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NATURAL RESOURCE ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN CROATIA

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Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

The Department of Agriculture within the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry is the competent governmental body. In order to achieve sustainability, however, cooperation takes place among a number of governmental bodies, including, for example, the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Physical Planning, the State Water Directorate, and the Ministry of Economic Affairs.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

In accordance with the Law on Agricultural Land, conversion of a fertile agricultural land for non-agricultural purposes is prohibited, unless carried out in line with physical planning documents and other corresponding regulations. If the land conversion is permitted, it is subject to a one-off compensation for depreciation and fragmentation of agricultural land as a commodity of interest for the Republic of Croatia.

The general objective of agricultural policy is the promotion of a more effective production and marketing of agricultural products, in a way that increases benefits for farmers and users, contributes to Croatian economic growth, safeguards Croatian natural resources, and providing for the competitiveness of the Croatian agriculture in the global market. In achieving this objective, special emphasis is given to family farms, which form the basis of the Croatian agriculture.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The actions for promoting sustainable agricultural and rural development described in Agenda 21 are included in the Strategy of Sustainable Agricultural Development in the Republic of Croatia, prepared by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry with assistance from FAO. The key element in the Strategy is the harmonization of Croatian agricultural policy with the Guidelines of the GATT Uruguay Round, and the formulation of long-term measures. The main objective of the Strategy is "the promotion of efficient production and marketing of agricultural products, in order to improve the welfare of farmers and consumers, to contribute to the growth of the Croatian economy, to protect natural resources and ensure the competitiveness of the Croatian agricultural products on the world market. In achieving this objective, special emphasis should be put on private family farms which are the basis of Croatian agriculture."

The Croatian Strategy of Sustainable Agricultural Development was adopted in 1995. There were no subsequent revisions thereof.  The year 1999 saw the enactment of the Biodiversity Strategy, whereas the preparation of Environmental Strategy and the National Environmental Action Plan, in cooperation with the World Bank, are underway.  Environmental guidelines and measures have been partially incorporated into development programmes, but their integrated consideration will be addressed in the Environmental Strategy and the NEAP, which are currently in preparation.

The Environmental Strategy and the NEAP are in preparation and the aspects of sustainable agricultural development are contained in a number of documents and regulations, such as:

The Biomass Energy Utilization Strategy 1998-2002 established the following measures for creating conditions for increased energy recovery from biomass and waste:

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

In Croatia there is a large number of active NGOs constituted on the interest, professional, scientific or territorial principles, the representatives of which are actively involved in decision-making at all levels. For instance, distinguished scientists members of such associations have given their active contributions to the development of Croatian Strategy of Sustainable Agricultural Development; representatives of agricultural producers account for over fifty percent in the work of Agricultural Research Council; an NGO initiative has given a push-start to drafting a law on ecological agriculture, with active participation of members of associations involved in such production practices.

Programmes and Projects   

In accordance with the combination of limitations and development potentials, the main activities are oriented towards the following areas:

"The Coastal Forests Rehabilitation and Protection" anticipates rehabilitation and protection of forests in the coastal areas of the Republic of Croatia, which have enormous significance in the preservation of environmental balance, especially concerning prevention of soil erosion risks. Coastal and island forests cover the area of 580,000 ha (including underbrush). Project value is US $67 million. The funds are provided in part from the World Bank grant (US $43 million), and the rest from the State Budget.

Apart from the adoption of annual sowing programmes, financially encouraged by the Government, the programme to build 6 new marketplaces (with cold storage units) in different parts of the country is in realization, to facilitate marketing and accessibility of agricultural products.

The Government of the Republic of Croatia has prepared the project "Croatian Energy Sector Development and Organization" (PROHES), in the framework of which ten national energy programmes were designed, one of them being the National Energy Programme BIOEN, which is a programme of energy recovery from biomass and waste. According to the Biomass Energy Utilization Strategy 1998-2002, BIOEN should create conditions for increased use and recovery of energy from biomass, initiate research in this area, develop technologies for collection, transformation and utilization of biomass and waste and enable effective exchange of information and scientific knowledge.

The project with the Croatian Bank of Plant Genes (HBBG) was initiated in 1991 at the Ministry of Science and Technology and the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, the implementation of which was entrusted to the Institute for Plant Cultivation, Genetics and Research Methods at the Faculty of Agronomy of the University of Zagreb. The HBBG target areas are local populations/primitive varieties, primarily cereals and bulk-seed leguminous plants.

Status

Since gaining its independence in 1991 and starting the transition to a market economy, the Republic of Croatia was first exposed to the war aggression, afterwards facing a large number of exiles and refugees and occupation of almost one third of its territory. In such circumstances approximately 400 agribusinesses, former strongholds of planned agriculture production, have undergone the privatization process. 

The position of Croatia is such that influences of several types of climate meet and mingle, and therefore natural vegetation is highly diverse. Similarly, Croatia contains a natural compendium of soil types. All the diversities and wealth of natural conditions of Croatia are reflected in the rationalization of Croatian agriculture. There are three main agricultural regions (with sub regions): the Pannonian, the mountainous and the Mediterranean.

Additional agriculture area brought under irrigation since 1992 is as follows:

Area in Ha: 5,790 ha Percentage of total cultivated land: 0.28%

Agro ecological conditions in Croatia have production potentials for far larger quantities of foodstuffs than the present needs are. Production self-sufficiency is therefore possible for a number of crops.

The level of pollution from agricultural production is moderate. In fact, there are regions in Croatia which have proposed to begin producing ecologically pure agricultural products (e.g. parts of the mountainous region, where the production is traditionally extensive, with minimum use of pesticides and mineral fertilizers). On the other hand, some areas, predominantly in the Pannonian region, still contain higher rates of pesticide and mineral fertilizer use but are now being oriented towards the implementation of sustainable agricultural production.

Utilization and recovery of energy from biomass as a renewable energy source are the goals of the BIOEN programme, which can be started through identification and startup of the following demonstration projects:

Consumption of mineral fertilizers in tones

tones

 

Year

 

Total

Business entities and cooperatives

Quantity of fertilizers used Active ingredients

Type

Total Nitrogen Phosphate Potassium

Total

N

P2O5 K2O

1988

579 093

327 250

124 923

2 906

6 171

152 055

63 146

43 059

45 850

1989

550 677

218 065

123 138

2 515

3 361

149 971

61 364

42 967

45 640

1990

517 955

291 261

114 415

2 126

3 612

137 703

57 948

37 547

42 208

1991

345 803

189 501

81 711

1 809

2 969

84 217

38 969

21 795

23 453

1992

342 759

195 158

76 024

269

950

91 677

38 486

24 651

28 540

1993

351 332

171 715

72 143

383

1 371

79 912

36 155

20 577

23 180

1994

358 207

172 379

71 597

669

2 051

78 704

34 855

20 311

23 538

1995

316 937

134 382

58 896

58

1 482

61 838

26 709

15 959

19 170

1996

347 557

119 206

50 787

38

1 579

54 814

23 821

14 161

16 832

1997

379 124

138 516

59 602

2

1 387

62 460

27 756

16 128

18 576

Source: Statistical Yearbook 1998

 

 

The official statistical data on consumption and distribution of pesticides and seed are not expressed in the requested manner.

Challenges  

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

In all of the Croatian counties, the Farmers Extension Services, the Veterinary Services and the Livestock Breeding Services were established to advise and help farmers. In this regard, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry has started a Farmer Support Services Project to facilitate the transition of the agriculture sector by providing technology-related support services that are relevant to private farmers. The aim is to improve the income of the private farming community and increase its productivity and hence the competitiveness of the sector. The project has six components: (1) Extension, (2) research, (3) Animal Health, (4) Pasture and Fodder Development, (5) Seed Industry Development, and (6) Policy Analysis Support.

Production-support services for the rural population in Croatia can be conditionally divided into direct and indirect measures.

Direct measures are, for example:

  1. "Law on Financial Incentives and Charges in Agriculture and Fisheries" which encourage profitable production for the Republic of Croatia, as well as refunds of certain portions of funding for sold and delivered crop seed with declarations.
  2. "Decision on Opening a Special Account for Agricultural Development and Reconstruction Loans", which prescribes that proceeds of the Special Account are to be used primarily for development programmes and reconstruction programmes, excluding current needs.

"The Farmer Support Services Project" is an indirect support measure oriented towards rural agricultural population, including, inter alia:

- modernization of agricultural practice and management of farms through the development of agricultural support services;

- support to implementation of applied and development research

- strengthening veterinary services institutions, etc.

The majority of activities is carried out through the Fareers’ Extension Services which either independently or in cooperation with other governmental authorities and NGOs organize lectures, printing publications, etc. The media involvement is all the more present, especially the TV and newspapers, and NGO programmes receive a certain amount of earmarked funding.

Information   

The National Report containing national policy guidelines was finalized in February 1997, and in January 1998 the policy review was undertaken, in line with the action plan for Croatia. The following areas were covered:

  1. Financing agriculture (Agricultural loans, Loans for development programmes via the Special Account, Cattle-breeding loans, Loans for spring and autumn sowing and early crop harvests, Loans for machinery renewal, Government’s support to agriculture);
  2. Agricultural privatization;
  3. Agricultural support services (Implementation of the project "Development of Farmers’ Support Services" and Implementation of other projects with FAO and international financing institutions);
  4. Prevention of natural disasters, diseases and pests in crop and animal production.

National information on sustainable agriculture is provided at the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry website: www.mps.hr

Research and Technologies   

Several large fruit-growing plantations have introduced Integrated Pest Management (IPM) successfully, the number of sprayings is halved (from 14-26 to 6-13 treatments), environmentally sounder alternatives are used. Some IPM elements have also been partially introduced in farming practices. Anti-pest treatment into rows instead of spreading; pest management according to tolerance thresholds; optimal periods treatment; use of the split method for herbicides, etc.

The present status of integrated plant nutrition in Croatia is not satisfactory, as concerns its application on different crops; moreover, application of IPM is very weak. It could be said that it is used only in few orchards and greenhouses.

Financing 

In 1996, a Special Account for Agricultural Reconstruction and Development Loans was opened at the Ministry of Agriculture and Development.

The Government of the Republic of Croatia during 1997 secured US $14.68 million from the State Budget for the Special Account for Agricultural Reconstruction and Development Loans, which provided resources for agricultural development programmes for different social groups of agricultural producers.

In 1996 Croatia entered into the Loan Contract for the Farmer Support Services Project (FSSP) with the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. The total Project value was US $30 million, out of which the loan accounts for US $17 million, whereas the remaining US $13 million would be earmarked from the State Budget in the period until the end of June 2001.

