention, industrial pollution abatement projects, low-cost wastewater treatment and reuse technologies, and more efficient utilization of agro-chemical fertilizers, including the elimination of subsidies for fertilizers and pesticides. An inventory of industrial pollution sources to the Nile has been prepared and prioritized, and provides the basis for implementation measures.

Status

Pollution of freshwater resources is prevented through the enforcement of the laws indicated above, through public awareness programmes and through a decrease in the land areas which are allowed to be cultivated with water-consuming crops. Freshwater supplies are augmented through irrigation improvement projects and the consequent cropping patterns; reuse of drainage water and recycling of treated water disposal; development of ground water resources; activation of the upper Nile projects for minimising water losses; and development of programmes for non-traditional water resources (e.g., sea water, rain, etc.). The private sector assists these processes by carrying out irrigation and drainage projects as well as water-related projects for industry, electricity, housing, navigation, and so forth.  Other measures have been undertaken as well. Municipalities now share in freshwater management programmes. Six stations have been constructed along the Nile by EEAA to collect the wastes from tour ships and Nile boats; there are plans for the installation of new stations in other locations.

Challenges

The major constraints faced by the Government in reaching its objectives in these areas are insufficient funding for water development projects and the slow progress of launching the upper Nile water projects.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

No information is available.

Information

For the agricultural sector, information is collected by the Ministry of Public Works and Water Resources on discharges and levels of water courses and pumping stations. The Ministry of Housing collects information on domestic water consumption, and the Ministry of Industry collects information on industry water consumption. Information is distributed through the National Water Research Centre, through conferences and seminars, and via the Internet.

Research and Technologies

Technological capacity is available to treat waste water as follows: 7. l 75 X l 06 m3/day, however l. 73 XI 06 m3/day discharge to the sea & lake Manzala (Alex., Damietta and Port Said cities). The capacity to recycle waste water is as follows: Abu-Rawash WVVTP 400, 000 m3/day. There is a plan to reuse the Alex. Wastewater (1. 54 X l 06 m3/day ) to reclaim the strip of northern coast.

Financing

Freshwater programs are financed by the Cabinet of Ministers, the Ministry of Finance, and international donors.

Cooperation

Egypt is a Member of the following Agreements:

 

This information is based on Egypt's submission to the 5th and 6th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: June 1998

For information on the River Nile Protection and Development Project, click here:

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LAND MANAGEMENT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status

Egypt has undertaken a number of measures to promote sustainable land management. It has developed land-use maps and has plans to curb industrial and urban encroachment on arable lands. Nurseries have been established for the afforestation of new roads, improvement of existing plantings along roads, and for the establishment and maintenance of gardens. Areas of sand dunes are also being stabilized through tree planting.

Challenges 

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

 

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This information is based on Egypt's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update:  April 1997

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MOUNTAINS

No information available.

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OCEANS AND COASTAL AREAS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

No information is available.

Decision-MakingLegislation and Regulations

No information is available.

Decision-MakingStrategies, Policies and Plans

The Navy Border Patrol and the Egyptian Environment Affairs Agency (EEAA) assume responsibility for Egypts ocean and coastal area policies. An Integrated Coastal Zone Management Strategy has been developed by the EEAA and is being prepared for distribution and implementation.

Decision-MakingMajor Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

Under the umbrella of the Gore-Mubarak initiative, the Environmental Sustainable Tourism Project aims at promoting the new concept of eco-tourism through implementation of various pilot activities in the Red Sea Region and the development of a National Environmental Sustainable Tourism Strategy.

Status

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

Egypt has signed all regional and international agreements regarding the protection of seas and coastal zones. A number of ongoing projects in the Red Sea and on the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea, including ecotourism, reflect the priority that this issue holds with decision-makers.

