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Economic Aspects | Natural Resource Aspects | Institutional Aspects | Social Aspects |Denmark

ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN DENMARK

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INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Minister for Development Co-operation manages the official development assistance which is based on the policy guidelines contained in Danida's (Danish International Development Agency) Plan of Action of 1988.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

A Strategy for Development Aid towards Year 2000 was presented to Parliament in 1994. A revised Strategy for Development Co-operation called "Partnership 2000" was adopted by Parliament in October 2000.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information available.

Status 

Alleviation of poverty through the promotion of economic growth and social development is the basic objective of Danish development assistance which is concentrated on a limited number of developing countries. The aim is to further increase the aid quality through the establishment of longer-term programme co-operation, and strengthening of field presence and of the ongoing dialogue with development partners. To support ongoing reforms in countries receiving Danish aid, emphasis has also been placed on the development and promotion of the private sector.

Denmark gives high priority to multilateral development activities, including the UN system, international financial institutions and the European Union development programme. As a general rule, approximately 50% of Danish multilateral development aid is channeled through these organizations. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) continues to be the largest single recipient of Danish aid funds. From the Danish point of view, it is, however, time to carefully evaluate how each of the relevant multilateral organisations and institutions measure up in efficiency and attaining their stated goals. In deciding the level of Danish voluntary contributions to those organisations and institutions, Denmark will also compare their activities to the priorities of the country's development assistance programme. 

Challenges

No information available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising    

No information available.

Information

No information available.

Research and Technologies  

No information available.

Financing

Danish development assistance reached the level of 1% of GNP in 1992, and it is the intention of the Government to maintain it at that level for the foreseeable future. This high level of development assistance enjoys wide support among the Danish population.

Funds channeled through NGOs have grown continually so that they now constitute 13% of Danida's total aid. In 1993, as a direct response to UNCED in 1992, the Danish Parliament decided to establish a new facility called the Environment, Peace and Stability Facility. The financial allocations for the programme were scheduled to reach 0.5% of GDP by the year 2002 and are in addition to the development assistance budget. 

Cooperation

No information is available.

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This information is based on Denmark's submission to the 5th and 9th Sessions of the Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: December 2000.

Denmark Supports international cooperation, click here.
For national information on development activities and environmental export, click here.

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TRADE

No information is available.

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CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

A law on the energy efficiency of electrical equipment will be passed in the near future, and existing regulations on consumption of energy in buildings will be revised. More widespread use of renewable sources of energy has been enhanced by legislative as well as financial measures.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

As of 1994, European Union-wide environmental labeling was implemented and a large number of manufacturing companies have been entering into Environmental Quality-Assurance Schemes and introducing ECO-Audits. There is also an ongoing policy discussion on consumption and production patterns in Denmark which has resulted in numerous amendments to national legislation.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

Government ministries and departments, the parliament, academia and local authorities are involved in discussions on consumption and production patterns with industry, consumer groups, NGOs at large, and the media. Consumer goods are gradually becoming "greener" as consumer organizations have been lobbying to improve their impact on the environment. NGOs have been extremely important in including the concept of sustainability in consumption.

Programmes and Projects 

No information available.

Status 

A great majority of the population supports well-founded environmental initiatives when they are convinced that they contribute to solving problems, and most people are willing to finance collective efforts to that effect, to pay more for environmentally benign products, and even to contribute in terms of spending their time. Public procurement is gradually being reoriented to account for environmental concerns. This is especially important in Denmark, where the public sector accounts for almost one-third of total consumption.

Today, 5% of the Danish consumption of energy is provided by means of wind, sun and biomass. Danish consumption of electricity is rising continually and is expected to do so during the next decade. In recent years, campaigns have been launched to make consumers replace inefficient electrical equipment. Loans for measures to conserve energy have been provided. Currently, a new system is being introduced to charge real consumption of electricity, gas and water. By adding tax to current charges on municipal water services, the average price of water will be doubled over the next five years. In order to reduce the discharge of sewage, a tax on waste water will be introduced in 1997.

Challenges

No information available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

Since 1990, a major campaign has been launched as part of the national follow-up to the World Commission's Report on Sustainable Development. It has financed a wide variety of popular activities to promote sustainable consumption patterns, including local experiments, awareness raising activities and environmental education.

Information

No information available.

Research and Technologies  

No information available.

Financing

No information available.

