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NATURAL RESOURCE ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN DENMARK

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AGRICULTURE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

The Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries is the body primarily responsible for the agricultural sector. The Ministry is part of the National Coordinating Mechanism for Sustainable Development.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Relevant national legislation covering agriculture and rural development consists of the Act on Agricultural Holdings and the Act on Support for Structural Development in Agriculture and for Organic Farming, both from 1994. The Acts are revised as required and have met the requirements for sustainable development. These amendments fully address a coherent national policy framework for sustainable agriculture and rural development.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Sustainable Agriculture is a very high national priority for Denmark. Danish environmental policy gives consideration to a broad spectrum of matters relating to nature and the environment. At present, efforts in agricultural policy should give highest priority to finding a solution to the pollution problems of agriculture that are due to the leaching of nutrients and the loading due to pesticides. Such initiatives should also endeavor to exert a beneficial influence on nature, the countryside and outdoor leisure activities. The significance of these matters is expected to increase in the long term. In 1991, the Action Plan for the Sustainable Development of Agriculture introduced a tightening of the requirements governing the use of farmland manure. In 1995, the Government proposed a 10-point programme for the protection of the water table and drinking water. Data on fertilizer indicate a decrease in the utilization of nutrients in livestock manure. Environmental policy measures and instruments are reviewed and strengthened, as appropriate on a regular basis.

Since the adoption of Agenda 21, the priority has been to complete reviews and, as appropriate, establish policies and programmes with respect to the following:

In recent years, Danish agricultural policy has been expressed in initiatives that, based on the expectation of continued market orientation and strict requirements, e.g. on the environment, nature and animal welfare, had the purpose of establishing the foundation for high-quality industries.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information available.

Programmes and Projects   

See under Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans and Cooperation.

Status   

No information is available.

Challenges  

A sustainable agricultural sector must be able to survive without financial support. Within the framework of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the EU, efficient farms must provide working conditions and income-earning possibilities comparable to other sectors, as well as the possibility of consolidating the productive capacity of farms. A long-term effect of the reform of the CAP in 1992 and the GATT agreement reached in 1993, will be the reduction in price and market support for agriculture.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation

Denmark, in the EU and other international fora, actively promotes common regulations for application of environmentally and ethically responsible methods of agricultural production. Denmark also has extensive cooperation with the other Nordic countries in the agricultural sector, supports a number of agricultural and rural programmes in developing countries, including soil and water conservation projects, rural forestry projects, major restructuring projects in the dairy sector, women oriented agricultural extension, and training projects.

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This information is based on Denmark's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

To access the FAOSTAT Data Base for information by country, item, element and year, click here:
Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to link to Country and Sub-regional Information on Plant Genetic Resources of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
Click here to go to Web Site of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, which includes information on the Codex Alimentarius and the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme.
Click here to access the Web Site of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).
Click here to access the sixteen international agricultural research centers that are members of the CGIAR.

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ATMOSPHERE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

The Danish Environmental Protection Agency is primarily responsible for the protection of the atmosphere but there is no national coordinating mechanism for sustainable development and there are no plans to review national legislation in the light of Agenda 21. 

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The Montreal Protocol (1987) was signed in 1987, the London Amendment (1990) was signed 20 December 1991, and the Copenhagen Amendment (1992) was signed 21 December 1993. The latest reports to the Montreal Protocol Secretariat were prepared in 1996. Denmark has acceded to the Geneva Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution and Protocols. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was ratified 23 December 1993 and the latest report to the UNFCCC Secretariat was submitted in 1994.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The Danish Government promotes policies and programmes in the areas of energy efficiency, environmentally-sound and efficient transportation, industrial pollution control, sound land use practices, sound management of marine resources and management of toxic and other hazardous waste.

Denmark has undertaken a review of current energy supply mixes (Energy 2000-Action Plan: 1990; Follow-up: 1993; Revised action plan: 1996). There are also CO2- and SO2-related energy taxes in Denmark. Compared with other countries in the region, Denmark would rate its current transportation system superior in terms of environmental quality and equal in terms of relative cost-effectiveness of alternative systems, transportation technologies, establishment of mass transit systems and safety. As only marginal impact is expected, the government is not involved in the development and use of terrestrial and marine resources and land-use practices that will be more resilient to atmospheric changes and fluctuations. The government also supports the conservation and enhancement of sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases since Denmark intends to double the forest area within 100 years.

National goals concerning the phase-out of CFCs and other ozone depleting substances are:

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

The private sector has participated in efforts to prevent stratospheric ozone depletion and reduce transboundary atmospheric pollution.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

See under Information.

Information   

In the area of transboundary atmospheric pollution control, the government has facilitated the exchange of data and the exchange of information at the national and international levels.

The Danish Government participates in strengthening the Global Observing System at the national level: it established 164 observation stations in 1990 and 144 in 1995; observing frequency increased substantially. It also participates in the Global Ozone Observing System: it established two observation stations in 1990 and one in 1995. Denmark has established early warning systems and response mechanisms for transboundary air pollution. 

The national early detection system, the national level of capacity building and training to perform systematic observations and assessment are rated good, while national capacity to predict changes and fluctuations is rated excellent by the Danish Government. 

Research and Technologies

Studies on health effects resulting from air pollution have been undertaken by the government but are not yet finished. Methodologies to identify threshold levels of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations have not been developed. In the area of environment and transport, there are comprehensive, systematic, selective and limited (limited to areas and time periods) observations.   

The government encourages industry to develop safe technologies in accordance with EU-directives.

Financing

On 28 July 1995, Denmark contributed US$28,051,00 to the Vienna/Montreal trust funds and the interim multilateral ozone fund. It pays its contribution to the Multilateral Fund and is a member of the Executive Committee. Denmark contributes towards ongoing efforts under the Montreal Protocol through multilateral channels (DANIDA) - US$1,134,000 (1994). 

Cooperation

In 1994, the Danish EPA supported the Eastern European Countries with US$2,000,000. Since the ratification of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Denmark has contributed 846,000 US$ to the operation of the convention secretariat and additional amounts each year to ensure developing country participation in the negotiations. In 1995, this contribution was equivalent to US$500,000.

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This information is based on Denmark's submission to the 5th and 9th Sessions of the Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: December 2000.


Click here for national information from the Web site of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
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BIODIVERSITY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

The Ministry of Environment and Energy and the National Forest and Nature Agency are the bodies primarily responsible for biodiversity and genetic resources. These bodies are fully involved in national level decision-making concerning natural resources use and development. 

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The Convention on Biological Diversity was ratified in 1994, and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora was signed in 1977.

The regulatory system related to biodiversity is based on rather broad framework laws such as the Nature Protection Act of 1992. Present legislation concerning conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity goes beyond the provisions of the Convention of Biological Diversity.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

In compliance with Article 6 of the Convention, the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy prepared a strategy in 1995 entitled Biological Diversity in Denmark - Status and Strategy. The strategy was prepared in close cooperation with a wide range of authorities and NGOs, including ministries responsible for sectoral integration, e.g. the Ministry of Agriculture. The strategy is primarily based on existing strategies, legislation and generally approved guidelines for environment and nature protection in Denmark. It covers biodiversity in general, describing the status and problems related to biodiversity, and indicates future target areas. The strategy has been made an integral part of the more comprehensive Strategic Environmental Planning Process launched by the Danish Government in 1993.

