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SOCIAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN CZECH REPUBLIC

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POVERTY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available

Status

No information is available 

Challenges  

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies   

No information  is available

Financing   

No information is available

Cooperation  

No information is available

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This information was provided by the Government of the Czech Republic to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: December 1997.

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DEMOGRAPHICS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available

Status   

The Czech Republic has a population of 10.3 million. Some 13.3% of the population is over 64 years old, and 18.3% is under 15 (1996). The high mortality rate of men and their previously high rate of migration has led to a disproportionate number of women and especially elderly widows. Mean life expectancy in the Czech Republic has been rising continuously since the year 1960 when observation began.

It is the view of the Government that population growth and fertility levels are too low.

Challenges  

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available

Information 

No information is available

Research and Technologies   

No information is available

Financing   

No information is available

Cooperation  

No information is available

  *     *     *    

This information was provided by the Government of the Czech Republic to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: December 1997.

Click here for information on settlements and population change.
Click here for Trends in Europe and North America: ECE statistical data base.

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HEALTH

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

The Ministry of Health, Ministry of Environment, National Institute of Public Health and the Institute of Experimental Medicine, Medical Faculty and Hygienic Services, are responsible for the decision-making and implementation of this issue.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

By Government Decree No. 369/1991, a system to monitor air pollution, drinking water quality, noise pollution, food, toxic substances in human tissue and genotoxicity, was established to measure the impact of different environmental hazards on human health. In 1993, this system was implemented in 30 districts with a budget of CZK 174 million.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

A well functioning system of epidemiological services evolved into the present State in 1952, and cooperating closely with primary health care services, has led to a remarkable reduction in communicable diseases. One of the priority objectives of the State Environmental Policy (1995) is to develop a comprehensive system for the assessment of environmental and health risks associated with human activities.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

The National Health Restoration and Promotion Programme was adopted by the Government in 1991. On the basis of this document, a National Health Programme was adopted outlining the long-term strategic goals and reflecting the objectives of the WHO "Health For All by 2000". To support activities in connection with the above programme encompassing 12 project areas, the Czech Government has been allocating about CZK 35 million annually since 1993.

The Integrated Non-communicable Diseases Intervention Programme (CINDI, WHO) seeks to lower morbidity and mortality by focusing on non communicable and metabolic chronic diseases through behavioural changes and community-based activities aimed at definition of population groups at risk.

The Teplice Research Programme assisted by the EU PHARE programme, is intended to improve the health of the inhabitants of the Teplice region exposed to the extremely damaged environment.

Several Czech towns participate in the WHO Healthy Towns programme - a complex community based-programme with the objective of improving the health of town inhabitants through their involvement in environment and health projects which address their specific problems.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available

Status 

The health care system in the Czech Republic has been reconstructed since 1989. Over 20,500 independent health care centres have replaced the regional National Health Institutes administered and financed by the State. At the same time, a health insurance system was introduced, and private doctors signed contracts with these insurance companies. The Medical Chambers were founded, and pharmacies and spas, followed by other facilities, were privatized. Quality standards for health services were set at a level compatible with that of Western Europe.

Since 1992, the main source of finance for the health care services has been contributions from employees (4.5% of earnings) and employers (9% of earnings). The State pays for people who are not earning, i.e. children, students, the unemployed, women on maternity leave and soldiers.

Challenges  

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies   

No information is available

Financing   

No information is available

Cooperation  

No information is available

   

*     *     *

This information was provided by the Government of the Czech Republic to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: December 1997.

Click here for information on health.
Click here for information on food contamination.
Click here to go to the Health and health-related statistical information from the World Health Organization.
To access the Health for All On-Line Database (WHO): Europe and CIS countries, click here:

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EDUCATION

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

A project financed by the Ministry of the Environment of the CR entitled, Education Programme for Environmentally Sustainable Development (1 million ECU, from September 1995 to December 1996), consisted of three subprojects: (1) services for pedagogical universities; (2) preparation of text books for technical and other universities; and (3) raising public awareness. In this context, about sixty textbooks were edited and published on related issues.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available

Status

No information is available

Challenges  

The lack of finance places limitations on teaching equipment and on teachers' salaries.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

The objective of environmental education and public awareness-raising in the Czech Republic is to change attitudes and behavioural patterns as a means to establish the necessary preconditions to gradually remove normative and economic instruments. So far, no comprehensive system of environmental education or education of sustainable development has been established, and there is no legislative or institutional support to establish such a system. Education in schools is lagging due to insufficient teacher training and inadequate teaching material, including books.