Cooperation

Denmark is striving to reach an international agreement on actions to be taken at the highest possible level, i.e., tightening environmental law and employing economic incentives and disincentives to alleviate problems related to the environment and sustainable development.

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This information is based on Denmark's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.


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FINANCING

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Denmark has introduced both subsidies and green taxes to encourage financing of sustainable development. BR wp="br1">

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans     

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

Supplementary to the above-mentioned programmes, the Environment and Disaster Relief Facility was established as a response to UNCED. The Facility is gradually due to reach its target of 0.5% of GNP by the year 2002. Half of its funds are allocated to environmental projects in certain developing countries and countries in economic transition. The administration of the facility is shared by the Ministry of Environment and Energy (DANCED) and by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (DANIDA). The latter is wholly responsible for the administration of the 1% of GNP going to ODA.

In accordance with the Danish legislation on international development cooperation, the Danish Investment Guarantee Scheme was introduced in 1996; presently the Minister for Development Assistance may, within a limit of US$414 million, guarantee Danish companies against losses incurred in connection with direct investment in developing countries. The estimated total revenue from taxes, levies and charges, will be US$9 billion in 1996.

Status 

Danish ODA continues to equal 1% of GNP, thus totaling more than US$ 1.7 billion in 1995. Environment and sustainable development being one of several cross cutting objectives of Danish official overseas assistance, a sizable part of the 1% goes to implementing specific environmental and sustainable development goals as an integral part of development assistance goals.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

See under Programmes and Projects.

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This information is based on Denmark's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

For information on participating States in the Global Environment Facility, click here:

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TECHNOLOGY

Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technology

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Denmark has a Cleaner Technology Action Plan. The first one was in operation from 1993 until 1997. The new one began in 1998 and will continue for five years. In addition, both subsidies and green taxes are used to encourage the use of environmentally sound technologies (ESTs). ESTs are most urgently in the sectors of transport, agriculture and industry.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

Stakeholders are involved in promoting and improving the selection, transfer and application of ESTs through technology centres and technology fairs. In addition, the private sector (both business and civil society) promote the transfer of ESTs through continuing dialogue, independent initiatives and trade organizations.

Programmes and Projects 

Since 1987, the Danish Ministry of the Environment and Energy has given high priority to the development and dissemination of clean technologies. Since 1987, the Ministry supported clean technology projects, at an expense of approximately $US90 million. The current action plan for clean technology (1993-1997) aims to integrate the consumption of natural resources and direct pollution from the manufacture, and the disposal of products with waste management schemes, in general. In addition to the action plan for cleaner technology, the Ministry has actively supported the dissemination of environmental management systems, such as the future ISO 14000, through a new dissemination programme.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

See under Cooperation.

Information

Denmark has no single system of information on environmentally sound technologies that exist at the national level. 

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

See under Programmes and Projects.

Cooperation

Denmark provides special funds to assist in integrating the economies in transition into the system of global technology cooperation and partnership. They are allocated in a competitive application procedure by the Multi-Science Council for Development Research.

Transfer of technology, including support for research, training and institutional capacity-building are integral parts of Danish Overseas Development Assistance. Danish technical cooperation is aimed at supporting the sustainability of aid programmes by means of local capacity building on an institutional as well as an individual level. As a result, training and transfer of knowledge are increasingly important elements in Danish development cooperation. In 1990, the Center for Technology Transfer to Developing Countries was established by the Danish Technological Institute to ensure an appropriate transfer of technology and corresponding know-how. In addition, the Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory, the Danish Government Seed Pathology Institute, the DANIDA Forest Seed Centre and the Centre for Development Research undertake training programmes for researchers and technicians from developing countries. Denmark also supports the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR); other international institutions dealing with environmental issues and receiving Danish funds are the International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology and the International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications.

An important part of the Danish effort to assist in the establishment of collaborative networks of research centers has been the financing of four specialized Danish institutions dealing with issues of concern to developing countries. The Danish Fellowship Programme sponsors supplementary training of personnel from recipient countries either in Denmark or regionally. ENRECA, a programme for enhancing research capacity in developing countries has been launched by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. Recently DANIDA has become a donor of the Economy and Environment Programme for South East Asia (EEPSEA), which will support research and training programmes in this field by the region's researchers.