A new financing and agricultural development system is being considered by the Parliament. The Fund will be based on taxes (sold agricultural products), land leases and credits (banks and international funds).

Cooperation

The Republic of Croatia has just finalized the negotiations for entering WTO, which is expected to come into force beginning 2000, and in line with the results of negotiations, the procedures are being initiated for reviewing customs regulations and other legislation in Croatia.

Regional co-operation is undertaken through the Alps-Adriatic and Danube Regional Community Programme. International cooperation takes place with FAO (restoring of olive-groves in the Adriatic Region), the World Bank (Emergency Reconstruction Loan and implementation of the Farmer Support Services Project), the EBRD (implementation of the Wholesale Market Programme in Croatia), and several bilateral projects with neighboring countries.

International conventions have been signed, new legislation enacted, procedure for entering GATT/WTO started, and in 1995, in cooperation with FAO experts the Croatian Strategy of Sustainable Agricultural Development was prepared.

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Croatia to the 5th and 8th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: March 2000.

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ATMOSPHERE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

At present, the following government ministries / agencies have air quality management tasks and responsibilities:

Ministry of Environmental Protection and Physical Planning (MEPPP) and its Atmosphere Protection Department (6 staff): development of air protection strategy, policy and legal instruments; administrative supervision of the application of legislation, responsibility for international treaties and their integration into the national legal system; responsibility for monitoring and reporting at the national level;

Units of local self-government (County assemblies and the Assembly of the City of Zagreb, town and municipal councils): local level implementation of air quality protection legislation, in particular translation of the national environmental strategy into physical plan of the county; developing air quality protection and improvement programmes and obliging air pollution sources to set up restoration programmes in the category III air quality areas; establishing regional air pollution monitoring networks; local level reporting and data submission to the MEPPP; proposing stricter air quality standards and limit emission values than the national standards;

County Offices and the Office of the City of Zagreb – governmental authorities in charge of environmental protection (21 offices, approximately 40 staff dealing also with industrial and municipal management): maintaining environmental emissions cadastre, including data on air emissions; cooperation in the process of issuing permits; forwarding data to MEPPP;

Municipal offices for environmental protection: maintaining databases of and reporting on collective sources’ emissions to the County Offices.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The basic legislative framework for the implementation of the policy of air quality protection and improvement in Croatia is the Law on Air Quality Protection, in force since 1995. The Law regulates the establishment of national and local air quality monitoring networks, the mode of area classification with regard to air quality, the need for developing programmes for endangered areas, as well as the stationary sources of air pollution. It also introduces the obligation to keep records of the sources of emissions and monitor stationary source emissions, and to supply the units of local self-government with the relevant data. Also of importance in this context is the By-law on Recommended and Limit Values of Ambient Air Quality (1996).

Environmental protection inspectorate: Inspection of compliance by environmental polluters with air protection legislation; supervising implementation of air protection measures as specified in the Environmental Impact assessment and the sitting permits; supervising implementation of restoration programmes and programmes for air quality protection and improvement and the efficiency of air pollution reduction.

The State administration cooperates on the national as well as on the local levels with different expert institutions, for example with the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, the Meteorological and Hydrological Service and the Ruder Boskovic Institute, which are all involved in air quality monitoring. Other institutions such as universities, research institutes and consulting companies are consulted, depending on the subject.

Table -1: Institutional framework of air pollution legislation

Institution name Institution Type Department Legal acts Responsibility
1. Ministry of Environmental Protection and Physical Planning (MEPPP) National, Governmental body Environmental Protection Division and its

Atmosphere Protection Department

Division on Law and Administration

Inspection Division

Laws

By-laws

Rule books

Initialization, preparation and development of legal acts and implementing regulations;

Policy formulation;

Preparation and development of air protection strategy:

Participation in international cooperation;

Performing administrative supervision and other administrative and expert duties in air quality protection;

The competent ministry (MEPPP) prepares a draft regulation, which is, at first, informally coordinated with the relevant state and county institutions, ministries, county authorities, NGOs, private enterprises (if their interests are affected), academy and Croatian Chamber of Economy. MEPPP receives feedback from the authorities concerned, decides whether it can accept their comments and proposals are not and defines its own position. Since a decision of the Government in early 1999, a proposal for new legislation must also state whether the relevant EU legislation has been taken into account. The whole documentation is then officially sent to the Government, which passes it to a governmental committee where all competent authorities are represented, and a formal draft is prepared. The draft law is sent to the Croatian State Parliament, first to the House of Counties and subsequently to the House of representatives.

The local level – there are 415 municipalities, 106 towns and 21 counties, including Zagreb city – has an important function in implementing the atmosphere protection laws and regulations. The law on Local Self-Government regulates its relationship with the national authorities.  Counties and municipalities are on one side bound by national laws, but they can introduce stricter standards or a more stringent air quality monitoring system. If this is envisaged, the MEPPP is informed of the plans, which it has to approve before they may be carried out.

At present, the following regulations directly or indirectly govern air protection:

The regulations that indirectly govern air quality, based on the Laws on Standardization, on Road Safety, on Inflammable Liquids and on Measurements, are:

Legislation on the transport sector complies with the respective EU directives. It is expected that, in 2010, 75 per cent of the vehicles will fulfill the EC91 norm.  In the field of air protection the only economic instruments applied are fines prescribed by the existing legal provisions.

Until the Law on Air Quality Protection was passed in 1995, there were no grounds for implementation of a systematic air quality monitoring, nor air pollution prevention measures, due to inexistence of relevant legal regulations. The Law on Environmental Protection and the Law on Air Quality Protection, together with numerous by-laws regulating issues of discharging pollutants into the air from stationary, diffuse and mobile sources, permitted limit air quality values and quality standards for liquid oil fuels and other products, have offered possibilities for the realization of the stated goals.

The Law on Air Quality Protection prescribes a systematic air quality monitoring, as well as the obligation of implementation of prevention measures against pollution of the air, as an environmental element considered a general resource under special protection of the State. The Law also prescribes that pollution sources should be constructed and/or manufactured, equipped, used and maintained in the manner that prevents them from emitting pollutants into the air in the quantities above limit emission values. Legal or natural persons - owners and/or users of pollution sources should register pollution sources, as well as any modification thereof, to the County Office or the Office of the City of Zagreb in charge of maintaining pollution registers, with the corresponding data on situation, capacity, type and emission quantities. Emission sources should also submit data on pollutant emission into the air annually into the emission cadastre (maintained by the County Offices and the Office of the City of Zagreb).

The main purpose of passing regulations in the field of air quality protection is protection and improvement of air quality at the local level, which creates conditions for a healthy life and development of activities directly related to a clean environment. Limitation of local level emission values also contributes to a decrease of the Croatian share in regional and global atmospheric pollution, enabling effective implementation of the provisions of international treaties.

The By-law on Limit Values of Pollutant Emission from Stationary Sources into the Air is based on the principle of applying the best available technologies not entailing excessive costs (BATNEEC). It proposes technologies that have been accepted by the EU countries and limit values derived from common EU standards, international agreements or European Union legislation were consulted.

The By-law entered into force on 1 January 1998 and prescribes general ELVs for total particulate matter, inorganic and organic compounds and carcinogenic substances. Each substance is put in a risk category (I-IV) depending on its toxicity, persistence and accumulation potential and the technological possibilities for emission reduction. For some selected technological processes, e.g. production of non-ferrous mineral raw materials, production and processing of metals, chemical industry, food-processing industry, heating installations, gas turbines, internal combustion engines, waste incinerators, ELVs are prescribed for certain process-specific pollutants. Combustion installations have different ELVs according to their size and fuel used. Since 1 January 1998, all new or reconstructed stationary sources have to comply with the By-law.  Existing sources have to comply with the prescribed ELVs by the year 2004. In the transition period, existing stationary sources may exceed the prescribed limit values by a factor of three.

According to this Ordinance and the Law on Air Quality Protection owners and/or users of air pollution sources are obliged to:

By-Law on Quality Standards for Liquid Oil Fuels prescribes quality standards for the following liquid oil fuels: unleaded motor petrol, leaded motor petrol, heating and lighting paraffin, diesel fuels and fuel oil, for the purposes of environmental - air quality improvement in the entire State territory.  By provisions of the By-Law content of lead, sulphur, benzene, total aromatics, polychlorinated biphenyls and other quality requirements: oxidation stability, research octane number, motor octane number, cold filter plugging point, pour point, distillation, cetane index, marker, density at 150 C, water content and color are prescribed. For domestic products, due to the lack of suitable oil processing technologies, a sufficient five-year deadline (2002) has been set in order to achieve the standards prescribed by this By-Law.

In Croatia, there are no regulation so far related to the prohibition of use and sale of leaded motor petrol. Republic of Croatia has not yet phased out the use of leaded petrol for on-road vehicles. It is expected to phase out by the year 2005.  All petrol stations in Croatia now have at least one so-called "green pump" for unleaded petrol. At petrol stations the following unleaded petrol is available: EUROSUPER 95 and EUROSUPER 98. Few stations are equipped with reversible vapor capturing system.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Systematic approach to air protection in the Republic of Croatia started with legislation of the Law on Environmental Protection, Law on Air Quality Protection, and by-law regulations based on those laws, and continues with working out of Air Protection Strategy as a part of Environmental Protection Strategy. The Air Protection Strategy is currently being drafted, as a part of the Environmental Protection Strategy. It is planned that this document be submitted to the Croatian Parliament until the end of 2000.

The task of the Strategy is to coordinate needs of economic development with air protection needs, taking into consideration all aspects of pollution. For each problem, starting from local, regional and global level, main causes are given and priorities and fundamental measures for efficacious action are suggested. The basic propositions of Air Protection Strategy are projections of polluting substances’ emissions to the air up to 2010, strategic directions of actions and priorities on State and County level, as well as a program of short-term and long-term measures for air pollution control.

Greenhouse gas emissions

According to the Kyoto Protocol, in order to prevent the future creation of greenhouse effects, it is required that the greenhouse effect emissions be reduced until 2012 by 5% in comparison with the level of emissions from the referential data from 1990.

On the basis of the drafted energy scenarios we are presenting sectoral measures that should contribute to the accomplishment of the above-mentioned objective.