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This information is based on Egypt's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update:  April 1997

For National Law (No. 4) for the Environment (1994), including Protection of the Water Environment from pollution from ships and oil pollution, click here.
For National Law (No. 4) for the Environment (1994), including Protection of the Water Environment from pollution from Harmful substances, click here.
For National Law (No. 4) for the Environment (1994), including Protection of the Water Environment from pollution from Sewage waste and garbage, click here.
For National Law (No. 4) for the Environment (1994), including Protection of the Water Environment from Pollution from land-based sources, click here.
For national information related to Administrative and Judicial Procedures for oceans and coastal areas, click here.
To access the Web Site of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, click here:

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TOXIC CHEMICALS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

The following agencies are concerned with toxic chemicals policies and they include the Ministries of:   Industry, Agriculture; Health; Petroleum; Interior; and Electricity.  Egypts Ministry of Agriculture, in cooperation with the Ministry of Health, controls the importation of Agrochemicals. The Ministry of Industry controls industrial chemicals. The Customs authority works with these three ministries to control the chemicals trade.

Decision-MakingLegislation and Regulations

Egypt has established law No.4/1994 and its executive regulations concerning toxic chemicals, and has an ongoing project for the Establishment of Lists of Toxic Chemicals.

Decision-MakingStrategies, Policies and Plans

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available.

Status

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

In cooperation with UNITAR, Egypt is currently in the initial stages of the PRTR programme development process during which the involvement of key stakeholder groups and interested parties is sought and initial programme objectives are identified. Special emphasis in Egypt is placed on linking the PRTR work to an ongoing effort to establish a national chemicals information system.

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This information is based on Egypt's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update:  April 1997.

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WASTE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Solid Waste and Sanitation

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

Solid waste and sewage are dealt with by the Ministry of Housing, Utilities and Urban Communities, the Ministry of Local Administration and the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA), in cooperation with research centers, NGOs, and universities.

Decision-MakingLegislation and Regulations

No information available.

Decision-MakingStrategies, Policies and Plans

The Government of Egypt is planning in the current 5-year plan (1997-2012) to increase waste water networks and treatment capacity from 3.6 million m3/day in order to raise the share of each citizen to 160 litres/day 130 litre/day in cities and to 70 litre/day in villages through the establishment of more than 100 new treatment plants and networks in all Governorates. The government is also encouraging new concepts such as private participation in BOT and BOOT.

Decision-MakingMajor Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

The EEAA is preparing national Programmes on the following:

Status

Urban areas in Egypt account for 44% of the population and have waste water coverage (networks and wastage water treatment plants) of about 40%. Rural areas account for 56% of the population, but only have waste water coverage of about 5%. In Cairo only 6 large waste water treatment plants will be fully in service in two years. Among them is the Gabal Al-Asfar plant (one million m3/day), the largest in the world.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

Relevant capacity-building projects include operation and maintenance of networks and treatment plants and promotion and innovation of treatment technologies, including those for rural areas.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.

Financing

Measures are financed through the government budget and by international donors.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

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Hazardous Waste

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

No information is available.

Decision-MakingLegislation and Regulations

The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was ratified in 1993, and Egypt is taking measures to implement the Convention.

Decision-MakingStrategies, Policies and Plans

No information is available.

Decision-MakingMajor Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects  

No information is available.

Status  

No information is available.

Challenges 

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

For example, with help from DANIDA, an industrial hazardous waste management plan and implementation programme are being prepared. DANIDA will also assist Egypt in the implementation of pilot and demonstration projects for the treatment and safe disposal of hazardous wastes, as well as with a pilot project for hospital waste management in Cairo. Switzerland will support the development of a hazardous substance and material information and handling system.

For National Law (No. 4) for the Environment, including Hazardous Wastes, click here.
For National Law (No. 4) for the Environment, including Hazardous Wastes, click here.
For direct link to the Web Site of the Basel Convention, click here:

* * *

 

Radioactive Waste

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

Decision-making for radioactive waste is undertaken by the Ministry of Electricity, the Authority of Nuclear Energy, the Ministry of the Interior, and the Egyptian Environment Affairs Agency (EEAA).

Decision-MakingLegislation and Regulations

The management of radioactive waste is included in Law No. 4 for 1994, Chapter two, Articles 25 and 26. This Law notes, inter alia, that:

"The handling of hazardous substances and waste shall be prohibited unless a permit has been issued by the competent body according to the type and use of hazardous substances and waste as follows.... Hazardous substances and waste from which ionized radiation is emitted."

Decision-MakingStrategies, Policies and Plans

No information is available.

Decision-MakingMajor Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects  

No information is available.

Status  

No information is available.

Challenges 

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

* * *

This information is based on Egypt's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update:  April 1997


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