There is no national curriculum. Environmental education is included in the curricula of elementary teaching, science and local/national history and geography. In middle school and the first years of secondary school, it is a part of the biology instruction, geography and civics, as well as an optional subject, environmental practicals, and other subjects such as chemistry and the humanities. Headmasters have a choice between the traditional and an alternative (more focused on environmental links) syllabus of science. Environmental education and instruction in grammar school is a part of the classes in biology, geography and other natural sciences and the humanities. Some secondary schools of environmental orientation and programs of college studies on the environment and its protection, ecology, landscape and nature conservation, etc., have emerged in the last few years.

Studies on the environment and ecology are a part of virtually all the college programs today and most universities and colleges, and a large number of faculties have established special departments on environment-related studies. There are offers to include training of new teachers in such studies.  In the Czech Republic, society as a whole recognizes the importance of public awareness-raising and education in the promotion of sustainable development. There is an extensive nationwide network of centres for environmental training run by various organizations.

Since 1989, public awareness on environmental issues has greatly increased. In 1990, some 83% of people regarded environmental improvement as the primary task of the Government. Since then, public concern has gradually decreased because of the economic decline and a setback in real living standards for most social groups. Nevertheless, there are, for example, several hundred environmental NGOs, which is an indication of the interest the people have in environmental issues. The media frequently reports on the quality of specific environmental issues. For example, TV weather forecasts regularly inform about air quality, particularly in the polluted regions.

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies   

No information is available

Financing   

Some CZK 55 billion (about 11% of the total budget) was allocated from the State Budget for education in 1996.

Cooperation  

No information is available

 

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This information was provided by the Government of the Czech Republic to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: December 1997.

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HUMAN SETTLEMENTS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

The Ministry for Regional Development is responsible for decision-making in this area. Such Major Groups as the Protection of Tenants Association and Householders Association also participate to decisions affecting human settlements.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available

Status   

Before 1989, the dominant principle of socialist planning was the need to level out regional differences in industrialization, urbanization and living standards. In the attempt to achieve a degree of equality among different areas and, at the same time, an overall increase in the level of industrialization, particular support was given to the development of heavy industry. This increased the pressure on the environment, especially in the mining and heavily industrialized areas. Major investments in energy production led to a general backwardness in the service sector, and to a lack of development of technical infrastructure. These developments resulted in a shift of growth to smaller and peripheral centres. Coal basin areas were favoured over the metropolitan areas.

Since 1989, because of the political and economic changes, there has been a slow rise in regional differences in economic efficiency and economic attractiveness.

With regard to housing policies in the Czech Republic, there is no balance between the regional allocation of housing and the needs of the workforce because the regulatory interventions of the socialist State were particularly prominent in this area. For example, only since 1995 has it been possible to adjust rents according to the size and location of the municipality. This has resulted in a very limited and uneven housing market and in a flourishing black market. The lack of a clearly conceived State and municipal housing policy together with the lack of support for construction activities has led to a significant decline in the construction of apartments.

Challenges  

According to a survey conducted in 1994, some 41% of the population considered the growing expenditures on housing their greatest problem.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies   

No information is available

Financing   

The State provides subsistence for construction activities for individual housing and municipal housing.

Cooperation  

No information is available

 

*     *     *

This information was provided by the Government of the Czech Republic to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: December 1997.

Click here for information on settlements and population change.
Click here to access UNCHS "Best Practices for Human Settlements" in Eastern Europe, including all transition countries.
For information related to human settlements and refugees, you may access the UNHCR Country Index by clicking here:


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