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This information is based on Denmark's submission to the Fifth and Sixth Sessions of the Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: 20 January 1998


Biotechnology

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Danish Environmental Protection Agency is one of the bodies responsible in the area of biotechnology.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The exchange of information at national and community levels with regard to procedural requirements for safe handling, risk management, and conditions of release of the products of biotechnology is organized through the law on biotechnology and environment which translates EU directives into Danish law. 

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

There are no specific plans to promote the use of traditional and modern biotechnologies.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

The private sector invests significant amounts in biotechnology. In 1991, the total amount spent on R&D in the private sector was US$91 million.

Cooperation

Denmark participates in the work of the Nordic Council of Ministers in the field of biotechnology.

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This information is based on Denmark's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

For national information on cleaner technology, click here.
Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to go to the Web Site of UNEP's International Register on Biosafety.
Click here for the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Biosafety WebPages

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INDUSTRY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Both the Danish policy of sustainability and the Best Available Technology (BAT) Principle apply to policies for sustainable industrial development.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

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TRANSPORT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The overall responsibility for decision making regarding the regulation of the transport system is placed with the Ministry of Transport. The Road Agency, The Railroad Agency and the Transport and Traffic Safety Agency in their turn provide the management of numerous transport projects, laws and departmental orders. In addition, the Agencies with their app. 5,000 employees provide the ministry with a sound knowledge base.

The Ministry of Transport participates in cross-ministerial working groups on issues regarding people with a handicap, environmental management and competitiveness in the haulage industry, noise management, etc. Furthermore, reports on transport issues and proposals for legislation are heard with the relevant ministries, in particular the Ministry of Environment and Energy, the Ministry of Finance, and the Ministry for Taxation. Before adoption, a concrete proposal for legislation or regulation must go through the cross-ministerial Finance Committee. In addition, all new legislation must be evaluated for its environmental and socio-economic impact.

On a more general policy level, the Ministry of Transport receives input from the Transport Council, which is set up by Parliament to improve transport policy making. Each year, the Ministry of Finance undertakes an environmental evaluation of the Budget. The evaluation is organised thematically and has hitherto given a systematic account of the environmental problems in the transport sector and the cost-efficiency of the environmental policies employed in the sector.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Generally, the environmental aspects of the transport sector are regulated by EEC legislation. Denmark has implemented the EEC legislation in Danish legislation and thus made it part of Danish law. Danish law is in conformity with EEC legislation in this area.

As for tax measures, Denmark introduced in 1997 an annual ownership tax on passenger cars referring to the fuel consumption of the car. The higher the fuel consumption, the higher the annual tax. This measure has had a significant impact on the sale of small, fuel-efficient cars.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

By the end of 2000, the Danish Government will publish a long-term strategy for investment in the Danish infrastructure. The strategy called “Investing in Denmark’s Future” is expected to contain a plan for investments in the transport infrastructure too. After the finishing of the Great Belt Link in 1997 and the Oeresund Link in 2000 the government has decided to invest considerably in new trains for the intercity and interregional traffic. This upgrading is set to continue into this decade. 

In 1990, the Danish Government then in office published an energy action plan and a transport action plan with a view to reducing the environmental impact from these two sectors. For the transport area, the action plan was followed up in 1993 by a transport plan, "Trafik 2005." In this strategy urban planning, rural development, and transport infrastructure are considered in conjunction.

In 1995, the Danish Government decided that a follow-up was to be made for the energy action plan and the transport plan as far as carbon dioxide emissions are concerned. The process has been arranged so that first a paper for public debate has been published. Thus the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy published the paper "The Energy Futures of Denmark" in December 1995. At the same time, the Danish Ministry of Transport published the paper "Transport, Energy and Carbon Dioxide Emissions." Subsequently the Ministry of Transport has followed up with an action plan for the reduction of CO2 emissions in 1996 and again in 2000.

The implementation of the action plan is an ongoing process. Expectations of the development in traffic volumes and the energy consumption, as well as expectations of the effect of the individual means and instruments of action may change. It is therefore important that the action plan is continuously review­ed, so as to maintain the aim of the plan. The Danish Ministry of Transport, in co-operation with the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy, will ensure that such continuous reviews are carried out.

Today environmental considerations play a prominent role in the formation of the Danish transport policy. Environmental considerations are for instance included in connection with decisions on transport investments. Initiatives are taken in many other areas, which contribute to reducing the environmental impact of the transport sector.  