Strategies for Sustainable Forestry, for Natural Forests and Other Forest Types of High Conservation Value and for the Conservation of Genetic Resources in Trees and Bushes (covering both in situ and ex situ conservation) were adopted in 1994, to protect ecosystems and for the conservation of biological and genetic resources.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

The County Councils administer nature conservation legislation at the local level and manage a large number of protected areas. The Municipalities are fully involved in all planning processes. See also under Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans.

Programmes and Projects 

See under Cooperation.

Status   

No information is available.

Challenges

The loss of fauna results primarily from habitat destruction and, to a lesser extent, over-harvesting and pollution. Flora are also endangered by habitat destruction as well as by pollution.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

Several private companies are using advanced biotechnology techniques in their production, especially companies producing medical products as well as genetically modified crops. It is not possible to enumerate the scientists working in this field, but Denmark has traditionally had a strong capacity in this area. The scientists work is mainly undertaken by the National Environmental Research Institute and by universities.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

Denmark has access to biotechnology through international cooperation. The establishment of the European Environmental Agency by the European Union is one of the key activities undertaken in this field. In 1993, the Danish Cooperation for Environment and Development (DANCED) was established. DANCED funds will be directed to projects concerning environmental protection in developing countries, including conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. Funds from DANIDA are also being directed towards similar projects.

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This information is based on Denmark's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

For access to the Web Site of the Convention on Biological Diversity, click here:
For access to the Web Site of the CITES Convention, click here:
For the Web Site of the CMS Convention, click here:
For the Web Site of the Convention on the Protection of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage, click here:
For the country-by-country, Man in the Biosphere On-Line Query System, click here:
Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to go to the Web Site of UNEP's International Register on Biosafety.
Click here for the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Biosafety WebPages

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DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

No information available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The "International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa" was ratified 22 December 1995.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available.

Status   

No information is available.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

No information is available.

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This information is based on Denmark's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

For access to the Web Site of the Convention to Combat Desertification and Drought, click here:

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ENERGY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

In December 1999, the Danish Minister for Development Co-operation forwarded the Danish Strategy on Sustainable Energy towards CSD 9 to Parliament. This strategy was based on a broad inter-ministerial preparation process where also private organizations participated. A public meeting was held by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs where the external Danish resource base was invited. The strategy is attached as attachment I.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

 

Attachments:

 Attachment I:

 

ROYAL DANISH MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS                                J.nr. 104.G.3

South Group                                                                                                     November 1999

 

 

 

United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development in 2001:

Denmark’s Strategy for the promotion of sustainable energy

Towards CSD 9.

 

I.       CSD’s Procedures and Mandate

At the Rio+5 Conference (UNGASS) in 1997 it was decided – not at least on the initiative of Denmark and Austria – to take up energy as a special theme at the 9th session of the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) in 2001 with the aim of promoting intergovernmental work towards securing sustainable production, distribution and use of energy. At the same time it was decided that an Open-Ended Intergovernmental Group of Experts on Energy and Sustainable Development should be established at CSD 7 in 1999. This expert group should meet during the intercessional sessions of CSD 8 and CSD 9, i.e. Winter/Spring 2000 and 2001, in order to prepare for the deliberations at CSD 9.

At the Rio+5 Conference Denmark placed great importance on making energy a special theme at CSD 9. This position was taken in lieu of the problems which were highlighted first by the Brundt­land Commission and following by the Rio Summit in 1992, including:

·        Sufficient energy supply is a fundamental prerequisite for economic development.

·        The current world order has not been able to secure sufficient access to energy for a vast part of the population in the developing countries.

·        The world’s energy consumption and supply pattern causes serious environmental problems at the local, regional and global level.

·        The existing resources of fossil fuel - and uranium - with the present consumption patterns will be exhausted in a few decades.

At CSD 7 in 1999 it was decided that the first meeting of the Open-Ended Intergovernmental Group of Experts on Energy and Sustainable Development should take place in connection with the CSD intersessional meeting in Spring 2000. The expert group should be led by a bureau consisting of five representatives (one from each country group), including two co-chairmen. It was further decided to invite the Secretary General of the United Nations to prepare analytical reports and other documentation in co-operation with relevant UN agencies and based on information provided by the governments of the member states.

Besides the material which the Secretary General is expected to present the starting point for the negotiations will be the UNGASS decision on this subject (§46 in the “Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21”).

The above mentioned UNGASS decision implies that a number of issues relating to energy will be discussed during CSD 9, inter alia:

·        Sustainable production and use of energy, including global environmental issues.

·        The development and implementation of national sustainable energy policies.

·        Environmentally sound technologies in the energy field, including issues related to the use of nuclear energy.

·        Access to sustainable energy for all.

·        Energy and transport.

·        Energy issues in local communities

·        The role of the public sector.

·        The role of the private sector.

·        Bilateral and multilateral co-operation.

·        International organisations and the role of the UN.

In parallel with the CSD 9 meeting significant international work is being carried out under the conventions which were agreed upon as a follow-up to the Rio Conference in 1992. Especially the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the conventions on biodiversity and desertification contain relevant aspects regarding sustainable energy. The signing of the Climate Change Framework Convention and its follow-up has resulted in a focus on the global CO2 problems, however, these problems have not been solved. At the same time other issues related to energy, development and the environment have been less prominent in the international agenda. The so-called Kyoto mechanisms can contribute to enhancing efforts in the field of sustainable energy and technology transfer if they are formed in the right manner. Seen from a Danish perspective it is important to make use of this experience in the CSD process.

II.          Denmark’s role and priorities in the international negotiation process

Denmark has at an early stage formulated comprehensive strategic targets to the follow-up on the Rio Summit, nationally as well as internationally. These goals will be among the guiding principles for the Danish contribution to the CSD and will include:

·        Global sustainable development of societies.

·        Economic, social and environmental sustainable development in developing countries, especially for the poorest target groups, women and indigenous peoples.

·        Global secure and sustainable energy consumption and supply as an important prerequisite for these overall targets.

Improved access to sustainable energy for the world´s poorest people in the developing countries will be a central theme in the international negotiations. Questions related to the problems in Central and Eastern Europe will also be important including issues related to energy efficiency in a development perspective. Furthermore there are issues pertaining to the way the industrialised countries manage their own problems concerning sustainable energy, for example regarding energy efficiency and energy savings.

Denmark will especially focus on cross-cutting development issues as important elements in the strategy towards CSD 9, such as:

·        The needs and priorities of the developing countries concerning the promotion of sustainable energy, including regarding renewable energy and energy efficiency, in their developing process.

·        The importance of donor countries fulfilling the UN-objective of donors contributing 0,7% of GNP to development aid i.a. with the aim of securing the extension of sustainable energy supplies especially in the poorest developing countries.

·        Innovative financing towards promoting the cheapest and best sustainable energy supplies to the poorest target groups in the rural areas as well as in the cities. In many areas this could for example include a decentralised diesel-based energy supply or the identification of sufficient and competitive markets for renewable energy in the developing countries.