Energy sector:

The Strategy of Energy Development of Croatia, in its larger part, takes into consideration the requirements of environmental protection, while the long-term orientation of this sectors are founded on the following objectives:

EN1 - Increase of energy efficiency in all the areas of energy consumption through:

Increase of energy efficiency:

The increase of energy efficiency is one the fundamental requirements of sustainable development within the Croatian energy strategy that implies:

As the realization of these objectives requires considerable technical improvements in the energy system, the Strategy specifically takes them into consideration as follows:

Systematic policy of renewable energy production:

This policy in Croatia is based on the national energy programmes, which have been introduced in 1997. They also include sub-programmes for the environment sector:

Industry:

M1

More expensive use of renewable resources and cogeneration

M2

In cogeneration plants the share of biomass should be increased, while the hybrid systems should be applied to solar energy and liquid gas

M3

In the heat production, coal and oil derivatives consumption should be reduced to 3%, that is, 24%at the end of the period, while the share of natural gas from the present 54% should be increased to 83%

M4

Industrial boiler-houses should reduced the consumption of liquid fuel and after the year 2015 coal consumption should be stopped

Commercial and institutional sectors:

M1

Heating insulation in the service sector should be improved, while the long-term heating consumption should be reduced by 10% in comparison with other energy scenarios.

M2

Increase the share of renewable energy resources and cogeneration

M3

In cogeneration reduce the share of liquid fuels and coal

Households:

M1

Increase the heating insulation of the existing flats by 30%

M2

An extensively increase the share of solar energy and biomass, that is, reduction of consumption of fossil fuels, while the consumption of natural gas should be reduced by the year 2030

Small co-generations:

M1

Develop small cogeneration in the households and service sector as much as possible

Transport:

M1

Change the structure of goods transport, increase the volume of public transport and railway transport

M2

Consumption of bodies and alternative fuels, especially in the public transport

M3

In the period after the year of 2010, more expensive consumption of bio-fuels and hydrogen-cells.

 Agriculture and building:

M1

In the period after the year of 2010, it is expected that the agriculture and construction machines to be developed will use as bio-fuel and hydrogen-cells.

M2

Renewable resources (solar energy, bio-mass and geothermal energy) will be used for heating purposes in agriculture

 Terrestrial and marine resource development for greenhouse gas sinks:

Agriculture

Agriculture may play an important role in binding carbon from the air, as the bottom of the CO2 emission. By binding carbon into the plant mass and soil the concentration of CO2 in the air decreases. This may be achieved by changing the structure of plant production and methods of land cultivation. These possibilities are to be further analyzed.

Forestry

Monitoring the state of forest degradation in Croatia shows a constant downward trend, with the greatest damage observed on fir-trees. The recent data at the level of Europe show improvements in some regions, but also the increase of damages in oak-woods which are of inestimable value to Croatia. There are numerous causes of degradation that have common effects among which the most important are acidification, eutrophication, ground-level ozone, climatic factors and a number of biotic factors connected with anthropogenic activities.

Protection of forests has a positive effect on other ecosystems, it helps preserve the ground waters, protect soil from erosion and maintain microclimatic conditions. An important function of forests is absorption of the greenhouse gas CO2 whereby its concentration in the air is reduced, and so are the undesired global climate changes.  Forest management in Croatia is based on the principle of sustainability, which means that exploitation of forests is smaller than the growth of wood mass. The traditional way of exploitation is the so-called “thinning out” rather than cutting down (clearing) of forests, thus maintaining the balance of various forest communities and biodiversity of other forest components.  With the aim to increase the carbon content in the total wood mass it will be necessary to provide balance among the following measures to:

The measures stated are to be brought into balance with a number of other activities, particularly agriculture and issues relating to natural and sociological factors. Within the context of elaborating the National Report on Climate Change (to be finalized by the end of November 2000) priority measures will be defined, taking into account costs and benefits of measures in other sectors.

Substances that deplete the ozone layer:

Measures for the Protection of Ozone Layer

Viewing the sector of ODS consumption, measures to be taken for the purpose of achieving the objectives are:

1.    Sector of cooling and air-conditioning equipment:

2.    Sector of aerosols: introduction of the use of substitutes in aerosol production; and development of freon substitutes in       production of medicine aerosols.

3.     Sector of hard and elastic polyurethane foam production: preventing the wide use of CFCs in foam production.

4.    Sector of solvents: preventing the wide use of ODSs in the sector of solvents; and cooperation with international institutions in finding alternatives for laboratory applications.

5.    Sector of fire protection formulation of the strategy for halon collection and management.

6.    Sector of methyl bromide use: continuation of implementation and supervision of project execution.

Emission projection

Measures to achieve the objective of reducing the ODSs emissions relate to phasing out the ODSs consumption and to substitution with substances not harmful for the environment. The time schedule for the reduction of ODSs consumption is given in table 1.

Table 1.:     Time schedule for phasing out the consumption of ozone depleting substances

 

PERMITTED ANNUAL CONSUMPTION

SUBSTANCE

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Annex A, group I,

CFC (t/year)

219

185

142

142

98

98

65

0

Annex A, group II,

halons (t/year)

4

4

3

3

3

1.6

1.6

0

Annex B, group I,

other CFCs (t/year)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Annex B, group II,

carbon tetrachloride (%)

no limits

100

80

50

20

20

0

Annex B, group III,

methyl chloroform (%)

no limits

100

80

50

20

20

0

Annex C, group I,

HCFC-I

Permitted consumption will be determined by 30 January 2016. Consumption is banned after 1 January 2030.

Annex C, group II,

HBFC-l (t/year)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Annex E, group I,

methyl bromide (t/year)

no limits

27

21.6

16.2

10.8

5.4

0

Transboundary air pollution

The fundamental objective is to attain sustainable economic development without over-stepping the critical levels and critical amount of pressures on the forests and water eco-systems of Croatia. This can be achieved through the implementation of the following objectives:

I.    Pressures should be reduced to the level bellow the thresholds of the critical pressures

M1 Co-ordinate the air protection strategy with the energy, industry, transport and agriculture strategies

M2 Ratify the Protocol on Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone to the Convention on Long-range transboundary Air Pollution

M3 Limit the emissions of NOx, NMVOC, SO2 i NH3 simultaneously, applying the multi-pollutant multi-effect in accordance with the requirements of the Protocol to reduce the: 

In industry and energy:  M4 Use the renewable energy resources; M5 Increase the energy efficiency in the production, transfer and consumption of all forms of energy; M6 Introduce cleaner technologies; M7 Apply BATNEEC technologies.

In transport:  M8 Completely stop consumption of a leaded petrol until the year 2005 in accordance with the requirements of the Protocol on heavy metals; M9 Proscribe the sulphur concentration in the diesel fuel to 0.005 % until the year 2007; M10 Proscribe the petrol concentration in benzines to 1 % after the year 2005; M11 Use alternative fuels with an emphasis on liquid gas (LNG); M12 Proscribe the installation of the equipment for catching the evaporable hydrocarbons in decanting and storing fuel at the petrol stations; M13 Reduced the volume of traffic in cities through the use of public transport and bicycles; M14 Proscribe emission standards for exhaust fumes of private cars and increase vehicle maintenance; M15 Plan and optimize traffic in urban areas; M16 Increase the competitiveness of other forms of transport, particularly the railway traffic.

In Agriculture:  M17 Proscribe and apply codexes of good agricultural practice; M18 Proscribe procedures and techniques of the reduction of NH3 i CH4 emissions for the cattle-raising farms.

II.    Introduce the cost-assessment and carting of the critical pressures for the entire Croatia

M1 Apply the internationally adopted methods of cost-assessment and carting of critical pressures and M2 Participate in the international research on the development of methods for establishing critical pressures.

III.    Attaining good quality data on the status of acidification of soil and eutrophication of waters

M1 Draft regulations for the implementation of acid sedimentation and toxic effects monitoring in accordance with the EU directives and the criteria of the signed protocols of the LRTAP Convention; M2 Complete and up-grade ( NH3) cadastre of air emissions; M3 Up-grade and continuously improve the existing system of regional monitoring of the DHZ concentration in atmosphere; M4 Establish the ground water eutrophication monitoring; M5 Establish intensive forest status monitoring in accordance with the EU regulations.

 Air quality protection goals

Basic goals (long-term) in the field of air quality protection in the period until 2010 are to:

Framework goals by pollutants are:

For the purpose of achieving the long-term goals it is necessary between the years 2002-2005 to:

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement   

For the purpose of preparing and implementing Montreal protocol in Croatia the National Country Programme Team was established in 1995 with the main task to serve as an overall advisory body in the implementation, but could also provide specific support through its members familiar with the technical issues. NCPT includes representatives from the ministries, state institutions, industry, academy, NGOs, and Chamber of Commerce. NCPT has advisory status.

For the purpose of preparing and implementing UNFCCC in Croatia the National Climate Change Committee was established in 1999 which includes representatives from the ministries, state institutions, industry, academy, NGOs, and Chamber of Commerce. NCCC has advisory status.

Programmes and Projects   

During the preparation of the National programme several representatives of governmental institutions and private enterprises have offered their services and cooperation to the Government. For the purpose of preparing and implementing this programme in Croatia the National Country Programme Team has been established in 1995 with the main task to serve as an overall advisory body in the implementation, but could also provide specific support through its members familiar with the technical issues. The Country programme consists of the following elements:

After adopting the National Programme the Croatian Government established National Ozone Unit (NOU).  Measures undertaken by sectors include: (i) Phasing out Methyl Bromide/Fumigants.  In cooperation with tobacco industry accelerated phase-out consumption of methyl bromide in production of tobacco is introduced (it is planned to phase-out methyl bromide by 2005).  (ii)  Phasing out CFC in the Refrigeration Servicing Sector by implementing Refrigerant management Plan it is planned to phase-out CFCs in the refrigeration sector by 2005.  (iii) Phasing out CFC in foam production by implementing the phase-out project, CFC has been replaced in foam sector.  (iv) Phasing out CFC in Aerosol products by implementing the phase-out project, CFC has been replaced in cosmetics aerosol products. However CFC s are still use in medical products (inhalators).  (v) Phasing out CFC solvents by Consumption of 1,1,1-trichlorethane was phase-out in Croatia.  Carbon tetrachloride is used only as feedstock for initiation the cracking in furnaces of a vynil chloride monomer plant.  (vi) Phasing out ODS in fire-fighting products by elaboration of Halons Management Plan is under preparation in cooperation with Hazardous Waste Agency).

Status 

A generally accepted principle of sustainable development demands harmonization of developmental and conservational needs. In terms of air quality protection policy implementation instruments, when defining limit emission values, Croatia starts from the principle of "Application of Best Available Technology Not Entailing Excessive Costs" – (BATNEEC principle). This refers generally to those procedures and solutions that are not too costly, that have been practically verified and are available.