In connection with the Government's Transport Action Plan, published in 1990, specific targets were formulated for all significant pollutants, including noise, with a view to reducing the environmental impact of the transport sector.

In May 1997, the Danish Government presented a new strategy for support for Eastern Europe. The new strategy includes the setting up of a regional environmental effort integrated across sectors in the Baltic region, where the development of for instance the energy, industry, agricultural, forestry and transport sectors must take place on an environmentally sustainable basis.

The sector programme for the transport area springs from the Agenda 21 recommendations and is part of the implementation of the Baltic Agenda 21 action plan for sustainable transport. Emphasis has been placed on ensuring a long-term effort through the programme.

There are no plans to expand the Danish railroad infrastructure over the next 10 years. However, there are numerous planned and ongoing projects that aim to improve the existing structure (e.g. by expanding to double-tracked railways), use the existing tracks for new forms of railroad traffic, or utilize the existing tracks for a variety of rail traffic modes. The new circle line around Copenhagen, regional railroads in Aalborg and Aarhus, and the regional S-train traffic to Roskilde are all examples of the latter approach. 

By 2005, Denmark aims to satisfy 12-14% of its energy demand with domestically produced non-polluting energy from windmills, solar power, and biomass. In the period to 2030, the Government aims to increase the share of clean energy by 1% per annum. For the transport sector this will in the short term mean that trains can run on cleaner electricity, and in the long term that cars running on electricity will have the same opportunities. 

Denmark has undertaken thorough studies of the viability of bio-fuels. The conclusion is that bio-fuels provide a very expensive way to solve the pollution problems in the transport sector. The Danish Government has chosen to stimulate the development of cleaner fuels through a tax regime that favors cleaner to more polluting fuels. This has provided an efficient way to phase out e.g. leaded fuels and fuels with a high content of sulphur. The tax regime also helps to hold traffic demand within more sustainable limits.

The Government aims for a 40% reduction of NOx and CO by 2000 and a 60% reduction by 2010. For particles, the aim is a 50% reduction by 2010. Thanks primarily to catalytic converters and cleaner fuels, the Government is well underway to reach these aims.

To speed up progress on particle-reduction, Denmark carries out in-use tests of particulate traps in the city of Odense. During a two year period in-use performance, filtration rate and urban air quality will be monitored. Initial results are promising and initiatives to further particle-reduction are currently under consideration.

By 2002, the new Copenhagen Metro system will begin to operate, providing a high-classed public transport system for the most traffic-intensive region in the country. The Metro will run at 30-second intervals offering efficiency equivalent to or better than that of a car. On the ground, fast lanes for busses and Speed busses have been introduced to ensure the competitiveness of public transport.

The Ministry of Transport supports greater inter-modality in the transport system through concrete projects. In co-operation with municipalities ‘park and ride’ and ‘kiss and drive’ facilities are established around the major Danish cities. Similarly, efforts are made to ensure inter-modality in freight transport.

In general, turnover in the vehicle fleet varies with the level of growth in the economy. As a consequence of directive 91/328/EØF, the Government has introduced mandatory inspections of all cars in the Danish vehicle fleet. The inspections are undertaken regularly by the Car Inspectorate, which has the authority to demand improvements to the state of the individual car in accordance with specified minimum standards.

In 1998, the European Commission entered an agreement with the European car manufacturing industry (ACEA) on voluntary improvements in the fuel efficiency of new cars. The agreement has been extended to the Japanese and the Korean car manufacturing industry. Denmark supports the ACEA agreement. To facilitate the impact of the ACEA agreement the Danish Government has chosen to favor fuel-efficient cars through a differentiated vehicle tax. 

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

Participation is ensured through the normal democratic processes of the Danish representative democracy. In addition, a wide range of interests is heard in connection with all legislative initiatives. The EU directive on environmental impact assessment has introduced a more formal procedure for public participation in decision making concerning a number of transport projects.

The private sector has no direct influence on the decision making, planning, and management of transport related issues. Private bus operators provide the public passenger services under contract with the regional and local authorities. The majority of these contracts are entered after a tender (there are some exceptions in a few counties). Solely the local and regional authorities decide fares and frequency of bus operations.

However, there are some exceptions regarding long distance bus routes. Private operators can, on the basis of a concession, operate in this area. In this case, the private operators decide fares, service level, etc. 