·        Identification of the needs and possibilities for transfer of environmentally sound technologies and knowledge to the developing countries in the field of sustainable energy, particularly renewable energy sources and sustainable biomass, including through private investments and relevant Danish public mechanisms.

·        Identification of price, subsidy, quality and institutional barriers to promote sustainable energy in the South, including by involvement of the private sector. Identification of the actual environmental and developmental costs of non-commercial energy production in the developing countries.

·        Expanded South-South co-operation regarding exchange of experiences concerning traditional use of sustainable energy forms.

·        Co-operation with Small Island Development States (SIDS) regarding the promotion of sustainable energy as part of the UN-process to follow-up on the Barbados Plan of Action.

·        The need for regional integration in the South.

·        Increased participation of civil society in the South, including promotion of the support to women and indigenous peoples and co-operation with NGO’s and grass-root movements.

Denmark will actively participate in international arrangements and contribute to international discussions on central themes.

Denmark will participate in the work of multilateral organisations to develop strategies to promote sustainable energy. These strategies should be adjusted according to the experiences of and the results achieved in relevant international fora, including in the CSD. Co-operation with the UN organisations, the World Bank, the GEF and selected developing countries concerning the promotion of sustainable energy, including renewable energy sources, will continue. The objective is to promote sustainable energy policies in the whole UN-system as well as in the lending policy of the World Bank group with increased focus on renewable energy sources and energy efficiency. Denmark will follow closely the loans granted by the international finance institutions towards energy with the aim of promoting loans to the energy sources and technologies which are environmentally most sound.

Co-operation with relevant institutions and programmes in the UN will be strengthened with a view to enhancing the preparations for the forthcoming sustainable energy debate at the CSD 9 meeting.

The dialogue with Danida’s programme countries and other aid recipient countries on the promotion of sustainable energy within the framework of national sustainable development programmes and policies will be intensified. This will i.a. take place in lieu of the follow-up to UNGASS and the development of international environmental agreements, including in the fields of climate change, biodiversity, desertification, the ozone layer, and international waters. Besides, Denmark will seek to co-operate with like-minded countries and international partners before the CSD 9 meeting.

A special emphasis will be placed on the utilisation of the vast and differentiated knowledge, experience and technology, respectively, on sustainable energy possessed by the Danish resource base. Active involvement of the Danish resource base is a prerequisite for Denmark’s efforts to make an impact in the international process. A close dialogue with the Danish resource base will be maintained.

Denmark will listen carefully to arguments and views of other countries and contribute to a constructive debate by presenting our own experiences. The starting point for the dialogue with the developing countries will be their own priorities and needs for the promotion of sustainable energy in their development process. 

In relation to CSD 9, Denmark will specifically take initiatives towards:

·        Immediate identification of non-sustainable elements in the global energy system.

·        Immediate identification of relevant suggestions for policy decisions which could gradually lead to changes in the energy consumption patterns towards more sustainable solutions and which could provide guidance to the international co-operation.

·        A decision to phase out all harmful energy subsidies – both traditional price subsidies and indirect subsidies such as the lack of inclusion of environmental costs in the domestic energy prices. The latter could for example be implemented by introducing tax on CO2, SO2 and NO2 or alternatively by introducing pollution quotas and transferable pollution licenses. For nuclear power, proposals for full insurance responsibility on market conditions could be made. Exemptions for taxes on fuel for air traffic could be suggested repealed. Developed countries should lead the way.

·        Decisions on the establishment of protected minimum markets for renewable energy sources in the industrialised countries to promote technology development and reduced prices of these technologies.

·        Distribution of mechanisms to promote energy efficiency in small sized machines – energy labelling, minimum efficiency standards, etc.

·        A decision of principal nature that industrialised countries should cover the development costs of new, renewable energy sources both in the private and the public sector. However, the developing countries should have a responsibility for securing sufficient market segments for renewable energy sources in the areas where renewable energy sources are competitive with fossil energy. This could specifically be implemented by a decision to establish protected markets for sustainable energy sources in the developed countries with the objective of promoting technology development and reduced cost of these technologies.

·        Securing synergies in the work done in the OECD, IEA, EU Commission, the Energy Charter, etc., which all have specific expertise in this field.

The global energy consumption pattern is generally decided by the price, because of a general interest in minimising costs. In the industrialised countries the energy prices only to a limited extent reflect the environmental costs. The level of consumption is therefore becoming very high and to a wide extent dominated by the cheapest and most environmentally damaging fuel and energy forms like uranium/nuclear-power, coal, oil and the relatively cleaner natural gas. Renewable energy sources have – with the exception of water power – a very marginal part of the energy supply in most countries, since they are often too expensive to be able to compete with the artificially low prices of fossil fuel and nuclear power. Low prices on energy furthermore often causes ineffective energy consumption in the industrialised countries. Ineffective energy use is also a result of insufficient knowledge and financing possibilities and/or institutional barriers.

In the developing countries procurement of stable and sufficient energy supply is a central precondition for economic, social and environmental sustainable development. The situation with state-owned power supply companies with monopoly status in some developing countries must change in order to decentralise the energy supply and increase the use of sustainable energy. Such changes are often of crucial importance for making the energy distribution efficient and for assisting the poorest in the rural areas. The poor in rural areas are often dependent on non-sustainable use of energy from different forms of biomass.

Seen from a global perspective the level of energy consumption is much higher in the industrialised countries than in the developing countries – especially of the non-renewable energy sources – and the resulting environmental problems are proportionally bigger. It is therefore most logical to concentrate on the energy consumption of the industrialised countries. These countries have enough resources to develop more effective and cheaper energy consumption technologies and renewable energy sources which in the long perspective are necessary to secure a sustainable energy supply.

Denmark reacted quickly to the Brundtland report about the need for sustainable development. Already in 1990 new energy and transport actions plans were published which aimed at a reduction of the total CO2 emission by 20% before 2005. The main areas of action were the increased efficiency of the end-user energy consumption in buildings, machines, industry and transport, increased efficiency in the energy production, conversion and distribution as well as changes towards more environmentally sound fuel and renewable energy sources. The means were both fiscal (environmental taxes and subsidies), legislative (obligation to connect to power station supplies, new demands on the isolation of new buildings, efficiency norms for machines), agreements with/injunction to power stations and increased information (energy labeling of machines and buildings). These two action plans have later been updated and are continuously followed up by new initiatives.

III.    The Danish assistance in the developing countries

Sustainable energy is given high priority in both the bilateral and the multilateral development assistance and in the Environment, Peace and Stability Facility (EPSF). This facility was established in 1992 as a direct response to the Rio Conference. In 1999 the facility provides 0.08 % of GDP in support of environmental projects in developing countries. This will increase to 12.5 % in 2005. In recent years significant grants have been given to this purpose. In 1998 alone, Danida granted approx. DKK 650 millions towards sustainable energy supplies. This high level is expected to be maintained.

Denmark is participating actively in the international collaboration in the field of environment and development co-operation. The Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs supports among other things the negotiation processes through contributions to the convention secretariats for climate change, desertification and biodiversity as well as to the secretariat of the Intergovernmental Forum on Forests. In these negotiations the access of developing countries to stable sustainable energy supply is an important common denominator. The Danish experiences from development co-operation are most relevant in the forthcoming discussions at CSD 9.