The consequence of war and of simultaneous commencement of economic transformation was the drop in all economic activities and social standard, followed by a significant decrease of pollutant emissions. The most drastic drop of 55.4 per cent was recorded in sulphur dioxide emissions, because beside the reduction of energy consumption the major source of emission, the thermal power plant Plomin, reduced the emission (from 44,000 tons in 1990 to 17,847 tons in 1997). The greatest reduction of heavy metal emissions is recorded in the lead emissions (59,2 per cent) as a direct consequence of gradual introduction of unleaded petrol. The reduction of emissions of other pollutants amounted to 44.1 per cent with CO, 31.8 per cent with NH3, 23.5 per cent with NMVOC, 16.9 per cent with CO2, 16.5 per cent with NOx, 15.4 per cent with N2O and 13.1 per cent with CH4.

The overview of pollutants by activity sectors over the period observed is shown in Table 2.

Table 2. Emission of selected pollutants, 1990 – 1997* (1000 tons/year)

 

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

SOx Total

Stationary sources

Mobile sources

NOx Total

Stationary sources

Mobile sources

NMVOC Total

Stationary sources

Mobile sources

CO Total

Stationary sources

Mobile sources

CH4* Total

NH3 Total

Pb Total (t)

CO2 Total (mil.t)

180

167

13

87

38

49

105

64

41

655

229

426

169

37

466

23

108

98

10

64

25

39

86

55

31

565

205

360

160

31

-

19

107

99

8

56

24

32

63

35

28

417

122

295

145

27

-

17

114

105

9

59

25

34

69

42

27

375

116

259

147

25

-

18

89

78

11

65

25

41

75

44

31

367

123

244

138

24

-

18

70

60

10

64

25

40

74

42

32

346

126

220

134

25

264

17

66

57

9

68

25

43

82

49

33

389

192

197

134

23

268

18

80

72

8

73

26

47

80

45

35

365

193

172

128

24

190

20

* Activates related to human activities (without nature)

On the basis of the annual calculation of air pollutant emissions from the pollution sources in the Republic of Croatia and monitoring of emission state by sectors in the period between 1990 and 1997, it may be concluded as follows:

  • from the geograhical aspect the highest SO2 emissions are discharged in the county Primorsko-goranska, the county Istarska and the county of Zagreb (including the city of Zagreb), NOx emissions in the county Primorsko-goranska, Krapinsko-zagorska and the county of Zagreb, while CO2 is emitted mostly in the north-western part of Croatia.
  • The past years showed the downward trend of the consumption of ozone-depleting substances from 562 tons in 1995 to 168 tons in 1998. Still it should be stressed that the drop of consumption is a consequence of several factors: the consequence of war destructions, transition to market economy and, consequently, the immediate drop of production, trends of phasing out the consumption of ozone-depleting substances on western markets and the strengthened awareness of the forthcoming phasing out of the consumption of ozone-depleting substances.

    Agriculture

    One of the measures introduced in agriculture sector is promotion of alternative farming. There are many examples of established agro ecological processing in different parts of the country and the environmentally friendly technologies in private agriculture (Istria region, etc.). The application of “Integral Plant Nutrition.  Due to the low consumption of Annex A ozone-depleting substances (less than 0.3 kg per capita or rather 0.2 kg per capita for substances under Annex B of the Montreal Protocol) the Republic of Croatia belongs to countries granted a grace period for phasing out the consumption of ozone-depleting substances.  Basic guidelines for phasing out the consumption of ozone-depleting substances (ODS) in the Republic of Croatia, or rather for implementation of the Montreal Protocol, were for the first time presented through the National Programme for Phasing Out the Ozone-Depleting Substances (1995).

    Challenges  

    Disregarding the considerable reduction in the emission of all pollutants (in comparison with the year 1990) and a reduction in the specific emission (emission/inhabitant or emission/km2) in comparison with the average emissions in the EU countries (lead is the only exception), Croatia still has a problem of air pollution. The excessive or moderate air pollution has been registered for a number of years in the cities of : Zagreb, Rijeka, Split, Sisak, Šibenik, Pula i Kutina. The reason for this is a release of pollutants in the air from mobile sources, certain technological processes and burn out of fuels. On the basis of the first conducted emission measurements and monitoring of five-year trends in the settlements, it can be concluded that a considerable number of inhabitants is exposed to the excessive or moderate air pollution. Cities and towns with such high levels of pollution demand an additional attention with regard to the air protection, in both the number and methods of critical indicators monitoring and a better control of the stationary and mobile air pollution sources.

    Air protection costs are presently financed from the public budgetary resources: the national budget and the budgets of local self-government and government units. The resources allocated for financing these costs are insufficient and of total costs of environmental protection only some 0.2 per cent annually account for air protection.

    Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

    In the past period the main promotional activities were:

    In 1998, UNEP/WMO brochure was translated and printed: Understanding of climate change; United nations Framework Convention on climate change - Beginners guide, which has been distributed to all the primary and secondary schools in Croatia.  During the years of 1999/2000, seven workshops have been held on the topic: The first National Report of the Republic of Croatia in accordance with the obligations stipulated by UNFCCC. Some 300 participants participated in the work of workshops, including the representatives of science sector, research institutions, non-governmental organizations, state administration and industry.

    Magazines Economy and Environment and Energy, economy and environment dedicate certain issues to the topic of climate change every once in a while.  Additionally, a promotional video clip under the title Climate is changing - your habits should be changed too will be aired on the Croatian television from November 2000.

    Through its competent authorities, the Republic of Croatia is systematically educating employees, by organizing seminars and courses within and outside educational institutions, to work with the substances that deplete the ozone layer. Permanent promotional activities in mass media are helping to raise the awareness of co-responsibility for the environment, thus preparing the public for the benefits which will inevitably arise in the course of withdrawal of these substances from use.

    Information

    Croatia can provide accurate air quality indicators for the past few years except for certain industrial zones burdened by out-of-date technology. Annual reports on air pollutant emissions have been prepared in Croatia since 1993. These reports include the following substances: S02, NOx, N20, CH4, CO, C02, NH3, NMVOC and heavy metals (Pb, CD and Hg). 

    Every year in October the international congress on the topic Energy and Environmental Protection is being held, where studies on the climate change are being presented.  In the year of 1998 a scientific congress: Agriculture and forestry – adaptability to climate change was held.  Twice a year the Minister of Environmental Protection and Physical Planning meets with the representatives of all Croatian non-governmental organizations to discuss, among other issues, the climate change policy and measures.

    On the basis of the first studies of the climate change impact analysis and the possible adoption of ecosystems to the environmental impacts, one can conclude that the greatest impacts and vulnerabilities in the future can be expected in the following areas:

    Air pollution

    Regardless of the present state of the air quality monitoring system, for all cities covered by the existing system it may be said that air pollution in these cities is a consequence of general environmental pressures, coming primarily from the production and consumption of all forms of energy (stationary and mobile sources), households, industry and municipal and production wastes.

    In the period from 1995 to 1998 the air pollution state by cities was as follows.

    • Ambient air quality is monitored in 41 cities or city quarters in Croatia at a total of 123 stations.
    • The air quality monitoring by means of the existing system covers about 38 per cent of the total Croatia’s population, of which 90 per cent in cities and city quarters.
    • Air pollution in inhabited places of Croatia is primarily a consequence of mobile and stationary sources in a closer area.

    Evaluation of the air quality state

    On the basis of data on air quality monitoring in the period from 1995 – 1998 it may be concluded as follows:

    Excessively polluted air (category III) is detected in 15 per cent of the settlements (cities/city quarters or their parts);

    Moderately polluted air (category II) is detected in 60 per cent of the settlements (cities/city quarters or their parts);

    Clean or slightly polluted air (category l) is detected in 25 per cent of the settlements (cities/city quarters or their parts);

    Excessive or moderate pollution is recorded most often in Zagreb, Split, Sisak, Pula, Šibenik, Kutina and Rijeka;

    Excessive or moderate pollution is most often a consequence of solid particles (TDM and heavy metals in them) and NO2 emissions from mobile and /or stationary sources in a closer area.

    The issues of climate change can also be found on the web page of the Ministry : www.duzo.ring.hr

    Research and Technologies   

    Ordinance on Environmental Impact Assessment prescribes mandatory elaboration of an Environmental Impact Study (EIS) for specific interventions into environment and it has to be carried out for all planned activities that are subject to approval and could significantly affect the environment. These activities include: the exploitation and use of soil, water, forests, mineral and other natural resources; and the construction, change of operation, or removal of certain facilities and equipment.

    The assessment itself is based on the environmental impact study, which is an integral part of the application for obtaining a site-permit or any other type of permit for interventions not requiring the issuing of site-permits. Specific ordinance for this purpose determines categories of activities for which: an environmental impact assessment (EIA) is always mandatory; if certain conditions and criteria are fulfilled, require a mandatory EIA; and an EIA requires only a study containing particular analyses of nature, or partial accounts.  All new or reconstructed sources have to comply with the new air pollution legislation. Therefore, the new coal-fired power plant Plomin II, which should be put into operation this year, will be equipped with a desulphurization unit (limestone wet scrubber with efficiency over 95 per cent), low-NOx burners and an electrostatic precipitator.

    80 per cent of industry is located in the central part of Croatia (Sisak-Zagreb region), 10 per cent in Rijeka and the rest is scattered all over Croatia, with a further industrial center in Split. Croatia has about 24 large sources, which produce the majority of emissions. Six of them are power plants, three are refineries, four are cement plants, four are petrochemical plants, one is a gas extraction facility and the others are chemical and metallurgical plants. After their privatization one of them stopped operating (Umag) and the others are being upgraded step by step.

    The Koromacno cement plant already meets the emission limits for new sources, introduced ISO 14000 and is regarded as a good example of environmental protection management. Both the cement plant in Pula and the cement plant complex in Split have been upgraded as well. The cement plant in Umag is not currently operated.

    The refineries, all of which belong to the State-owned company INA, will also be upgraded step by step. However, only the refinery in Rijeka has been upgraded so far. The refinery in Sisak, the oldest in Croatia, still has problems with obsolete technologies; upgrading them requires large investments. All INA plants introduced ISO 9000 and are now preparing to introduce also ISO 14000.

    Croatia has few waste incineration plants. Two fluidized bed furnaces for the incineration of sewage sludge and waste oil in the Sisak and Rijeka refineries (a rotary kiln incinerator in Sisak will be put into operation soon), one hospital waste incinerator in Zagreb and the new hazardous waste incinerator PUTO in Zagreb.

    Technological and other changes relating to the extraction, production, storage, transport, and use of raw materials, semi-products, finished products and energy and the trial introduction of new products and technologies.