The Danish Ministry of Transport has made it possible for local authorities to conduct experiments with local initiatives for a cleaner urban environment, e.g. environmental zones. Local Agenda 21 activities pertaining to green transport are organized locally in the municipalities.

In collaboration between the Ministry of Transport and the Ministry of Environment and Energy an effort has been made to focus the local activities during the “Green Transport Week”. The “Green Transport Week” took place from September 18 to September 24, 2000, and is expected to return annually. It was Denmark’s contribution to the European “In town, without my car!” campaign, which took place on September 22, 2000.

As a key-rule, national authorities make decisions on national transport and the regional and local authorities make decisions on the regional and local transport. The regional and local authorities can set their transport policies, within the parameters of national legislation. The legislation is on a very general level. For example, regional and local authorities are free to decide the fares in busses and trains, the transport policy in general, including the service level, how to divide the cost between the municipalities and the county, etc.

In 1998, app. two thirds of the former state roads were transferred to the counties. This has led to a renewed interest in the improvement of the regional infrastructure, especially through the building of new roads.

Municipalities can get exemptions from national transport regulations and standards to experiment with new transport regulations and new transport modes on a project basis. Larger cities in particular have taken this opportunity to try out e.g. road pricing, particle filters, and green city zones in practice.

The Danish national Railway Company (DSB) operates the trains, but the regional authorities have the power to set the regional fares to be used on regional trains within the county. Most of the counties use this power. DSB is reimbursed for the cost by the regional authorities. For travels in more than one county, DSB decide the fares. Furthermore, DSB decides the service level and the timetables on the basis of a contract with some minimum requirements with the national authority – the Ministry of Transport. In practice there is a close co-operation between the national and regional authorities.

Programmes and Projects 

The construction of the Great Belt and the Oeresund links, which were finished in 1997 and 2000 respectively, and the infrastructure improvements in connection with these major transport investments have meant improved mobility for a large number of Danes. Traveling time between the densely populated island Zealand and the rest of the country has been halved for many trips. Similarly, Danish industry now has improved access to its main markets to the South and to the North. What is more, the links have meant a net reduction in emissions of CO2 and other pollutants from the transport sector, largely due to a decline in domestic aviation and ferry transport. A new Fehmarn link connecting Zealand to Northern Germany is currently under consideration.

In general, the Danish transport infrastructure satisfies commercial, private and public needs for mobility. Consequently, the infrastructure is improved incrementally as new needs arise.

Heavy traffic hours are primarily a problem in and around the capital of Copenhagen. To improve accessibility and prevent serious economic loss and environmental degradation due to congestion in the future, the ring roads around Copenhagen are being improved. In addition, public transport is upgraded through the construction of the Copenhagen Metro and various upgrading of the bus and commuter train system. 

In 1996, the Government initiated an action plan for traffic safety called “Every Accident is One Too Many”. The target was to reduce the annual number of fatalities by 75 persons and the number of injured by 960 persons each year up till 2000. This target has largely been met thanks to a number of factors including improved road design, traffic calming measures, and safer cars. 

Denmark has a uniquely well-developed cycle infrastructure, but there is a need for constant improvements if cycling is to remain an attractive alternative to motorized transport. Since 1997, the State has funded a large number of municipal projects related to the improvement of cycling facilities. In turn, many municipalities have increased their investments in cycling infrastructure.

Status 

Compared to most other countries, Denmark has relatively few problems with inaccessible transport infrastructure, neither in rural nor in urban areas. Hence few working hours are lost due to transport inefficiency. Public transport is well developed giving all sections of society a real choice between traffic modes. The market share for public transport is relatively high compared to other European countries. What is more, cycling is promoted with cycle lanes covering the entire country and a well-established tradition for using the bicycle.

Total fuel consumption in the transport sector as of 1999: 203,500 TJ

Of this:          Petrol              75,244 TJ

            Diesel oil         89,543 TJ

            Aircraft fuel     35,702 TJ

                     Other fuels      3,100 TJ

Leaded gasoline has not been marketed in Denmark since 1994, largely due to taxes on leaded gasoline that advanced the Danish phase out in relation to the January 1, 2000 deadline set by the European Council of environmental ministers for the prohibition of leaded gasoline in the EU.