Purpose and definition of the intervention area

Poverty orientated assistance to the energy sector in the developing countries, including the provision of a stable and sufficient energy supply, is a central prerequisite for economic, social and environmental sustainable development. It is also an important prerequisite for the ability of developing countries to contribute to the fulfillment of the objectives of the global environment conventions on climate change, biodiversity and desertification.

The intervention areas in the Danish development assistance include electricity, natural gas, renewable energy, traditional energy sources like fire wood/biomass, and energy saving as well as energy efficiency. Furthermore, Danida is generally aware of the need for capacity building and technology transfer as well as the importance of the promotion of sustainable energy in the transport sectors of developing countries, especially in the cities. Great importance is attached to the promotion of renewable energy and the possibilities to decentralise the energy supply and save on fossil fuel which would result in greater environmental sustainability in the energy supply. A precondition is sufficient political support in the recipient countries to the introduction of renewable energy as a replacement for conventional energy forms. Moreover, in connection with the planning and implementation of the specific activities the necessary capacity at all relevant levels in the recipient countries must be developed. The good perspectives for giving priority to energy saving is generally accentuated in the dialogue with the developing countries, inter alia based on the Danish national experiences with for example tariff systems.

Furthermore, importance is attached to the use of known and respected technologies that adjusted to the local conditions can provide safe energy supply to poor people in an economically, socially and environmentally sustainable way. In this connection Danish knowledge on distribution policies, legal regulation on property rights, equality between the sexes and technological know-how is often useful, but not necessarily decisive for the recipient country’s priorities. Co-operation with the Danish resource base has high priority in the implementation of the mentioned activities.

Normally Danida does not support research or development of products in the area of renewable energy in Denmark. However, limited interventions in this field may be financed, either within the framework of Danish support to energy sector programmes or through development research grants (according to the rules and procedures applying for such grants). Furthermore, there are some limited possibilities for pilot and demonstration project grants, especially in new areas like the use of solar energy and fire wood/biomass.

Plans for sustainable energy supply in the Danish development assistance

Bilateral assistance

In the bilateral development assistance sustainable energy supply has until now been selected as a priority sector in five out of the 20 developing countries in which Danish support is concentrated. In the special programme for mixed credits and in the private sector programme, sustainable energy plays an important role. This is also true for Danish support to NGO development co-operation. The activities are adjusted to the individual needs and priorities of the developing countries. As an illustration the following could be mentioned:

Nepal

Danida has in 1999 agreed to fund an ambitious energy sector programme in Nepal with a grant of DKK 154 million (USD 22 million) over 5 years. The overall development objective is to improve conditions of life for part of the Nepalese rural population by giving access to improved environmentally friendly energy technologies. The sector programme contains five components:

·        Capacity building support to the Centre for Renewable Energy, AEPC, which is an independent administration under the Ministry of Science and Technology,

·        Support to the dissemination and use of improved kitchen stoves in rural households,

·        Support to the promotion of local electricity production from micro water power stations,

·        Support to the dissemination and use of solar power, and

·        Promotion of renewable energy technologies through investments in these, including investments in transmission and distribution of energy from large water power stations in connection with the enlargement of the national electricity net.

The energy sector is a new and difficult field of development assistance in Nepal. Even though the rural population in Nepal constitutes approx. 85% of the whole population only 4% have access to electricity. The remaining need for energy is covered by traditional energy forms, especially firewood which has a negative impact on the environment, the indoor climate and women’s workload. The goal of the Government’s plans for the spread of the national electricity net is that 30% of the population shall have access to electricity in 2020.

The energy sector programme seeks to contribute to an easier access to electricity for the vast part of the rural population, who will continue to live in rural areas where the national electricity net is not expected to reach during the next 20-30 years. Expansion of the transmission and distribution of energy to the rural population in mountainous regions in Nepal will not be easy. Hopefully useful experiences will be drawn within the next couple of years. Risks are unavoidable when moving into a new and difficult area. Involving the local communities, close co-operation with NGO’s with expertise in the area and conducting studies on specific problems will help minimise the risk.

Niger

A project concerning sustainable firewood use in Niger is supported with a grant of DKK 22.8 million (USD 3.1 million). The project supports the establishment of a tax system which gives the traders and other involved parties an economic interest in joining a regulated firewood supply system. Wood from outside the regulated forest areas is imposed with a high tax. This makes it profitable for the villages to join the regulated wood production. The firewood comes from controlled forest areas. Trade takes place through firewood markets in the rural areas where the trees are cut down. The state has established a control system at the entrances of the large cities, which makes it difficult to avoid the tax system. A regulation system will be set up during the second phase of the project. It is the plan to establish 172 villages with controlled markets with a turn over of 80.000 tons of wood per year. The intention is that 50% of the taxes collected on the wood from the controlled areas will be used locally. The remaining taxes will be used to the continued services of existing and the establishment of new controlled forest areas. In that way a central element of self-financing has been built in.

Burkina Faso

In the energy sector in Burkina Faso a three-year Danish supported transition programme came to an end in 1999. The total grant was DKK 200 million. The programme contributed to the distribution power supply, including electrification of rural towns, development of institutional capacity in the national electricity company and the new Ministry of Energy. Among other things the Ministry is given support to develop alternative models for energy supply to the villages. As a supplement the programme supports the control and reduction of deforestation and desertification through a better utility and administration of firewood which is the main traditional and renewable energy resource. It is expected that a Danish supported sector programme will be signed before the end of 1999. This will include efforts to strengthen the sustainable utilisation of the traditional and renewable energy sources, decentralisation of electrification in the rural areas and provincial capitals, a range of larger investment components as well as institutional support to the Ministry of Energy and the national electricity company.

Egypt

Danida has funded an experimental windmill park in combination with a test- and training centre for wind energy in Hurghada at the Red Sea Coast. Furthermore, support is given to the preparation of a national wind atlas and guidelines have been prepared for the planning and placement of future windmill parks. Implementation of two large energy projects was started at the turn of the year 1998/99. To be able to utilise the favourable conditions for production of wind energy along the Suez Golf and the Red Sea Coast, the establishment of Egypt’s first large windmill park (60 MW) in the area is supported. It will produce electricity to the public grid and demonstrate the productivity and economic potential of large windmill parks. Furthermore, a control centre is to be established for the electricity supply in the Suez Canal Zone to optimise the energy production and minimise transmission losses in the area. During the ongoing identification of co-operation areas in connection to the coming support to the energy sector, the possibilities for support to extended utilisation of other renewable energy sources and energy saving arrangements have been analysed.

Mozambique

In Mozambique assistance has so far only been given to the electricity sector. A project has been implemented with the aim of improving the energy supply and distribution in the province of Inhambane through the establishment of a transmission line from XaiXai to Inhambane using electricity from the water power station Cahore Bassa. Further support to the energy sector will be considered as well as support to renewable energy forms and energy planning.

Ghana

After many years where Danish assistance to Ghana has been concentrated on electrification of district capitals and towns along the transmission lines, Danish programme assistance now will focus more on the problems with firewood in dry northern parts of Ghana. The purpose of this component is to promote sustainability in the area of wood production and consumption by promoting the local management and regulation of the firewood markets. Very often it is the poorest people in the villages that produce charcoal. Furthermore, support is envisaged to the formulation of an energy plan of Ghana.

