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Economic Aspects | Natural Resource Aspects | Institutional Aspects | Social Aspects |Egypt

ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN EGYPT

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INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

Decision-making responsibilities for issues involving international cooperation are held by:  the Egyptian Environment Affairs Agency (EEAA); the Ministry of Foreign Affairs; and the Ministry of Finance.

The Egyptian Environment Affairs Agency has an active ongoing cooperation programme with many donor agencies (e.g. DANIDA Projects on organization support, environment education and training, environmental information and monitoring, ODA, USAID, etc.). The total funding for ongoing supported donor projects reached 902,153,727 L.E. in Dec. 1996.

Decision-MakingLegislation and Regulations

Donors provide assistance in priority areas designated in the Environmental Action Plan of Egypt and the Egyptian National Environmental Strategies. Egypt's general policy for international cooperation in the field of the environment centers around the following main issues:

  1. Coordinating the different donor agencies in order to achieve the maximum benefit and avoid duplication of efforts;
  2. Ensuring the presence of the element of sustainability in all projects and programmes;
  3. Steering cooperation with developed nations to areas where they possess comparative advantages;
  4. Maximizing the utilization of indigenous capabilities especially in areas where there are abundant highly qualified national experts;
  5. Emphasizing the importance of experience and technology transfer particularly in areas where Egypt may still be considered a newcomer, such as Hazardous Waste Management and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA);
  6. Encouraging capacity building efforts as being an essential component in all cooperation programmes;
  7. Developing partnerships and new cooperation patterns that would benefit all parties involved, such as the Gore-Mubarak Partnership between USAID and Egypt, and the Egypt Environmental Initiatives Fund established in cooperation with the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) whereby new innovative participatory relations are established between NGOs and the private sector; and
  8. Cooperating with other developing countries in order to benefit from shared experiences, including the initiation of experts' exchange programmes and training courses in the different areas of specialization where the developing country may have a comparative advantage.

Decision-MakingStrategies, Policies and Plans

No information is available.

Decision-MakingMajor Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects  

No information is available.

Status  

No information is available.

Challenges 

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

* * *

This information is based on Egypts submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update:  April 1997

For National Economic Indicators (updated monthly), click here.

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TRADE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

Decision-making responsibilities for issues involving trade are held by the Egyptian Environment Affairs Agency (EEAA), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Finance, and the Ministry of Trade and Supplies.

In addition, a permanent Committee on Trade and Environment affiliated to the Ministry of Supply and Foreign Trade was established in January 1995 to enhance the relationship between trade and environment and to help make them mutually supportive. In 1996, the Committee conducted a study on trade and environment in Egypt.

Decision-MakingLegislation and Regulations

No information is available.

Decision-MakingStrategies, Policies and Plans

No information is available.

Decision-MakingMajor Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects  

No information is available.

Status  

No information is available.

Challenges 

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.


 
 

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This information is based on Egypt's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update:  April 1997

For National Economic Indicators (updated monthly), click here.

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CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

No information is available.

Decision-MakingLegislation and Regulations

No information is available.

Decision-MakingStrategies, Policies and Plans

Egypt has policies aimed at improving energy and materials efficiency, reducing waste, and modifying the behaviour of relevant actors. One of the most important local issues that has been circulating around Egypt is the change from leaded to unleaded fuel and the use of CNG in cars. 

Decision-MakingMajor Groups involvement

No information is available.
 

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status

Egypt has 27.7 motor vehicles per 1000 inhabitants, and policies have been developed to improve the energy efficiency of the transport sector as well.

Although consumption habits need long periods of time to change, a gradual difference is realized among Egyptians every year.

Challenges 

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information is based on Egypt's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

For national information about recycling, click here. (Under construction)
For EIA models, click here. (Under construction)

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 FINANCING

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

No information is available.

Decision-MakingLegislation and Regulations

The Environment Affairs Agency is currently working on a proposal for an Economic Incentives System in the field of environment, introducing mainly the use of soft loans, grants and reduction in customs duty as a means to support institutions undertaking environmental activities.

Decision-MakingStrategies, Policies and Plans

No information is available.

Decision-MakingMajor Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available.

Status

Egypt's national priority is to mobilize both local and external resources to address environmental problems. The Government of Egypt is allocating local resources for environmental protection in the 5-year plan 1997-2002 with a total of 4,168,042,000 L.E. In addition to this, the Government is receiving support in the field of environment from donors, including, for example, USAID, DANIDA and JICA. The total funds for ongoing donor-supported projects reached 902,153,727 L.E. in December 1996.

In 1996, Egypt received the following grants for sustainable development projects:
US $ 6,703 million
DFL 12,221 million
D. Mark 5 million
For loans, only, the amount was as follows:
US $40 million

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

Sources of assistance included Abu-Dhabi, Canada, France, K.F.W., Germany, The Netherlands, and the United States.

 

* * *

This information is based on Egypts' submission to the 5th and 6th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: June 1998

For the Technical Cooperation Office for the Environment within EEAA, click here.
For information on participating States in the Global Environment Facility, click here:
For information about issues and projects in Middle East and North Africa from the World Bank, click here:

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TECHNOLOGY

Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technology

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

No information is available.

Decision-MakingLegislation and Regulations

No information is available.