Since 1988, emissions of NOx have fallen by 34%, CO by 25%, HC by 29%, Particles by 9%, and SO2 by 82%. CO2 emissions have increased by 22%. Emissions from road transport account for more than 90% of total emissions from the transport sector. For passenger cars, emissions have fallen steadily during the period. This trend is mainly due to the introduction in 1990 of catalytic converters for passenger cars. Vans running on gasoline have experien­ced the same trend since 1994 when catalytic converters became mandatory for these vehicles too. For diesel cars and vans, the reduction in emissions has been more modest. In terms of human health, emissions from diesel vehicles create greater problems than gasoline vehicles. Consequently, stricter emission norms have been adopted by the EU and will be phased in before 2006. Denmark is considering a faster phase in through filter technology.

Challenges

Emissions from road transport account for more than 90% of total emissions from the transport sector. Consequently, the Government concentrates most of its efforts on improving transport efficiency and reducing damages to the ecosystem in this sector.

Denmark is a member of the EU and bound by the Treaty of the European Union. Consequently, the in­struments available in a given situation will often be limited, in this area primarily by the rules govern­ing the common market. 

Regarding environmental impact from international aviation and shipping, progress is to a large extent determined by the ability to reach agreement in the ICAO and the IMO.

Finally, Denmark must, as all countries, balance the need for an efficient transport system with consider­ations of equity for all regions and social strata of the population.

There is an increasing demand for mobility in Danish society. This creates a steady increase in transport demand and a more individualized and flexible transport pattern. To increase transport efficiency amidst those tendencies an integrated approach to transport planning is required.

Furthermore, work to reduce emissions from the transport sector in Denmark does to some extent rely on the development of new motor and fuel technologies abroad.

The Danish welfare society with its social equity and high level of employment depends on an efficient transport system. In a complex welfare society like the Danish all sectors of society and parts of the population are highly interdependent. Therefore, it is hard to point to a specific sector or strata, which would be the most vulnerable.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

In connection with the Government’s 2000 CO2 action plan, great care has been taken to involve the public in a preliminary debate about the means and aims of the Government’s policy. A report outlining the basic problems involved in CO2 reduction in the transport sector and possible scenarios for the future was laid out for debate in 1998. In 2000, a report on the Government’s priorities in the area was published and later in 2000 that report will be followed by an action plan for CO2 reduction in the transport sector. Thus the public has had a large number of entry points where dialogue could and has taken place.

In the preparations for and execution of the “Green Transport Week” local and national NGOs were involved. Generally, green organisations like the Danish Society for the Conservation of Nature, Greenpeace and NOAH, many of them focusing on transport and the environment, receive a significant part of their funding from the state.

The Ministry of Transport funds projects to establish car sharing and car-pooling. Furthermore, the Ministry funds a number of projects aiming to improve intermodality, like "park and ride" and "kiss and drive", which will also improve transport efficiency. Non-motorized transport has received considerable attention in the 1990s. Currently, a large-scale project to find ways to increase cycling is going on in the city of Odense.

Public transport is encouraged through investment in high-class public transport like the new Metro for Copenhagen, new trains and train connections for the railways and fast and reliable bus services. In addition, Parliament voted in 1997 to give DKK 300 million for reductions in fares for public transport.

Denmark primarily uses campaigns to educate the public. Information and awareness campaigns are usually conducted through the mass media. One example is the education of small children and their parents through activities organized in a special “Traffic club for children”. Danish primary and secondary education curricula include material on traffic safety. In addition, the curricula include a general subject called Nature and Technology, which covers the relation between transport and the environment.

Information

In 1997, Denmark introduced a consumer information diagram with information about new cars’ fuel consumption. Display of the diagram is compulsory for all passenger car outlets. In addition, consumers can get information about green transport habits in a booklet published by the Transport and Traffic Safety Agency and on the web-address www.hvorlangtpaaliteren.dk.

Danish Statistics is the primary gatherer of data on transport and traffic systems in Denmark. Among other activities it conducts the annual Transport Habit Survey based on app. 16.000 interviews. The Ministry of Transport has a close formalised co-operation with Danish Statistics and conducts a continuous dialogue with researchers and organisations on the improvement of data quality.

Furthermore, the Ministry of Transport co-operates with its agencies and institutions like the Danish National Railway Company (DSB) on collecting relevant data. When new methods for calculating or collecting specific data are needed, the Ministry of Transport often commissions consultancies to develop these methods, as has been the case with the transport-planning tool TEMA 2000.