Multilateral assistance

Sustainable energy supply has high priority in Danida’s multilateral development assistance channelled through the World Bank, UNDP, UNEP, and the Global Environment Facility (GEF). In all these organisations Denmark has actively contributed to place sustainable energy supply high on the agenda.

The World Bank

Danida intensifies generally its strategic co-operation with the World Bank in those countries where the bilateral support is concentrated, and where energy is a main sector for the Danish development aid. From a Danish point of view it is important that the World Bank fully uses its potential for supporting the development of comprehensive frameworks for environmentally sound utilisation of energy, including national policies, analysis and programmes. Furthermore, a co-operation between the World Bank and the UNDP, the “Energy Sector Management Assistance Programme” (ESMAP) is supported. The purpose of this programme that started in 1983 is to provide advice for the World Bank and the UNDP’s member countries in the area of energy.

Danida has established a “Trust Fund for Rural and Renewable Energy” in the World Bank with approx. DKK 30 million over three years. The overall purpose is to contribute to the expanded use of renewable energy sources and improved energy supply in the rural areas in the World Bank’s sponsored activities.

Finally, Danida has in 1996 established a trust fund of DKK 33.4 million to environmentally and socially sustainable development. The main purpose is to promote the work in the World Bank concerning the environmental, socially and human dimension of development co-operation and in that way ensure that these dimensions become an integrated part of the overall policy of the World Bank (and the international aid co-operation). In this connection work on environmental indicators, development of methods for the integration of global environmental aspects in the planning and preparation of investments (Global Overlays), social capital as well as social unravelling, is taking place.  

The Global Environment Facility, GEF

The Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs is actively working in the GEF Board to secure a high priority to energy projects as increased use of renewable energy would be an important tool for reducing the greenhouse gas mitigation. The demonstration value of the GEF projects is very high as experiences are widely disseminated. GEF project support normally generates grants from other donors to the activities. For example, at the moment GEF is supporting a solar cell initiative at the cost of US$ 30 million in co-operation with the World Bank and the IFC. The programme seeks to strengthen the investment in the private sector to facilitate penetration of solar cells into markets in India, Kenya and Morocco. The Danish Parliament has recently approved the second instalment of the general Danish contribution to the GEF for the period 1998-2002 of DKK 193 million. The total refilling of the GEF is US$ 2.75 billion, which gives considerable possibilities for support in the years to come.

In co-financing with the GEF Danida supports a project implemented by UNDP in Jordan concerning the utility of the bio mass energy. 

UN’s organisation for Industrial Development, UNIDO

In the UN organisation for Industrial Development, UNIDO, the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs gives high priority to efforts that promote environment friendly industries in developing countries (mostly Africa south of Sahara). UNIDO contributes with assistance to speed up sustainable industrial development. This is among other things done by extending pressure to reduce the environmental harms connected to over-utilisation of fossil fuels, extended access to energy in rural areas (especially from renewable energy sources) and the promotion of capacity building for industrial service organisations in connection with cleaner productions.

In 1998 the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs re-established its voluntary grant to UNIDO’s Industrial Development Fond with DKK 15 million.

 UN’s Environment Programme, UNEP

Danida supports a UNEP Co-operation Centre with 15 employees at the Research Centre Risoe. The overall goals are to promote sustainable energy, contribute to the reduction of pollution from energy activities and at the same time help developing countries to meet their growing energy consumption needs through more effective energy utilisation. The methods for reaching these goals are to promote and support the integration of environmental consideration in the energy planning in the developing countries and to promote the use of energy methods that will contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas mitigation. Experience has shown that the Co-operation Centre’s capacity and activities are relevant. The Centre has been able to raise income from services supplied to donors outside the original circles including international organisations and individual countries.

Danida also co-operates with UNDP and UNEP on a GEF project which aims at developing modalities for national reports of developing countries under the UN Climate Change Convention. The preparation of such national reports will be a significant contribution to the identification of concrete projects within the field of renewable energy. With Danish support, UNEP is completing a pilot project that is throwing light on the possibilities for using the Clean Development Mechanism under the Kyoto-protocol in the African countries.

 The Environment, Peace and Stability Facility

Sustainable energy is a focus area in the strategy of Danish environmental support to developing countries under the Environment, Peace and Stability Facility. The activities are carried out partly by the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Danida), and partly by the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy (DANCED, DANCEE and DANCEA).

The areas that are eligible for support include pollution and resource problems connected to energy supply and consumption. This encompasses capacity building and knowledge transfer. The assistance can be concentrated on specific intervention areas such as administration of energy, energy efficiency, energy saving and renewable energy.

Since the beginning of the 90’s Denmark has granted over DKK 0.5 billion in energy assistance to Eastern Europe through the environment facility to Central and Eastern Europe. This has been done primarily through the Danish Energy Agency and the Danish Environment Protection Agency. A smaller grant has been provided through the Danish Ministry of Housing and the Emergency Management Agency. The assistance from the Emergency Management Agency is directed towards the security of the Eastern Europe’s many insecure nuclear-power stations. The rest of the assistance is in direct line with the Danish energy policy with importance placed on the efficiency of energy consumption and supply, and the introduction of cleaner energy sources.

The Eastern European countries had during the communist era artificial low energy prices and were concentrating on expansion of the energy supply. As a result, the countries have inherited an infrastructure that is very ineffective seen from an energy technological point of view. This has resulted in a strong demand for Danish know-how and technology to help make the energy utilities more effective. It has also led to many direct investments in local production capacity by Danish firms with strong positions in these lines of business – e.g. district heating pipes, isolating materials, radiator thermostats and refrigerating compressors. Many of these investments have been carried out with participation of the Danish Industrialisation Fund for Eastern Europe (IØ-Fonden).

In 1997 Danida introduced a collaboration with UNEP and UNDP on the development of frameworks for expanded use of renewable energy in developing countries, funded by the Environment, Peace and Stability Facility. The starting point was the existing plans and priorities of the countries involved. The purpose is to identify suitable renewable energy projects and map the possibilities for the financing and implementation of these.

As another example of assistance to promote renewable energy, which at the same time serves a climate purpose, is that Danida last year started a collaboration with a number of small island states in the Pacific Ocean. The purpose is to introduce and concretise the possibilities for expanded use of wind energy with Danish expertise and in the longer run extend the assistance by involving more donors.

 IV.    CSD 9 and beyond

The promotion of sustainable energy will have high priority before, during and after CSD 9. It is Denmark’s goal that the process will lead to actions and not just words. The challenges which the world community is facing are enormous and the obligations towards especially the poorest countries demand concrete actions.

In the work Danida is facing it will be of great importance that the Danish resource base plays an active and constructive role. Close co-operation with multilateral organisations, other donors and not least the developing countries have already been established where the problems are worst and must be solved first. A central element in the Danish assistance will be to develop and further strengthen the strategic alliances with like-minded countries both in the North and in the South.

With the introduction of this strategy, a start signal to the Danish assistance in the international co-operation has been given with the aim to promote a sustainable energy future for all. At the moment the target is a good negotiation result at the CSD 9 that can prepare the ground for a continued global effort in this very important area.  

