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INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN EGYPT


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INTEGRATED DECISION-MAKING

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

The Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) has set up a Committee for Sustainable Development which will direct its work towards networking with all the involved parties to knit a common strategy for the process of sustainable development.

Decision-MakingLegislation and Regulations

In January 1994, a new Environmental Protection Law was adopted by the People's Assembly. It complements previous environment related laws but covers areas which were not adequately addressed before, such as air and noise pollution abatement, protection of the marine and coastal environment and hazardous waste management.

The law provides for the use of environmental management mechanisms which include command and control measures such as the setting of appropriate standards, the application of the polluter pays principle (through the implementation of penalties and fines) and the use of environmental impact assessments (EIAs). The law also provides economic tools. For the first time in Egyptian law, there is a provision for economic incentives and tools, envisaged to create a framework conducive to the protection of the environment.

Decision-MakingStrategies, Policies and Plans

A draft National Agenda 21 was prepared which defines the roles of the various government agencies within the framework of the Earth Summit with a view to avoiding overlap of responsibilities. Environmental units are established in sector ministries and at the local government level which coordinate with the national body, the EEAA. A number of pilot projects are already being implemented at the local level. To further enhance the decentralization of environmental management, EEAA is currently in the process of establishing eight regional branch offices to cover the various Egyptian governorates. The branches are in different phases of completion.

The actions of EEAA fully complement the initiatives of the Egyptian Prime Minister in his preparation of a National Document for the 21st Century, presented to President Hosni Mubarak in 1997.

The law sets the tasks and responsibilities of the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA), providing it with the authority and leverage necessary to implement the law and its regulations. The EEAA has embarked on the ambitious task of implementing the National Environmental Action Plan, prepared in 1992 with assistance from the World Bank and the donor community. 

Decision-MakingMajor Groups involvement

No information available.

Programmes and Projects

No information available.

Status

National Decision-Making Structure

1. National Sustainable Development Coordination Body: IN PROCESS
2. National Sustainable Development Policy: IN PROCESS
3. National Agenda 21/other strategy for SD IN PROCESS
4. Local/Regional Agenda(s) 21: NO
5. Environmental Impact Assessment Law: YES
6. Major Groups involved in Sustainable Development Decision-Making: YES

National Instruments and Programmes

1. Sustainable. Dev. or environmental education incorporated into school curricula: YES
2. Sustainable Development Indicators Program: NO
3. Ecolabel Regulations: NO
4. Recycle/Reuse Programs: IN PROCESS
5. Green Accounting Program: NO
6. Access to Internet: YES
7. Access to World Wide Web: YES
8. National World Wide Web Site for Sustainable Development or State of the Environment: NO

Policies, Programmes and Legislation

1. Combatting poverty: YES
2. Changing consumption and production patterns: NO
3. Atmosphere: IN PROCESS
4. Land Use Planning: IN PROCESS
5. Forest and Deforestation: NO
6. Desertification and Drought: IN PROCESS
7. Sustainable Mountain Development: NO
8. Sustainable Agriculture: IN PROCESS
9. Biological Diversity: YES
10. Biotechnology: IN PROCESS
11. Oceans and Coastal Areas: YES
12. Freshwater Management: YES
13. Toxic Chemicals: YES
14. Hazardous Wastes: YES
15. Solid Wastes: YES
16. Radioactive Wastes: YES
17. Energy: IN PROCESS
18. Transport: IN PROCESS
19. Sustainable Tourism: IN PROCESS

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

No information is available.

Information

Currently in process as well is the Environmental Information and Monitoring Program (EIMP) and the Environmental Information System Project which will assist GOE decision-makers to formulate and implement timely and appropriate environmental policies, legislation and programs.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.

Financing

The Environmental Protection Law also provides for the creation of an environmental protection and development fund to be managed by the EEAA. This fund's objectives are to support demonstration and pilot projects, address environmental disasters, assist environmental research and training, and support environmental promotion activities. It will be financed through state budget allocations, the tourism and environment fund, income from natural protectorates, penalties, fines and charges, and contributions from donors.

Cooperation

No information is available.

* * * 

This information is based on Egypt's submission to the 5th and 6th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: June 1998

For the Egyptian Environment Affairs Agency, click here.
For Egypt's Environmental Information, click here.
For national organizations working in decision-making, click here.
For National Law (No. 4) for the Environment, click here.
For information on Environmental Law around the World, click here:

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MAJOR GROUPS

WOMEN

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

No information is available.

Decision-MakingLegislation and Regulations

No information is available.

Decision-MakingStrategies, Policies and Plans

Egypt aims to empower women and give them an equal and parallel opportunity to men. Along these lines, a number of steps have been taken to achieve equality in all aspects of society including issuing a strategy by year 2000 to eliminate obstacles to full participation of women in sustainable development.

Decision-MakingMajor Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available.

Status

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

Educational material and curricula promote gender relevant knowledge. Mechanisms are in place to assess implementation and impact of development and environment policies and programmes on women.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women was signed on 16 July 1980; ratified on 18 September 1984.

* * *

This information is based on Egypts submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

Click here for information on Women's Watch in Egypt
Click here for the National Action Plan for Women.

 

CHILDREN AND YOUTH

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available. 

Programmes and Projects

No information is available.  

Status

Egypt intends to ensure that by the year 2000 more than 50% of youth -- gender balanced -- will have access to appropriate secondary education or vocational training. It has ad hoc processes that promote dialogue between the youth and government at all levels and mechanisms that permit youth access to information and opportunity to present their views on implementing Agenda 21.

Challenges 

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.   

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

 

 

* * *

This information is based on Egypt's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update:  April 1997.