    Cleaner technologies

    Since Croatia’s economy is currently facing problems with its obsolete and ineffective technologies, war damage and recession, it is improbable that the requirements of the air protection legislation will be met within the prescribed time period. The driving force behind the introduction of new/cleaner technologies is the need to improve overall production efficiency rather than environmental concerns. Some examples of successful implementation of cleaner technologies with regard to air emissions include:

    1. Hazardous waste incineration plant PUTO: incineration in rotary kiln at a temperature of 950-1 000oC, equipped with abatement techniques (activated carbon injection, wet NaOH scrubber or dry sodium bicarbonate dry scrubbing, urea injection for NOx scrubbing, bag-house filters) which ensure compliance with emission standards.
    2. Refinery in Rijeka: high-efficiency plant meeting all air emission limits (a new unit for hydrodesulphurization and mild hydrocracking gas oil), including Claus process for elementary sulphur production and low-NOx burners.
    3. Gas exploration facility in Molve: separation of gas impurities (CO2, H2S and mercury).
    4. Installation of dry low-NOx burners in the reconstructed gas combined cycle power plants in Zagreb and Jertovec, ensuring NOx concentration below 100 mg/m3.
    5. The new coal-fired power plant PLOMIN II is equipped with a desulphurization unit (limestone wet scrubber with efficiency over 95%), low-NOx burners and an electrostatic precipitator.
    6. Adaptation of cement production technology so that conventional energy materials can be partially replaced by wastes while maintaining the same cement quality and emission standards.

    Croatia has a large crude oil processing sector, where high VOC emissions occur -- representing at the same time material losses. Nevertheless, vapor recovery units (VRU) have not been installed so far, nor are there plans to do so in the near future. Some new petrol stations are prepared for vapor recovering, but without a complete system, comprising a closed system of vapor capturing, distribution tank-trucks with bottom loading and VRU at the distribution points, this particular system may not be operated properly.

    Financing

    The state budget finances the national network for air quality monitoring. Budgets of local government and self-government units finance local networks for air quality monitoring. The polluter, the owner and/or the user are responsible for the financing of measures to reduce air pollution caused by stationary sources.

    Cooperation  

    Croatia is a party to the following international agreements concerning air protection and its national policies are partly based on them:

    Croatia also signed the Protocol on Heavy Metals and the Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants to the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution in June 1998, and signed its Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone in November 1999.  As a party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Croatia has pledged to fulfill its obligations as an Annex I country and keep CO2 emissions at their 1990 levels until 2000. Pursuant to the Kyoto Protocol (it was signed in 1999), Croatia is bound to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions in the period 2008-2010 to 95 per cent in relation to the base year, which can be any year between 1985 and 1990. The first national communication is being prepared and should be ready by the end of this year.

    The recommended values (RV) and limit values (LV) are laid down by the Government. The RV are based on EU guide values, WHO guidelines and Swiss Ambient Air Quality standards, while LV are based on EU limit values, German mission values and WHO guidelines. For pollutants coming from motor vehicles exhaust (NO2, CO, Pb) more tolerant RV and LV are given for concentrations measured at street level. RV and LV for limitation of some carcinogenic substances coming from fuel combustion are based on recommended UK Air Quality standards (benzene, 1,3-butadiene), and German practice (3,4-benz-pyrene).

    The 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and 1997 Kyoto Protocol; 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, as amended and Croatia is a party to the Montreal Protocol and UNFCCC.

    With the purpose of implementing the Montreal Protocol in the Republic of Croatia, a National Programme Body has been set up by the Government, consisting of experts with extensive experience and knowledge that contribute to the harmonisation of Croatian interests with the requirements of the Montreal Protocol. The State Directorate for Environment (SDE) is authorised to enforce the provisions of the Montreal Protocol, in conjunction with the National Programme Body. Under the professional and financial support of UNEP, the SDE prepared a Country Programme for Phasing Out Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. This Programme provides assistance in identifying substitutes for substances that deplete the ozone layer and establishes a process to regulate importation and consumption of these substances and of those products containing these substances.

    The Republic of Croatia is a Party to the following international treaties:

    -- the Montreal Protocol on Substances Depleting the Ozone Layer (1991) and its London Amendments (1994) and Copenhagen Amendments (1996); The latest report to the Montreal Protocol Secretariat was submitted in 1996.

    -- The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1996); The report was submitted in the course of the year 1997.

    -- The Vienna Convention on the Protection of Ozone Layer (1991);

    -- Conventions on the Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (1991);

    -- The Protocol to the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution on Long-term Financing of the Cooperative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range;

    -- Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP Protocol 1991); and

    -- The Protocol to the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution on Further Reduction of Sulphur Emissions (1994); The latest report to the Executive Body of Convention was submitted in 1996.

    With respect to implementation of the Convention on Climate Change, Croatia is implementing two pilot-projects, to survey the consequences of global climate change in the Adriatic area, in the Cres-Losinj Archipelago and in the Bay of Kastela. A draft document entitled, Croatian Climatic Project by 2000 has also been elaborated, and will include studies on climate change mechanisms, joining the global climate monitoring system, the model for the assessment of greenhouse-gas contribution of Croatia, the sub-project on the possibility of reducing greenhouse-gas concentrations, and the sub-project on economic effects arising from climate change in Croatia.

    Croatia participates in the Global Environmental Monitoring System (GEMS) with its three local air quality monitoring stations, two tropospheric ozone monitoring stations within EUROTRAC Monitoring Network, and two background air pollution monitoring stations within the EMEP Protocol.

    * * *

    This information was provided by the Government of Croatia to the 5th and 9th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: March 2001.

    Click here for the information service for climate in Croatia.
    Click here for information on air pollution in Zagreb.
    Click here for national information from the Web Site of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
    For the access to the Web Site of the Ozone Secretariat, click here:

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    BIODIVERSITY

    Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

    The administrative structure charged with biodiversity issues belongs within the competence of several ministries and governmental bodies (i.e. environment, nature protection, forestry, water, agriculture, physical planning etc.). The Directorate for the Protection of Cultural and Natural Heritage under the Ministry of Culture is the competent governmental body for the implementation of the Law on Ratification of the Convention on Biological Diversity. The Directorate will establish a coordinating body among different ministries to implement the CBD.

    Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

    The basic national legislative framework for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity is the Constitution of the Republic of Croatia (1992), which promotes the preservation of the natural and human environment as the highest values of the State. The Law on Environmental Protection (1994) states that the main goals of environmental protection are creating conditions for sustainable development, permanent conservation of authenticity of natural communities, biodiversity, and the conservation of environmental stability.

    The Law on Nature Protection (1994) emphasizes general principles, one of the most important being ensuring the rational utilization of nature and its resources, without significant damage and annihilation of its parts, and with the least possible disturbance of the balance of its components. The Law protects the significant and highly valuable natural entities and regions. Approximately 7.5% of the state territory is protected. Three of the National Parks are situated on the Adriatic islands (Kornati, Brijuni, Mljet) including the surrounding sea; two illustrate hydrographic and morphological curiosities (Plitvice lakes, the river Krka); and two are typical mountainous areas (Risnjak and Paklenica). Three of the nature parks are typical mountainous areas (Velebit, Biokovo and Medvednica); one of them is insular (Telascica); and two represent the biological richness of lowland marshy areas (Kopacki nt and Lonja Plains). The Plitvice lakes are on the UNESCO World Natural Heritage List, the Velebit mountain is on the UNESCO Biosphere Reservations List (UNESCO "Man and Biosphere" Scientific Programme - MAB), and four of the areas are on the Ramsar Convention list (Kopacki rit, Lonja Plains, Neretva River Delta and Crna Mlaka/ Black Puddle). Areas of protected nature in Croatia have suffered considerable war damage, and this has not yet been thoroughly assessed.

    Legal obligation for Environmental Impact Assessment was created in 1984, and it is conducted as a constituent part of pre-investment procedures for the construction of facilities and other environmental interventions. According to the Regulation on Environmental Impact Assessment, identifying the processes and activities which have or are likely to have significant adverse impact on biodiversity form an integral part of the pre-investment survey procedure, together with the establishment of prevention and reduction measures.

    Apart from the in-situ protection measures for flora and fauna species and for important nature areas, ex-situ measures for the conservation of biodiversity are also being undertaken.

    Many sectoral laws regulate the use of natural resources, such as water, sea, forests, soil, and biological diversity. They are in the competence of different governmental bodies and do not appropriately consider environmental aspect in the concept of sustainability.

    Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

    A National Strategy for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity is currently under preparation.

    Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

    No information is available

    Programmes and Projects   

    No information is available

    Status   

    No information is available

    Challenges  

    No information is available

    Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

    No information is available

    Information 

    An inventory of biological diversity data has not yet been established, but the process has started as part of the National Strategy for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity. Identification of the components of biodiversity has been established only for higher plants and mammals, which comprise only a small part of Croatian flora and fauna. An ecosystem and habitat inventory has not yet been established. All the indicators of the status of biodiversity, i.e. data on eco-systems, vegetation, flora and fauna, will be integrated into the Informational System for Environment, to be established by the State Directorate for Environment. Currently, the Croatian Informational Service for Biological Diversity is the National Focal Point for Exchange Mechanisms within the Convention on Biological Diversity.

    Research and Technologies   

    No information is available

    Financing

    Funding is provided by the state budget and the budgets of the units of local government and self-government. 

    Cooperation

    In 1996, Croatia submitted a funding application to the World Bank/GEF for financing the National Strategy and Action Plan for Biological and Landscape Diversity. The grant was approved in February 1997, amounting to 102,000 US$.  The Convention on Biological Diversity was signed in 1992 and ratified in 1996.Croatian Bank of Plant Genetic Resources and the Animal Genes Conservation Bank are working in this area in cooperation with FAO.

    *     *     *

    This information was provided by the Government of Croatia to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: January 1998.

    Click here for the information service for biodiversity in Croatia.
    Click here for the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Biosafety WebPages
    Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
    Click here to go to the Web Site of UNEP's International Register on Biosafety.
    For access to the Web Site of the Convention on Biological Diversity, click here:
    For access to the Web Site of the CITES Convention, click here:
    For the Web Site of the CMS Convention, click here:
    For the Web Site of the Convention on the Protection of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage, click here:
    For the country-by-country, Man in the Biosphere On-Line Query System, click here:

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    DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

    Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies 

    No information is available 

    Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

    No information is available

    Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   

    No information is available

    Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement   

    No information is available

    Programmes and Projects   

    A National Action Programme to combat desertification has not been prepared, mostly because desertification is not recognized as a priority problem in Croatia. Measures from Agenda 21 and the Convention have been incorporated in many sectoral sustainable development programmes and strategies, particularly concerning the Adriatic coast and islands.