Programmes and Projects  

No information is available.

Status  

No information is available.

Challenges 

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation  

See  attachment I.

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This information is based on Denmark's submission to the 9th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 2001.  Last Update: December 2000.

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FORESTS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

The National Forest and Nature Agency at the Ministry of Environment and Energy is the body primarily responsible for the forestry sector. It manages areas covering almost one-third of the forest area of Denmark.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The general regulations of the Forest Act of 1989 ensure that forest areas remain under forest cover and are managed in accordance with the rules of good and multiple-use forest management. The forest care scheme under the Forest Act is, inter alia, intended to contribute to the implementation of the Strategy for Natural Forests on privately owned land. The Structural Development Act of 1993 includes provisions for subsidies for forest improvements. The Forest Advisory Act of 1990 is being implemented through professional advice, in order to enhance good and multiple-use utilization of privately owned forests. Other important Acts concerning forestry are:

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The Danish forest area is managed as production forest. The Strategy for Sustainable Forest Management is based on the Forest Declaration of the Rio Conference and on the Helsinki Resolutions and promotes a wide range of policy measures and incentives. The Strategy for the Conservation of Genetic Resources of Trees and Bushes of 1994 is intended to ensure the genetic variation of the trees and bushes that are used as cultivated plants in Danish forests and landscapes. The Strategy for Natural Forests and Other Forest Types of High Conservation Value covers a period of 50 years, and is both a continuation of nature conservation efforts undertaken during the past few decades and a follow-up to the revision of the 1989 Forest Act.

In 1994, the Danish Government decided to transfer the administration of privately owned forests from the Ministry of Agriculture to the Ministry of Environment and Energy in order to secure consistency in the national forest policies and programmes in relation to all Danish forests. In 1997, a revised forest act will enter into force, with increased emphasis and support for multiple use forestry.

Very intensive efforts in these areas will be made within the next years. There is, however, a financing problem as falling world market prices for wood and cellulose make afforestation less attractive today. Other immediate measures to be taken in the forestry sector are:

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

For the State forests, a procedure for inclusion of the public in management and planning is now being developed. Local advisory boards for the state forest districts will be formed, representing local NGOs, non-organized users, and so forth. Children represent an important target group for awareness-raising on forest and nature.

Programmes and Projects 

The project "Green Forest Management" is being implemented on State-owned areas by the Forest and Nature Agency to ensure nature conservation. Through the Ministry of Agriculture a scheme was launched in 1994 for the development of wood and wood-based products intended to make use of substantial unutilized potential in the forest sector. An important objective in Danish forest policy is to double the woodland within one tree generation (80-100 years). 

Nearly 100 per cent of the deciduous forests have been protected for years. Approximately one quarter of natural forest will be especially protected, because it will either be left untouched or developed according to traditional environmentally adapted management systems, such as grazing or pollarding.

Status

The forest area of Denmark covers 417,000 ha, or approximately 10% of the total land area. Approximately 90 % of this area is committed to forest in accordance with the Danish Forest Act of 1989. 

Challenges

Soil acidification and damage from insects are problems that will be addressed through a wide range of measures. Danish forests have been subject to rather intensive management regimes, of which the following issues may raise some concern in terms of ecological consequences: intensive use of non-indigenous species; large homogeneous stands, harvested by clear-cutting and subsequently replanted in a single operation; application of pesticides, fertilizers and intensive ploughing; burning, removal and/or concentration of organic matter after logging; utilization of heavy machinery; and drainage of wetlands before planting.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

A training programme aiming at enhancing ecological awareness in forest management was initiated in 1994 for the staff of state forests. In general, in-service training programmes for forestry practitioners and information campaigns aimed at the public at large will be initiated in order to increase the comprehension and appreciation of sustainable forest management. 

Information   

A forest ranger scheme has been established, where rangers provide information on forest and nature to the public.

Research and Technologies   

No information available.

Financing

New and additional funds have been allocated through the Danish DANCED for projects in designated countries related to the conservation and sustainable use of forests.

In 1992, export from the wood manufacturing industry amounted to US$ 2.4 billion, making this a very important industry for the Danish economy. During the last few years, however, it has suffered from price fluctuations, in particular for softwood, which has adversely affected employment.

Cooperation

The Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA) and the Danish Fund for International Disaster Relief, Environment and Development (a Danish follow-up to UNCED that also includes forestry) are providing considerable funding for forestry activities in developing countries and countries in Central and Eastern Europe. DANIDA's forestry-related activities in developing countries - both multilateral and bilateral - amount to almost US$10 million, annually. In addition, Denmark is providing financial resources for the CGIAR, and is participating in several regional research networks within the framework of the EU or the Nordic countries.

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This information is based on Denmark's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997


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FRESHWATER

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

Coordination of water resource management and development at the national level is the responsibility of the Ministry of Environment and Energy, Environmental Protection Agency. Regional and local authorities coordinate at sub-national levels. In case of conflicts, the general rule is that the superior level of administration mediates.  

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Water supply is regulated through the Water Supply Act of 1978, last amended by Act No. 430 on June 10, 1997, and the Environmental Protection Act, last amended by Act No. 433 of June 10, 1997.

Legislation on protection of the groundwater resources is being analyzed by a committee headed by the Danish EPA. A report that is currently underway will identify the major legal constraints.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

An Action Plan on the Environment was launched in 1987 with the objective of reducing the nitrogen and phosphorus content of the aquatic environment by 50% and 80%, respectively. A comprehensive nation-wide monitoring programme was designed to quantify the effectiveness of the Action Plan. As a result of the Action Plan, the emissions of nitrate and phosphorous from agricultural activities have been reduced, but it has proven more difficult than expected to reach the goal of the Action Plan. 
The National Act on Regional Planning provides a policy for integrated land and water management

When major laws, policies, and so forth, are prepared, stakeholders are normally invited to sit on a Committee with the task of formulating a report with recommendations for action. There is also an act concerning equal representation of women and men on public committees.

The general pricing policy for water follows a principle of balance, i.e., the total revenue from water charges must not exceed total costs, including appropriation for future investments. On the other hand, the water charges must cover total costs; however, the local authority can, in some cases, subsidize the water works. Almost 100% of water costs are recovered through water charges. The Ministry has made general guidelines for water tariffs. One principle is that the price charged per cubic meter should not vary with the quantity consumed. There are no special policies implemented concerning the sectors.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

See under Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies and Strategies, Policies and Plans.

Programmes and Projects 

A programme of action for improving wastewater treatment in the countryside has been prepared in order to improve the conditions of small streams and lakes. The programme stipulates that municipalities may offer improved treatment to settlements in the countryside through local wastewater treatment.

Status

About ninety percent of the water works are run privately, while the remainder are run by the municipalities. The public water works supply two-thirds of the water-works water.

The drinking water in Denmark is of a very high quality. Ninety-nine per cent of the drinking water supplied to consumers comes from groundwater reservoirs. 

The Danish Government has taken several steps to protect and improve the quality of fresh water based on the principle that substances likely to pollute must not be discharged into watercourses, lakes or the sea, or stored in a manner which may lead to pollution of the water. 