Decision-MakingStrategies, Policies and Plans

No information is available.

Decision-MakingMajor Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

Egypt is currently preparing a National Programme for the Promotion of ESTs, formulated along the following sectoral lines: freshwater resources management; waste and hazardous waste management; manufacturing and chemical processing; energy production; and transportation. Programmes of Action will be provided as soon as the overall programmes is finalized.

Egypt has a programme to promote cleaner production. For example, the Egyptian Environment Affairs Agency (EEAA) will continue to administrate the National Industrial Pollution Prevention Program (NIPPP) to promote low cost pollution prevention measures and cleaner production technologies that will yield environmental and economic benefits for industry. Outputs include replicable demonstration projects in the various sectors.

The national program for an Environmental Management System (EMS) was instituted to promote ISO 14000 certification; in the course of that program's ongoing activities, EEAA shall develop, within one year, a workplan for assisting industries to formulate and implement the System.

Status

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

To facilitate the transfer of ESTs to small and medium sized enterprises, Egypt has a Programme to Strengthen the Industrial Capability to Manage its Environmental Responsibilities. For each category of generators of small quantities of waste, EEAA will prepare mitigation plans, including photo-processing laboratories, dry-cleaning plants, gasoline stations, etc. For medium-quantity generators, EEAA will prepare action plans in such areas as metal founding, lead smelters, tanneries and the electroplating industry.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

EEAA launched the "First International Conference and Trade Fair on Environmental Management and Technologies", Environment '97 in Cairo from 16-18 February 1997. Up-to-date environmental management schemes and emerging technologies were presented covering various fields and potential for sustainable development.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available..

* * *

This information is based on Egypt's submission to the 5th and 6th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: June 1998
 
 

Biotechnology

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

The Egyptian Environment Affairs Agency (EEAA) has initiated several activities and programs which cover the approach of environmental management of biotechnology in coordination with other line ministers.

Decision-MakingLegislation and Regulations

No information is available.

Decision-MakingStrategies, Policies and Plans

No information is available.

Decision-MakingMajor Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available.

Status

As a part of its environmental sector strategy, Egypt has a number of objectives concerning the sustainable management of biotechnology. These include expanding the technologies of biotechnology in afforestation and agriculture, eliminating overdependence on agrochemicals by developing the technologies and production of biological fertilizers, raising public awareness regarding the relative beneficial aspects and safe application of biotechnology to contribute to sustainable development, and improving the technologies of biological treatment of water and wastewater.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

Among the technologies covered during the "First International Conference and Trade Fair on Environmental Management and Technologies", Environment '97, in Cairo from 16-18 February 1997, were biotechnology and its applications in afforestation, water and wastewater treatment and biofertilizers.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

* * *

This information is based on Egypt's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update:  April 1997

For the National Science and Technology Centre, click here.
 

Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to go to the Web Site of UNEP's International Register on Biosafety.
Click here for the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Biosafety WebPages

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INDUSTRY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

No information is available.

Decision-MakingLegislation and Regulations

No information is available.

Decision-MakingStrategies, Policies and Plans

A National Strategy for Industry is currently being developed. Within the Strategy, there are several Programmes of Action. Details will be provided as available. Among other elements, the Strategy depends upon the following:

Decision-MakingMajor Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

There is a Programme of Action for Ozone Depleting Substances, with specific targets for industry, to be met by the year 2005. There is also a general policy to promote Green Industry.

Status

All subsectors of industry are responsible for emitting one or more principal pollutants, as enumerated below. Pollution of freshwater resources by industrial establishments is the most significant environmental problem facing Egypt. Industry produces more than four billion cubic metres of waste water per year -- a quantity which carries an immense load of pollutants.

The principal threats to human health from industry are due to air pollution, water contamination, and solid and hazardous wastes. Air Pollution - Unacceptable levels of SOx, NOx, Particulates, metal oxides, and hydrocarbons especially in Industrial zones in greater Cairo and Alexandria . This is due to metal, fertilizer, cement, and chemical industries, lead smelters, foundries and mining works.

Water Contamination - From Industrial waste water discharged to River Nile and canals, while they are -in the same time- the source of drinking water. Main pollutants are heavy metals from chemical industries, electroplating units, dyeng, and engineering industries, BOD from food industries; oil and grease from the oil industry.

Solid and hazardous wastes - From handling, transportation, storage and waste disposal of pesticides, solvents, flammable materials, peroxides, toxic materials, explosives and pigments.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

This information is based on Egypt's' submission to the 6th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: June 1998.

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TRANSPORT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status

Egypt has 27.7 motor vehicles per 1000 inhabitants. Policies are in place to improve the energy efficiency of the transport sector.

Challenges 

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

 

* * *

This information is based on Egypt's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

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SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

No information is available.

Decision-MakingLegislation and Regulations

No information is available.

Decision-MakingStrategies, Policies and Plans

Currently, under the umbrella of the Gore-Mubarak initiative, the Environmental Sustainable Tourism Project aims at promoting the new concept of eco-tourism through implementation of various pilot activities in the Red Sea Region and the development of a National Environmental Sustainable Tourism Strategy.

Decision-MakingMajor Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status  

No information is available.

Challenges 

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

 

* * *

This information is based on Egypt's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update:  April 1997



 

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