    Status   

    Special attention is being given to activities and measures for sustainable land management, soil conservation against erosion, agricultural activities, conservation of biological diversity, protection against forest fires, afforestation, protection and management of water resources, and island settlements, among others.

    Challenges  

    No information is available

    Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

    No information is available

    Information   

    No information is available

    Research and Technologies   

    No information is available

    Financing   

    No information is available

    Cooperation

    The International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Drought and/or Desertification Particularly in Africa was signed in 1994, but has not been ratified.

    *     *     *

    This information was provided by the Government of Croatia to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: January 1998.

    For access to the Web Site of the Convention to Combat Desertification and Drought, click here:

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    ENERGY

    Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

    No information is available

    Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

    No information is available

    Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   

    No information is available

    Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement   

    No information is available

    Programmes and Projects   

    No information is available

    Status   

    The Republic of Croatia imports more than 40% of its total energy supplies, while non-regenerative energy resources (fossil fuels) are rather scarce. There are possibilities for exploiting large potentials of almost all kinds of regenerative resources (geo-thermal energy, energy of the sun and the wind, biomass etc.). The Government's objective is the gradual introduction of renewable energy resources in the Energy Supply System of the Republic of Croatia, and the commitment to achieving the maximum level of independence from imports.

    Challenges  

    No information is available

    Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

    No information is available

    Information   

    No information is available

    Research and Technologies   

    No information is available

    Financing   

    No information is available

    Cooperation

    The implementation of the UNDP/GEF project "Removing Barriers to Implementation of Energy Efficiency Measures in Croatia" /Hrvoje Pozar implementation agency/ has been started. It will contribute to sustainable energy consumption in households and the business sector.

    * * *

    This information was provided by the Government of Croatia to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: January 1998.

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    FORESTS

    Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

    The Forestry Department of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry is responsible for the forestry sector. It co-operates primarily with the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Physical Planning, responsible for protected areas and wildlife preservation, and the State Water Directorate.

    Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

    Forestry, and other activities concerning forests and forest land, are regulated by the Law on Forests (revised in 1993). The following legislation also directly affects forests: The Law on Environmental Protection (1994); The Law on Nature Protection (1994); The Law on Waters (1995); The Law on Hunting (1994) and Ordinance regarding Changes in the Law on Hunting (1996); The Law on Protection against Fire (1993); The Law on Physical Planning (1994).

    After the first democratic elections in 1990, the Croatian Parliament issued the Law on Forests, according to which one public forestry enterprise, Croatian Forests, was established. The Law was passed to balance the monetary value of work in forest activities and to protect the ecological function of forests with less market value by allocating financial resources among different forest regions. Local communities enjoy the right to utilise non-wood forest benefits, according to the Forest Management Plan (Law on Forests, 1990, amended in 1993).

    Forest Certification process (FSC) is ongoing. It has been initiated by timber buyers. Information, however, is not available yet.

    Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   

    Forest areas are registered in the National Physical Plan (there is no land management strategy/policy). There are no mechanisms for harmonising cross-sectoral policies related to forests, although the need to develop such mechanisms has been recognised.

    Despite the fact that some of the principles of sustainable management have been incorporated in the forestry management plan for a number of years now, the forest management in Croatia will have to adapt to the newly established social and economic conditions. In that there is a threat, like in other countries undergoing transition, that the forest resources will be excessively and inappropriately used (commercialised). The criteria and indicators of sustainable management which have been determined at the pan-European level, will have to find their place in the Croatian forestry policy, as a precondition for Croatia’s approach to European economic integrations.

    State owned forests (80% of the total forest area) are managed by Forest Enterprise "Hrvatske sume", according to the National Forest Management Plan which is considered as the sustainable development strategy. It is neither developed nor updated in accordance with the guidelines established by the IPF.

    Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

    No information is available

    Programmes and Projects 

    Croatian Forests consists of fifteen forest management areas/forest authorities, and each management area is divided into several forest offices (170 altogether). Each unit operates according to a management programme, harmonized with the Forest Management Areas Programme. The latter is supported by national strategic directives and contains economic and development policies of the area, in accordance with sectoral plans (land use, water management and management of protected areas). All forest management programmes relate to the period of 20+20 years and are subject to revision every 10 years. They must be approved by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. These programmes are the basis of annual management plans.

    Status

    It is difficult to evaluate forestry trends based on institutional, managerial or market developments, because it is often impossible to compare either quality or quantity indicators taken today with those before the restructuring of the economy. Short-term prospects are submitted to reconstruction and remediation of war damages but with the respect of sustainable management principles.

    Approximately 80.1 percent of forests in Croatia are managed by the enterprise Croatian Forests, 18.6 percent belong to private owners (small-scale family holdings). and the rest is managed by non-forest organizations (such as directorates of protected areas and scientific institutions). Croatian Forests provides about eighty percent of wood production in Croatia. The remaining twenty percent is mostly cordwood and fuelwood, cut by small private forest owners. The sustainability of forests is ensured by an annual cut that must be significantly lower than annual volume increment (36.2% in 1995; growing stock was 247 420 000 m3 and annual volume increment was 7 188 000 m3).

    The condition of forests in 1995 worsened in relation to previous years. Crown transparency higher than twenty-five percent was found in thirty percent of the sampled broad-leaved trees, while forty-five percent of conifers was severely damaged. Oaks (Quercus petraea and Q. robur) and fir (Abies alba) are the most affected ones in the broad-leaved and conifer tree species. The forest condition in Croatia was estimated by the method of the Institute for World Forestry in Hamburg. According to the list of forest degradation by countries, conceived at the 11th meeting of European and North-American Experts in Jirovishte (Czech Republic), Croatia places seventeenth in Europe.

    Physical indicators

    The planned trend of the felling volume (all ownership categories)

    Period

    Surface

    Total timber felling volume Annual felling volume of timber, m3

    Index according to 1986-1995 period

    1986-1995

     

    55,159,326

    5,515,933

    1.00

    1996-2005

    1,110,821

    53,540,176

    5,354,018

    0.97

    2006-2015

    1,095,453

    57,119,151

    5,711,915

    1.04

    2016-2035

    1,716,938

    129,036,030

    6,451,802

    1.17

    Source: General Forest Management Plan of Croatia –1996 Report, Hrvatske šume, p.o. Zagreb

    The most important issue in Croatia is reconstruction and restoration of areas damaged by the war. The Ministry of Public Works, Reconstruction and Development is implementing the programmes for revitalization of these areas, in which forestry issues are included as well.

    Based on a land mines register and their maps, it has been estimated that 243,693,13 hectares of Hrvatske Šume (which accounts for 12% of the total forest area) and 1,212.67 km of forest roads are contaminated.

    Challenges  

    No information is available

    Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

    No information is available

    Information 

    The Government has committed itself to use criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management but it is not put into practice yet.

    Information on forest resources can be found on the Internet (www.hrsume.hr).

    Research and Technologies   

    No information is available

    Financing

    Each economic subject in Croatia is obliged to pay 0.07% of the total income into the fund for afforestation of new areas. Forest owners also contribute to the fulfilment of the Management programmes for private forests by paying 20% of the income made by selling wood from aged forests, and 15% of income from selected forests or the forests on karst. A fact that should be emphasized is the war in Croatia (1991- 1996). Military activities were especially intensive in the most forested areas. Damages in the forestry sector (both direct and indirectly influenced by war) are estimated to be DEM 249.2 million. From the beginning of the war until 1995, Croatian Forests invested 33,711,621 DM in the reconstruction of buildings, roads, machinery and afforestation projects.

    Cooperation

    Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Physical Planning are informed about the IPF meetings and their outcome as well, but Croatia does not take an active part in the IPF process and is not a member of the process. Moreover, IPF proposals for action have not been assessed in Croatia.

    Croatia participates in the Pan-European Process in relation to criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management.

    *     *     *

    This information was provided by the Government of Croatia to the 8th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: March 2000.

    Click here for the UN ECE Timber Data Base.

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    FRESHWATER

    Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

    The Croatian Parliament, the Government, and the State Directorate for Waters are responsible for decision-making in this area.

    Systematic organization to implement the Agenda 21 activities in the area of freshwater has not yet taken place, nor have funds been provided for that purpose from the state budget.

    Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

    A new Law on Waters and the Law on Water Management Financing were passed in 1995. The Law on Waters regulates the mode and conditions of water management concerning use, protection and regulation of watercourses. The principles of water management are defined according to the uniformity of the water system and sustainable development, satisfying the needs of the present generation, and at the same time not threatening the right and the possibilities of future ones to exercise the same privileges.

    Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   

    Long term objectives for the sustainable development of water management in the Republic of Croatia include:

    1. complex research to prepare basic data and maintain records;
    2. elaboration of water management plans based on technical and economic analysis;
    3. adjustment of water supply and sewage systems with ecological, social, infrastructure, and economic development requirements;
    4. regulation of watercourses, construction of water protection systems in the catchment areas of major state and regional watercourses;
    5. raising the water supply level from the public water supply system from the present 63% to 90%;
    6. development of agricultural land irrigation; and
    7. increase in the level of protection of freshwater and the sea against pollution.

    The protection of waters against pollution is achieved through control over water quality status and pollution sources, through prevention, limitation and prohibition of actions having possible adverse effects on water quality.

    Water is classified both by use and ecological functions, on the basis of limited values of individual substances and other water properties, and by various indicator types: physical, oxygen regimes, nutritious substances, heavy metals, organic compounds, microbiological and biological indicators and radioactivity. Water protection is carried out according to the State Water Protection Plan and County Water Protection Plans.

    Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

    No information is available

    Programmes and Projects   

    No information is available

    Status   

    No information is available

    Challenges  

    No information is available

    Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

    No information is available

    Information   

    No information is available

    Research and Technologies   

    No information is available

    Financing

    Funds for water management are provided from the water funds and fees paid by the beneficiaries of the water system, including the following: water fund, water use fee, water protection fee, gravel and sand excavation fee, catchment area water management fee, budget of local units of government and self-government, and other sources (state budget, donations, loans by local and foreign banks such as the World Bank and EBRD)

    Cooperation

    The following conventions significant to water management were ratified in 1996: the Convention on Co-operation in the Protection and Sustainable Use of the Danube River Basin, and the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes. Bilateral treaties on the regulation of water management relations have been signed with the neighbouring states of Hungary, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia.

    *     *     *

    This information was provided by the Government of Croatia to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: January 1998.

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    LAND MANAGEMENT

    Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

    The Institute for Physical Planning of the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Physical Planning prepares documents on integrated physical-planning at the state level, conducts expert and public panel discussions and directs others to the enactment procedure (to the Croatian Government, the Croatian Parliament), thus simultaneously performing intersectoral coordination. The Ministry of Public Works, Reconstruction and Development is in charge of national programmes for special areas.