Floods are a rare occurrence in Denmark. Marine flooding sometimes occurs at the North Sea Coast, where there are local contingency plans. Major droughts have never been experienced. There are plans for disaster preparedness, such as those prepared due to the "Seveso-Directive."

Challenges  

An urgent problem concerning groundwater is toxic leaching from waste dumps and old industrial sites. The regional authorities are actively searching for the location of these sites before serious damage is done. Further, Danish planning rules concentrate possible polluting activities in areas where the water resources are least vulnerable.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

In order to ensure stability in the supply of drinking water, information campaigns have been launched suggesting different ways in which the consumer can save or reuse water and in 1994, an environment tax on drinking water for household use was introduced in order to encourage conservation. The Watercourse Act of 1992, and the Nature Management Act of 1989 encourage actions to improve the condition of streams and lakes.

The public authorities and the water works encourage the consumer to use less water. From 1 January 1999, the consumption of water for all dwellings connected to common water works must be metered. This is expected to lower water consumption ten to fifteen percent. Industry and agriculture are also encouraged to use less water -- in some instances, these sectors can get subsidies from the Government to develop special water-saving techniques.

Information

The basic principle for the drinking water policy is to prevent pollution of the groundwater rather than having to clean polluted water. A planning system has been established on a regional scale to ensure the integrated management of freshwater resources. The counties carry out detailed mapping of water resources and balance the different interests against each other. Monitoring of the groundwater takes place at the waterworks. In addition, there is a nation-wide monitoring programme.

Information on water management and development, including water quality, quantity, number of water works, drillings and consumption by sector, is regularly collected and distributed, and is made available, inter alia, on the World Wide Web Site of the Ministry at [http://www.mem.dk]. Later in 1998, it should be possible to access more information on a second Site, at [http://www.dvf.dk].

Research and Technologies 

The total capacity for treating and recycling waste water is 8.3 million PE. One-hundred percent of urban sewage is treated. The coverage of water supply is practically one-hundred percent. There are no major technological needs for water purification. Ninety-nine percent of Danish drinking water originates from the ground water and needs nearly no treatment. The policy is to maintain this situation.

Financing

The Government has limited funds to remedy pollution where the polluter cannot be found or is not able to pay. In addition, in 1996, the Danish Parliament adopted a tax on wastewater for discharges of nitrogen, phosphorous and organic substances. This tax entered into force 1 January 1997.

In accordance with the Action Plan, US$1.2 million have been invested for municipal treatment plants. Additional investments, not included in the Plan, are estimated to total US$48 million. In order to improve waste-water treatment to meet the requirements of the Action Plan, the 19 largest companies are expected to invest US$162 million. Denmark invested US$4 billion and 2.4% of GNP in the tourism sector.

Cooperation

No information is available.

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This information is based on Denmark's submission to the Fifth and Sixth Sessions of the Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update:21 Jan 1998


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LAND MANAGEMENT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

The ministries and departments primarily responsible for an integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources are the Spatial Planning Department as well as the National Forests and Nature Agency of the Ministry of the Environment and Energy, and the Ministry of Agriculture.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Relevant national legislation consists of legislation on nature protection, physical planning, forest management, and agriculture. All legislation is revised periodically. In accordance with national legislation, the general public is involved in spatial planning.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The following issues related to the planning and management of land resources have been fully covered by the Government:

In this context, further reference should be made to the Danish National Report to HABITAT II.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status

No information is available.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

See under Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans.

Information   

See under Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans.

Research and Technologies

Sectoral research is undertaken at central and decentralized levels, as well as in universities, research institutions, and by local and regional authorities. The Danish Forest and Landscape Research Institute and the National Building Research Institute should be mentioned in particular. See also under Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation

In the European Union (EU) context, a European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP) is being elaborated. Together with EU-Commission DG XVI and the other EU-Member states, Denmark participates in the informal work of creating a spatial development "vision" for the European territory. The vision will describe three main themes: 1) Towns and Urban Networks; 2) TransEuropean Networks and; 3) Nature and Cultural Heritage. The first draft was ready for debate at an informal meeting for ministers in June 1997 in the Netherlands. Denmark participates in related work with the Council of Europe, OECD, and the Nordic Council of Ministers. Denmark participates in work on spatial planning and sustainable development through the following fora: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ECE), United Nations Commission on Human Settlements (UNCHS/HABITAT), European Union, Council of Europe, and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).

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This information is based on Denmark's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997


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MOUNTAINS

No information is available.

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OCEANS AND COASTAL AREAS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

The Ministry of the Environment is responsible for the integrated management and sustainable development of coastal and marine areas, including EEZ. The Danish Environmental Protection Agency of the Ministry of the Environment, together with the Ministry of Defense, are responsible for the combating of oil and chemical pollution. In accordance with national legislation, the general public is involved in coastal planning.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The Ministry of the Environment, the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Communication and Tourism are cooperating to strengthen the planning restrictions that regulate development in tourist areas. Considering the importance of tourism at the national level, vacation centres and hotels with floor space above 50,000 m2 are subject to mandatory Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs); there is also the green key, a certificate granted upon efficient use of resources to hotels, vacation centres and camping areas.

In 1994, an Act on Coastal Planning was adopted. Under this Act, special planning and function justifications are required for permitting building projects in the coastal zone. If such justifications exist, the main rule is to locate behind already existing settlements. At the same time, legislation covering already built-up areas (urban zones) was eased, so that the main emphasis was placed on a quality based incorporation of new constructions in the city viewed in relation to the surrounding coastal landscape. The Act further stipulates that a coastal projection zone in cities be reduced and in some cases removed completely. In summer cottage areas, the protection zone is set at 100 meters, but may be reduced. The protection zone is increased to 300 meters in rural zones. Through the Act on Coastal Planning, Danish coasts are preserved as an important landscape resource, while in the areas where the population is actually living, planning requirements are only imposed when absolutely necessary.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The national policy on oceans is part of the National Sustainable Development Strategy. Denmark also has access to a multitude of technologies that serve to identify the major types of pollution of the marine environment from land-based sources. All sewage-related issues are rated "very important" or "important". Some 94 per cent of sewage discharges are subject to secondary treatment and 67% to tertiary treatment. The Danish Government participates in systematic observation systems but not in a mussel watch programme.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information available.

Programmes and Projects

A programme for the integrated management and sustainable development of coastal and marine areas, including the EEZ exists. All activities under this programme area are rated "important" or "very important".    

Status

Regarding the harmonization of standards for tourism nationally and regionally, small businesses are encouraged to create commercial and marketing networks at regional levels. To protect cultural integrity, a special planning department has initiated local demonstration projects on how to strengthen the relationship between local culture and tourism. Regarding construction planning in coastal regions, structures must not exceed 8.5m in the coastal zone of 3km. For structures taller than 8.5m, justification for visual effects is required.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information

A database (PLAN-GIS DENMARK) is in place for integrated coastal management with the aim of monitoring the coastal regulations of the Planning Act of 1994. This database contains information on protected areas, habitats and uses of coastal zones. In Denmark, tourism is an important economic sector.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing

Denmark invested US$4 billion, 2.4% of GNP in the tourism sector.