 

INDIGENOUS PEOPLE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available. 

Programmes and Projects

No information is available.  

Status

A process to empower indigenous people and their communities -- through policies and legal instruments -- is in place. This process includes discussion of mechanisms to involve indigenous people in resource management strategies and programmes at the national and local level.

Challenges 

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.   

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information is based on Egypt's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: April 1997.

 

NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

No information is available.  

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

No information is available.  

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available.  

Status

Many mechanisms for NGO participation exist, as detailed in the relevant substantive sections of this report. Egypt considers the inputs of NGOs to be important.

Challenges 

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.   

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information is based on Egypt's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: April 1997.

For information on Environmental NGOs in Egypt, click here.

 

LOCAL AUTHORITIES

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies     

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status

The Government of Egypt supports Local Agenda 21 initiatives.

Challenges 

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * * 

This information is based on Egypt's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

For HABITAT II Best Practices Project in Africa, including Egypt, click here.

 

WORKERS AND UNIONS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects  

No information is available.

Status

Egypt has ratified the conventions of the International Labour Organisation.

Challenges 

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * * 

This information is based on Egypt's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

 

BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects  

No information is available.

Status

Several big enterprises, as well as a number of small- and medium-sized enterprises, have adopted sustainable development policies. Government policies aim to increase the efficiency of resource use, including reuse, recycling, and reduction of waste per unit of economic output.

Challenges 

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * * 

This information is based on Egypt's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update:  April 1997.

 

SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status

The scientific community has already established ways in which to address the general public and to deal with sustainable development.

Challenges 

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * * 

This information is based on Egypt's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update:  April 1997.

 

FARMERS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

No information available.

Decision-MakingLegislation and Regulations

No information available.

Decision-MakingStrategies, Policies and Plans

A strategy is being implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture to promote and encourage sustainable farming practices and technologies.

Decision-MakingMajor Groups involvement

No information available.

Programmes and Projects  

No information is available.

Status  

No information is available.

Challenges 

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * * 

This information is based on Egypt's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

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SCIENCE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects  

No information is available.

Status  

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

Egypt has 46,022 scientists, engineers and technicians engaged in research and experimental development. To improve long term scientific capacity, a number of steps have been taken. These include building awareness and preparedness for emergencies at the local level (APELL); creation of the Environmental Information and Monitoring Programme (EIMP); institutional support to the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agencys Environmental Information Centre, and the Organizational Support Program (OSP) to EEAA (Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency).

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

 * * * 

This information is based on Egypt's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update:  April 1997

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INFORMATION

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

One of the responsibilities of the Committee for Sustainable Development established by the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) is strengthening international and regional cooperation to promote sustainable development by creating a system of periodic reporting directed towards decision makers and by compiling databases about the involved parties.

Decision-MakingLegislation and Regulations

No information is available.

Decision-MakingStrategies, Policies and Plans

No information is available.

Decision-MakingMajor Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

Currently in process as well are the Environmental Information and Monitoring Programme (EIMP) and the Environmental Information System Project which will assist GOE decision-makers to formulate and implement timely and appropriate environmental policies, legislation and programs.

The Egyptian Environmental Information System (EEIS) will be expected to produce timely and accurate environmental status reports which will be used to inform the Cabinet, others in Government and the public. The EEIS will also be used to assist in developing environmental projects and policy options, and in monitoring and enforcing compliance with environmental regulation.

The Environmental Information and Monitoring Programme consists of five individual projects, namely: institutional support, coastal water monitoring, air pollution monitoring, database on pollution sources, and reference lab.

Status

Upgrading of the Environmental Documentation Centre at EEAA is currently taking place. The aim is to create a national focal point for all environmental bibliographic information (published reports and grey literature). A link to the Internet has already been established.

The availability and quality of sustainable development information at the national level can be summarized as follows:

Agenda 21 Chapters Very good Good Some good data but many gaps Poor Remarks
2. International cooperation and trade  

x

     
3. Combatting poverty  

x

     
4. Changing consumption patterns    

x

   
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability

x

       
6. Human health  

x

     
7. Human settlements  

x

     
8. Integrating E & D in decision-making      

x

 
9. Protection of the atmosphere      

x

 
10. Integrated planning and management of land resources  

x

     
11. Combatting deforestation  

x

     
12. Combatting desertification and drought  

x

     
13. Sustainable mountain development      

x

 
14. Sustainable agriculture and rural development  

x

     
15. Conservation of biological diversity  

x

     
16. Biotechnology      

x

 
17. Oceans, seas, coastal areas and their living resources    

x

   
18. Freshwater resources  

x

     
19. Toxic chemicals    

x

   
20. Hazardous wastes      

x

 
21. Solid wastes  

x

     
22. Radioactive wastes    

x

   
24. Women in sustainable development    

x

   
25. Children and youth    

x

   
26. Indigenous people    

x

   
27. Non-governmental organizations  

x

     
28. Local authorities  

x

     
29. Workers and trade unions  

x

     
30. Business and industry  

x

     
31. Scientific and technological community  

x

     
32. Farmers  

x

     
33. Financial resources and mechanisms    

x

   
34. Technology, cooperation and capacity-building    

x

   
35. Science for sustainable development    

x

   
36. Education, public awareness and training  

x

     
37. International cooperation for capacity-building  

x

     
38. International institutional arrangements    

x

   
39. International legal instruments    

x

   
40. Information for decision-making    

x

   

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

* * *

This information is based on Egypt's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update:  April 1997

For the Governmental information network, click here.
For national information on indicators, click here. (Site has been under construction)

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INTERNATIONAL LAW

No information provided, other than information already covered under relevant sectoral chapters.



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