Information regarding traffic conditions and particular levels of pollutants like ozone and smog are collected through e.g. the TRIM programme and communicated to the public through Traffic Radio by the Danish Broadcasting Corporation, through private radio stations, and through newspapers. 

Minute to minute data and longer data series on congestion, delays, and traffic pressure in general can be found on the websites of the Road Directorate and the Rail Directorate. Environmentally related data can be found, often in year on year data series on the websites of the Transport and Traffic Safety Agency, the Danish Environmental Research Institute, and the Energy Agency.

Electronic road signs are relatively new in Denmark as congestion has not been a major problem on the roads. They can now be found in the major Danish cities where they inform about available parking spaces. On an experimental base consciousness-raising signs that inform the driver of his current speed as he enters traffic-sensitive areas, have been tried too.

Research and Technologies  

The Danish universities contribute significantly to the national research for better transport systems. At the University of Aalborg and the Danish Technical University in Lyngby faculties are devoted to transport research covering subjects from road pricing to estimations of traffic demand. 

The Transport Council is a private foundation set up by the Danish Parliament in 1992. The task of the Transport Council is to strengthen the basis for public decision making in the area of transport. This task is carried out through two main activities: Providing consultancy for the Danish Parliament and Government through drawing up reports on strategic and broad transport policy issues, and basic accumulation of know-how through financial support for and initiatives in Danish transport research. It is also part of the Council’s work to disseminate knowledge and promote international research co-oper­ation. The institution consists of a council of seven members (the board of directors), a board of representatives and a secretariat employing seven regular staff and occasionally a small number of project staff. The Transport Council presently has an annual appropriation on the Government Budget of DKK 21 million for which it supports app. 40 research projects and programmes, and also carries out about eight to ten large expositions of transport policy issues.

In 2000, a new institution called the Danish Transport Research Institute was set up by the Ministry of Transport to focus the efforts in transport research. The task of the DTRI is to strengthen transport research in Denmark so as to create a better foundation for sound policy decisions. The endeavor is to achieve this partly through improved coordination of existing research and partly through expansion of the research efforts and closer links to research and teaching at the universities. DTRI is situated near the Danish Technical University and will have 35-40 research staff.

A number of other state institutions like the National Environmental Research Institute of Denmark are involved in work covering specific aspects of the transport sector.

The Danish State provides considerable incentives to consumers who consider buying an electrical car. Such cars are exempt from the usual registration and ownership tax. The exemption runs till the end of 2000 when it will be reconsidered.

Denmark uses the following technologies in pursuit of more efficient traffic management:

- The police use automatic speed control to enforce speed limits

- A number of municipalities use dynamic signaling, which ensures a smoother traffic flow and hence fewer emissions of pollutants.

- Copenhagen municipality conducts a project on the viability of road pricing. The project is co-funded by the EU’s PROGRESS research programme.

- Integrated route planning instruments are available on the internet for public as well as private transport.

Financing

In 1998 investments in transport infrastructure were at app. DKK 13 billion, which amounted to app. 1% of GDP and 2% of the national budget. In 1996, app. 60% of public investment in the building of transport infrastructure was contracted out. In questions of public transport and transport infrastructure the Danish Government is seeking a higher percentage of private investment and contracting. The EU supported the Great Belt and the Oeresund Link financially.

 Supply of fuel is not subsidised by the Danish State.

 Research and development of alternative fuels and transport efficiency is partly financed by the Danish State through the Danish Environmental Agency’s programme for cleaner technology and the Ministry of Transport’s Traffic Fund. Transport research in general received DKK 80 million in 1997, of which 10% were EU funds and 5% came from private financing.

Enforcement of regulations and standards is publicly funded and implemented.

Cooperation

Denmark participates in a wide range of bilateral, regional and international forums and agreements concerning the transportation sector:

- Regarding aviation, Denmark participates in the work of ICAO (the International Civil Aviation Organization), the European Union, and Nordic fora, which aim at reducing the environmental impact of civil aviation.

- As to carriage by rail, Denmark participates in the work of OTIF (Intergovernmental Organization for International Carriage by Rail), the European Union and Nordic fora.

- With regard to road transport issues, Denmark enters into bilateral agreements on a regular basis, participates in the work of the European Union and the ECMT (European Conference of Ministers of Transport).

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This information is based on Denmark's submission to the 9th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 2001. Last update: December 2000.

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SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

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