    At the local level, County Institutes for Physical Planning (in the City of Zagreb, the Town Institute for Physical Planning) elaborate and propose physical planning documents, to be adopted by the representative bodies of the Counties (and of the City of Zagreb). The municipalities and the cities develop plans in conjunction with authorised planning enterprises, to be passed by their representative bodies. County physical plans, which are the basic physical plans on the local level, are in the preparatory stage.

    Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

    The Law on Physical Planning, passed in 1994, establishes an integrated approach to planning through the elaboration of physical plans and other similar documents. Changes in the physical outlook are considerable, due to the consequences of war.

    Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   

    The Republic of Croatia is currently establishing a new physical planning system based on its relatively recently changed geo-political status and territorial organisation Some physical plans created before the establishment of the sovereign and independent Republic of Croatia are still in use.

    A Physical Planning Strategy was elaborated as a basic document of the integrated approach to planning. The Physical Planning Programme was enacted in May 1999, and the government is preparing the establishment of an integrated information system for monitoring the physical conditions in the country.

    Major thematic priority groups in physical planning include: (1) population and settlements; (2) use and protection of resources; (3) infrastructure and physical economy; and (4) problem areas such as war-stricken, border and rural regions, coastal areas, and islands, among other areas.

    Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement   

    No information is available

    Programmes and Projects   

    No information is available

    Status   

    No information is available

    Challenges  

    No information is available

    Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

    No information is available

    Information   

    No information is available

    Research and Technologies   

    No information is available

    Financing

    The state budget, the budgets of the units of local government and self-government, public companies development funds and funds from other development subjects support programmes in this area.

    Cooperation

    Cooperation takes place within the following associations: the Alps-Adriatic, the Danube Region Community Programme, UNEP Sea and Coastal Areas Programme Centre, intergovernmental commissions and task forces, HABITAT, and other UN agencies.

    * * *

    This information was provided by the Government of Croatia to the fifth and eighth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: March 2000.

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    MOUNTAINS

    Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

    Various Governmental bodies and local authorities in their respective domains are responsible for making decisions.  A specific coordinating body for the development of mountainous regions has not been established.

    Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

    A number of species of flora and fauna, and several national protected areas in the mountainous areas have been placed under protection of the Law on Nature Protection. Despite the fact that the protection of special areas is very well regulated, the implementation thereof and management of the parks are not satisfactory, and call for a revision.

    Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

    Many strategic documents foresee the mountainous area of Croatia as a focus for considerable planning. The Physical Planning Strategy, for example, in the Chapter "Measures requested to amend the physical planing system" mentions the necessity of the elaboration of a National Programme for Mountainous Areas. This Programme would incorporate sustainable agriculture and tourism development and the revitalization of the natural and cultural heritage.

    Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement 

    No informmation is available

    Programmes and Projects 

    The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry is already applying the Stimulative Financial Measures Programme to small agricultural farms development, which includes the development of farms in mountainous areas.

    Status

    Forests of the central mountainous region are severely endangered by air pollutants, especially through transboundary transport. Unwise wood cutting, deforestation and the enlargement of agricultural areas have aggravated erosion and landslides.

    A part of the mountainous region is the Dinaric Karst Region, a highly sensitive system, registered as a part of world natural heritage (locus typicus). The region is characterised by a complex regime of peculiar karst water circulation, as well as by over 8,000 known underground caverns, and, at this point, it is only partially explored. The biodiversity of habitats, genetic richness with endemic and relict plants, arthropods, freshwater fish and reptiles make the Dinaric Karst Region one of the richest endemic centres of European flora and fauna.

    Challenges  

    No information is available

    Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

    No information is available

    Information   

    No information is available

    Research and Technologies   

    No information is available

    Financing   

    No information is available

    Cooperation  

    No information is  available

    *     *     *

    This information was provided by the Government of Croatia to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: January 1998.

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    OCEANS AND COASTAL AREAS

    Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

    Responsibilities of governmental bodies for integrated coastal zone management and sustainable development including impacts of activities affecting the coastal marine areas are scattered among different ministries and state directorates. Integration of the environmental protection activities in general is the responsibility of the State Directorate for the Protection of Nature and Environment.

    Other related governmental bodies include the Ministries of:

    The State Directorate for the Protection of Nature and Environment is the main coordinating body. The State Directorate for Water is responsible for environmental protection from land-based sources (coastal sewage, industrial effluents). The Ministry of Maritime Affairs, Transport and Communications is responsible for the protection of sea from discharges of ballast from shipping, oil spills.

    The Nature Protection Department in the State Directorate for the Protection of Nature and Environment is responsible for the conservation of marine living resources both in the high sea and under national jurisdiction. The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Fisheries Department is responsible for sustainable use and conservation of fish. The Ministry of Science and Technology coordinates the Croatian National Monitoring Programme "Systematic Research of the Adriatic Sea as a base for Sustainable Development of the Republic of Croatia".

    The Parliamentary Board for the Physical Planning and Environmental Protection deals with all activities related to the physical planning and environment to be discussed in the Parliament.

    There are no other special organisational or legal forms of integrated management of coastal areas. Specific tasks of coastal resources protection and development orientation are performed within the state organizations, sectoral institutions and other institutions mentioned above. The State Directorate for the Protection of Nature and Environment is playing the role of the main coordinating body at the national level for nature and environmental protection.

    Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

    In Croatia, all laws, regulations and decrees have been established by the Parliament, Government, relevant ministries or state directorates and they are all mandatory. The legislation and other policy instruments that have been developed to deal with the issue of integrated coastal zone management and sustainable development, including environmental impacts of activities affecting the coastal and marine include the following:

    The legal instruments related to marine environmental protection, both from land-based activities and from sea-based activities include:  The Maritime Code; The Law on Water; and Decree on Sea Water Quality for Beaches.  In addition, the Law on Marine Fishery and several by-laws regulate sustainable use of marine living resources, both of the high seas and under national jurisdiction.

    Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

    The Croatian National Environmental Strategy which is under preparation in the State Directorate for the Protection of Nature and Environment, will among others, cover all major issues relating to oceans and seas. Apart from the National Strategy of Environmental Protection, there are other sectoral strategies, some of them already adopted by the Parliament and some under preparation:

    The National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan foresee numerous action plans for the preservation and sustainable use of endangered ecosystems and species. Preservation and sustainable use of fragile ecosystem will be included in the Croatian National Monitoring Programme, as well as the sustainable use and conservation of marine living resources.

    Within the local (county) physical plans, sea use is elaborated under a special chapter.

    Marine environmental protection from land-based activities include a number of plans and programmes for construction of sewage systems and treatment plants for municipal and industrial waste water and construction of plants for ballast water and bilge water treatment.  Environment Management Plan for the Cres-Lošinj Archipelago;

    Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

    Most of the Major Groups identified by Agenda 21 are involved in national decision-making for issues related to oceans and seas through the process of public hearing in the Environmental Impact Assessment procedure. Non-governmental organizations and Farmers have the opportunity to express their opinion through the media and forums of their own. Local Authorities are involved in decision-making for issues related to oceans and seas through physical plans, local development programmes and direct contacts with relevant governmental bodies. In most cases, the scientific and technological community is involved in the decision-making process at the beginning of the development issues.

    Programmes and Projects   

    The programmes that address the above mentioned issues in the coastal area of Croatia include:

    A Master Plan for the Adriatic will be prepared within the work of the trilateral Commission between Croatia, Italy and Slovenia. The first phase of the Master Plan will produce a "Preliminary Study for the Integrated Management of the Adriatic Ecosystem".

    Status

    1.    Coastal areas:

      Major towns in the coastal area of Croatia are: Split, Rijeka, Pula, Zadar, Šibenik, Ploc e and Dubrovnik.

      The major current uses of the coastal areas are: fishing which contributes to about 5% of the economy, tourism, maritime transport, ports, shipbuilding, oil refinery, oil terminal, gas exploration, petrochemical industry.

    2.    Sustainable use and conservation of marine living resources

    The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Fisheries Department is taking measures based on research to encourage the development of marine living resources. The oceanographic institutes are in charge of the research of marine living resouces.

    3.     Impact of shipping

    Oil spills from ships, uncontrolled discharged of ballast and bilge water from ships, possible dumping especially of hazardous and harmful matters from ships, could have an undesirable impact on the sustainable management of coastal zones.

    4.     Impact of other coastal- and marine-based industries

    The main impact of coastal-and marine-based industries is wastewater discharge without prior treatment. Another impact is inadequate disposal of solid waste in porous karstic terrain which could contaminate ground water which is used for drinking purposes.

    5.     Land-based pollution

    The primary sources of land-based pollution of the marine environment are: a) waste water from settlements in the coastal discharged directly into the sea; and b) oil pollution from oil refineries located in the coastal area.

    6.     Sea-based pollution

    Bilge water from ships is the primary source of sea-pollution.

    7.     Priority actions

    Construction of wastewater treatment plants is the priority in addressing the problem of ecosystems pollution. The Subregional contingency plan is under preparation in the case of accidental pollution for the Adriatic together with Italy and Slovenia. Other important actions needed include: the development of existing cleaning companies specialised for sea and shore cleaning, the establishment of the new one as well as the purchase of equipment for sea cleaning (boats, booms, pumps etc.)

    Challenges

    The main constraint for Croatia in implementing effective programmes to address the issues related to integrated coastal zone management and sustainable development is the lack of financial resources.    There is a lack of permanent monitoring system for living resources other than fish.

    Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

    There are no specific programmes in Croatia to educate policy makers in the concept and policy design of sustainable coastal management and its aspects, but such aspect is included in environmental and physical planning educational programmes in general.

    A NGO "Lijepa naša", in co-operation with the State Directorate for the Protection of Nature and Environment, conducts the project Blue Flag for the environmental education and protection of the coastal zones particularly in the marinas and on the beaches.

    Information   

    The national information available to assist both decision-makers and planners working in different aspects of coastal area management are the following:

    a.    National investigation programmes (statistics) used for sustainable management of fishery resources

    b.    National reports of marine research for marine pollution;

    c.    National research programmes for gas and oil to also deal with mineral resources;

    d.    Climate change studies have been prepared for the Cres-Lošinj Archipelago and the Kaštela Bay in the framework of the UNEP-MAP.