Cooperation

The fourth conference of ministers responsible for Spatial Planning and Development in the Baltic Sea Region was held on the 22 October 1996. The Ministers adopted common recommendations for spatial planning of the coastal zone in the Baltic Sea Regions. The Common recommendations are divided into three chapters : 1) objectives, 2) recommendations and 3) planning procedures. Furthermore, the Ministers recommend that the Committee for Spatial Development in the Baltic Sea Region monitors the implementation and the results of the recommendations through demonstration projects and reports to the next Ministerial Conference.

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This information is based on Denmark's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

For national information on oceans and coastal areas, click here.
To access the Web Site of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, click here:

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TOXIC CHEMICALS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Principles for assessment of chemical risk and the setting of limit values in/on drinking water, groundwater, air and polluted soil, have been laid down in national guidelines based on the Act on Environmental Protection. The municipalities are responsible for collecting hazardous waste originating from industries and households. In order to ensure environmentally-sound handling of hazardous waste and its safe delivery at a destruction facility, each firm that generates hazardous waste must report to the municipality which is obliged to collect the waste at site. Each municipality is expected to establish its own collection scheme. The Danish Environmental Protection Act enforces substitution of harmful substances with less harmful substances, the principle of best available technology and the use of cleaner technologies and products based on life-cycle analysis. The Chemical Act regulates notification, classification and labeling of substances and preparations according to EU directives. The Act also regulates safe handling, producer and manufacturer responsibility and includes restrictions on certain dangerous substances and products.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

In Denmark, highest priority is generally given to the handling of high volume substances which also have the greatest toxicological significance, such as heavy metals, persistent organic products, pollutants and pesticides. National guidelines containing principles of environmental standards for selected chemicals have been published and preparatory work for updating and revising these guidelines has been initiated. See also under Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

National assessment of chemical substances takes place continuously in projects conducted by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency of the Ministry of the Environment, in expert fora with the participation of environmental and health authorities to ensure consensus and quality. 

Status

Approximately 110,000 tonnes of hazardous waste out of 160,000 tonnes are delivered to a central treatment facility; the rest is treated mainly in approved treatment plants where the waste is recycled. 

Challenges  

One problem has been the present incomplete knowledge on the effects of chemicals on health and the environment. The main problem in obtaining significant results has been the extensive time and effort needed to evaluate the many chemical substances in use. A national profile for the management of chemicals will be published in 1997.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

No information is available.

Information

Creation of a database on chemicals and an emission inventory programme was initiated in 1993.

Research and Technologies 

The Ministry of the Environment and Energy and other relevant Ministries and Agencies conduct a great number of inventories and research projects in order to establish background data for regulation, e.g., to use multidisciplinary approaches to chemical safety problems.

Financing   

In the near future, training will begin for operators in waste treatment plants and for persons handling hazardous waste. By combining environmental, health and safety aspects, operators will be trained to optimize environmental interests in connection with plant operation, while at the same time, taking health and safety aspects into account.

Cooperation

As a member of the European Union (EU), Denmark uses the harmonized systems of classification and labelling of chemicals established within the European Community (EC). Denmark has implemented the EC Directive on the control of major accident hazards involving dangerous substances. Denmark also participates actively in international cooperation within the United Nations system, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the Nordic Council, and others. Denmark has approved the London Guidelines for the exchange of information on chemicals in international trade including the prior informed consent procedure (PIC) procedures. Danish legislation on export of chemicals follows the guidelines for implementing the PIC procedure. The Danish principles of chemical risk assessment and regulation as described in the Environmental Protection Act and the Chemicals Act, as well as in a number of guidelines, have been successfully used in connection with export of environmental know-how and technology to countries in Eastern Europe and to developing countries. Denmark has ratified the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal and seeks actively to have the provisions of the Convention tightened.

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This information is based on Denmark's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997


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WASTE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Solid Waste and Sanitation

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

The responsibilities of the municipalities are to provide disposal facilities for household waste. Consumers covered by such arrangements are obliged to use them exclusively to:

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Danish legislation concerning waste and recycling consists of highly detailed laws.

Apart from such traditional control measures as legislation and regulations, since 1994, Denmark has made use of a number of economic instruments within the field of waste prevention, including a general waste tax of US$26 per ton of waste for incineration and US$32 per ton of waste for disposal on landfills. In addition, there is a levy on certain forms of packaging.


Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The ruling principle for the Danish waste policy is that prevention is better than cure. The aim is to make optimal use of the resources of waste - first of all, of materials, then of the energy resources. Environmental protection measures are directed at the entire cycle of polluting materials and products circulating in society.   Presently, some 30 per cent of the waste is recycled, but according to the Recycling Action Plan 1990-2002, recycling must be increased to 50 per cent, by almost 2 million tons/year, by the end of the decade.  Jobs gained in the waste and recycling sector resulting from implementation of the Action Plan are assessed at approximately 2,500/year. The investments assumed in the Action Plan, which includes the establishment of new plants, will result in additional jobs representing about 6.55 person/year.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status

The total amount of waste in Denmark is expected to increase to 9.8 million tons, or almost two tons per capita per annum in 1997. However, preventive cleaner technology actions are expected to stabilize waste quantities in the last 1990s, with the result that total waste quantities by the year 2000 will be equal to the 1997 figures. The collected waste is disposed of in four different ways: a part is incinerated in waste heating plants; some ends up on landfills; some is recycled; and by far the smallest quantity consists of "problem" waste. Recycling has been given the highest priority. Primary efforts are directed towards increasing the recyclability of materials and products.

Waste quantities for incineration will not change significantly, and the capacity of incineration in the country as a whole need not be extended. Landfilling has been given the lowest priority and waste has been redirected from landfills in the central parts of Denmark to large controlled sites in coastal areas. The need for waste landfilling has thus been reduced by 50%, significantly reducing the need for land-fill sites. For decades, Denmark has employed an extensive deposit scheme, ensuring that the return of beer and soft drink bottles remains at the rate of 99.5 per cent. The same bottle can be in circulation scores of times until it is removed and recycled as raw material in the production of new bottles.

Challenges 

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

All waste removal is fully paid for by the consumer. Total annual expenses for operation and investments in the waste collection sector amount to US$323-646 million, one third of which is paid by the local authorities. In connection with the implementation of the Action Plan, the need for investments by both local authorities and private companies will increase. Costs of operation will not be affected to any significant extent, because changed systems of collection of both household and industrial waste may open up possibilities for rationalization.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

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This information is based on Denmark's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

For national information on solid waste, click here.

 

Hazardous Wastes

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was ratified on 6 February 1993 and the latest information was provided to the Basel Convention Secretariat in October 1996.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status

The collection of problem waste from households and companies is well organized. There is at least one collection point in every municipality in the country. Private citizens can also deliver oil and chemical waste. Pharmaceutical waste is delivered to dispensing chemists. From these collection points, the waste is sent to one of the municipally-owned receiver stations, where a final sorting is made before shipment to Kommunekemi, which is under the common ownership of the municipalities, to be destroyed by incineration, neutralization or depositing. Denmark shares its knowledge of the collection and treatment of hazardous waste through consultancy activity with a number of industrial companies, as well as private and public organizations nationally and abroad.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

No information is available.

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This information is based on Denmark's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

For national information on hazardous waste, click here.
For direct link to the Web Site of the Basel Convention, click here:

 

Radioactive Wastes

No information is available.

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