    Other studies prepared include:

    The Environmental Information System as a part of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is under the establishment. State institutions, local authorities and expert institutions will be linked to the network for processing the data. The relevant information is available through a national web site:

    www.ring.net /duzo/;www.dzs.hr

    Research and Technologies 

    A current technology concern of relevance to oceans and seas is the expected availability of gas from the Adriatic Sea by 2001 which will replace heavy fuel oil for heating and in industry. Croatia applies the best available technology to identify and prevent the pollution of the marine environment. Approximately US $ 1 million is spent annually for the operation of cleaning vats and the prevention of pollution of the marine environment. Further details related to the clean technologies are provided in the section on Environmentally Sound Technology. The extent of application of environmentally sound technologies is determined by the availability of funds.

    Financing

    This sector is mainly financed by the National budget and partly by private sector partners. Fund within Croatian water company is used for the construction of sewage systems and waste water systems, and external assistance is used as loans and as grants for the development of studies and programmes.

    Cooperation

    Croatia, as a signatory of the Barcelona Convention on the Protection of the Mediterranean against Pollution, co-operates at the international level within the framework of the MAP, and especially with its Regional Centre - REMPEC/Malta, the Especially Protected Areas Centre in Tunis, and the PAP/RAC in Split, which deals with the integrated area-specific environmental management.

    International workshop on environmental performance indicators in the framework of METAP activities (UNEP-MAP,BLUE PLAN) was organised in November in Split.

    International training courses for management of sustainable development in coastal zones are organized within the UNEP MAP PAP/RAC SPLIT. The State Directorate for the Protection of Nature and Environment and the Ministry of Physical Planning, Building and Housing organize training courses for special purposes, in co-operation with relevant governmental and other institutions (universities, scientific institutions etc.) intended for responsible planners and local authorities and relevant industries to assist them in managing sustainable development in coastal zones.

    Croatia is included in the World campaign for Clean Seas. Local authorities, often in association with NGO's, organize cleaning of beaches before the tourist season. Cleaning boats are used during the whole summer, for instance, to control the coastal sea in the northern and middle Adriatic area.

        *     *     *

    This information was provided by the Government of Croatia to the 5th and 7th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update:  August 1999.

    To access the Web Site of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, click here:

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    TOXIC CHEMICALS

    Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

    The Environmentally Sound Management of Chemicals is in the competence of sixteen administrative bodies, and is regulated by 86 legal documents. Along with these sixteen administrative bodies, another thirteen institutions, four non-governmental organizations and ten of the largest (out of the total of 275) companies are the most responsible for the safe management of chemicals. Specifically, the following participate in decision-making in this area:

    Government: The State Directorate for Environment, the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Ministry of Education and Sports, the Ministry of Development and Reconstruction, the Ministry of Economy, the Ministry of Maritime Affairs, Transportation and Communication, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of the Interior, the Ministry of Defence, the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Physical Planning, Civil Engineering and Housing, the State Bureau of Standardization and Metrology, the State Bureau of Statistics.

    Institutions: Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Faculty of Natural Science and Mathematics, Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Faculty of Veterinary, the "Rudjer Boskovich" Institute, Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb Veterinary Institute, Institute for Security Research, Quality Testing Institute, Croatian Biological Society, Croatian Association for Water and Sea Pollution, Croatian Association of Chemical Engineers, and Chemical Industry Association of the Croatian Chamber of Economy.

    In September 1996, the government of the Republic of Croatia formed a Commission for the Environmentally Sound Management of Chemicals, as an advisory board to solve the main problems related to management of chemicals. The Commission consists of appointed members, representatives of administrative bodies competent for safe management of chemicals, and representatives of the Croatian Chamber of Economy. Representatives of professional institutions, non-governmental associations and experts in particular fields join the Commission when needed. The Commission submits annual reports of its activities to the Government. The State Directorate for Environment is the National Focal Point for the coordination of activities regarding the environmentally sound management of chemicals.

    Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

    Legislative, administrative, and technical infrastructure for the environmentally sound management of chemicals has been established in the Republic of Croatia as a constituent part of the infrastructure for the chemical industry, mass consumption, and for the activities that depend on chemicals. This infrastructure provides the basis for the management of drugs, industrial chemicals, artificial fertilizers, plant-protecting chemicals, toxicants and dangerous chemicals, as well as for chemical emissions into the working and living environment.

    A system for the control of the transport of chemicals that are severely restricted due to their harmful effects on human health and environment has been developed. Lists of 656 toxic chemicals, 112 drugs and 540 plant-protection chemicals, of 96 severely restricted chemicals with a limited usage due to their adverse effects on the ozone layer, and of 295 types of hazardous waste that can be put on the market with the permission of the competent authority have been established.

    Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   

    The main goal of chemicals management is the enhancement and permanent improvement of legislative, administrative, institutional and technical infrastructure for the systematic and coordinated implementation of environmentally sound management of chemicals of all parties, in accordance with the needs of the Republic of Croatia and its international obligations. The following priorities were identified within the scope of the main goal:

    Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

    No information is available

    Programmes and Projects 

    A Draft National Action Programme and a funding request of 979,636 US$ for the 1997-1999 period have been submitted to the Government of the Republic of Croatia.

    Status   

    No information is available

    Challenges  

    No information is available

    Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

    No information is available

    Information   

    No information is available

    Research and Technologies   

    No information is available

    Financing   

    No information is available

    Cooperation

    Extensive cooperation is undertaken in this area, through, for example, different international centres, such as UNEP/RPTC, WHO, ILO, YFCS, FAO, and OECD.

    *     *     *

    This information was provided by the Government of Croatia to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: January 1998.

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    WASTE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

    SOLID WASTE AND SANITATION

    Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

    Coordination is undertaken by the Parliament, the Government, the State Directorate for Environment, and units of local government and self-government.

    Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

    The main legislation in this area includes: The Law on Waste (1995), the Rule-Book on Waste Types (1996), the Rule-Book on Packaging Waste (1996), and the List of Legalized Professional Institutions for Certifying Physical and Chemical Properties of Waste (1996).

    The following legislation is currently under preparation: a By-Law on Necessary Equipment Applied to Facilities and Buildings for Storage, Recovery or Disposal of Hazardous Wastes, and a Rule-Book on Necessary Conditions Applied to Buildings for Storage and Recovery of Wastes, to Categories, Procedures, Closing and clean-up of Landfills, and to Qualifications for Waste Managers.

    Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans    

    No information is available

    Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement    

    No information is available

    Programmes and Projects   

    No information is available

    Status

    It was estimated that about 5,200,000 tonnes of waste were produced in Croatia in 1994. The waste consisted of 611,000 tonnes of municipal waste; 4,601,000 tonnes of industrial waste (agriculture + forestry + mining + industry); and approximately 200,000 tonnes of hazardous waste.

    The main method of disposal is by use of landfill, for which there are one hundred twenty official sites. According to the facilities, five main types of official landfills exist:

    - disposal sites without filling plans, spreading and compacting of waste;
    - disposal sites with partial spreading and compacting of waste;
    - disposal sites with immediate or periodical waste incineration after dumping (islands and coastal areas);
    - disposal sites with spreading and compacting of wastes and aftercare covering with inert materials; and
    - sanitary landfills fulfilling all criteria.

    Challenges  

    No information is available

    Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

    No information is available

    Information   

    Regarding environmental pollution in Croatia, it has to be highlighted that an important document titled "The Report on the State of the Environment in the Republic of Croatia" was adopted by the Croatian National Parliament in May 1998. The Report indicates the satisfactory state of the environment in Croatia, which is much better than in many other countries. The Report also indicates the need to improve the state of some areas of the environment, identifying the following environmental priorities:

    a) to improve the conditions of municipal and industrial waste water purification

    b) to resolve the issue of waste disposal and check uncontrolled dumping

    c) to bring air pollution in industrial centres within the legally prescribed limits.

    Research and Technologies   

    No information is available

    Financing 

    Financing of solid waste management is provided by the utility services and service charges or fees.

    Cooperation  

    No information is available

    * * *

    This information was provided by the Government of Croatia to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: January 1998.

     

    HAZARDOUS WASTES

    Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

    The State Directorate for Environment is the Competent Authority and the Focal Point according to Article 5 of the Basel Convention. Among its other responsibilities, it provides advisory services about waste management legislation for all the interested parties.

    Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

    The main legislation concerned is: the Law on Waste (1995); Rule-Book on Waste Types (1996), and the List of Legalized Professional Institutions with Authority for Certifying Physical and Chemical Properties of Wastes (1996). In addition, a Rule-Book on the Necessary Equipment Applied to Facilities and Buildings for the Storage, Recovery or Disposal of Hazardous Waste is under preparation.

    Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans    

    No information is available

    Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

    No information is available

    Programmes and Projects   

    No information is available

    Status   

    It was estimated that about 200,000 tonnes of hazardous waste were produced in 1994. The main methods of disposal are landfills and incineration. The waste producer is obliged to take care of its own waste, to store it and also to organize the transport of waste to the landfill, or to the site of disposal/recovery.

    The import of hazardous waste into Croatia is forbidden by law. Permission of the State Directorate for Environment of Croatia is necessary for the export as well as the transit of hazardous waste across the Croatian territory. A system of transboundary waste movement control has been established, including a system of information exchange with the Customs Office.

    Challenges  

    No information is available

    Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

    No information is available

    Information   

    No information is available

    Research and Technologies   

    No information is available

    Financing 

    Financing is derived from service charges or fees.

    Cooperation

    The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was signed in 1989 and ratified in 1994. The latest information was provided to the Basel Convention Secretariat in 1996.

    *     *     *

    This information was provided by the Government of Croatia to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: January 1998.

    For direct link to the Web Site of the Basel Convention, click here:

     

    RADIOACTIVE WASTES 

    Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

    A Hazardous Waste Management Agency (Croatian abbr. APO) was founded by Government decision in order to manage hazardous and radioactive waste.

    Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

    As a newly created state in transition, the Republic of Croatia still does not have an adequate legislative framework and regulatory system needed for supporting an efficient radioactive management system, although with its present resources (human and technical capacities) this could be achieved.

    Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   

    No information is available

    Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

    No information is available

    Programmes and Projects   

    No information is available

    Status   

    According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Republic of Croatia is a B type country (broad use of radiation sources in industry, medicine and research, but without operational research or commercial nuclear reactors). Types and quantities of radio nuclides used are equivalent to the level of industrial development of Croatia. Industrial usage comprises several hundred different gauges and measurement systems for gamma radiography with sealed radiation sources; in medicine, sealed and open sources are used for diagnostic purposes (ten nuclear medicine centres) as well as in the radiotherapy (six centres engaged in teletherapy and three engaged in brachitherapy). In several institutes radio nuclides are used for research purposes (tracer techniques, calibration, research, irradiation of medical equipment and food, etc). Several tens of thousands of radioactive smoke detectors and several hundred of radioactive lightening rods are installed in the facilities throughout the country.

    Most of the activities using radio nuclides generate radioactive waste. Spent sealed sources are considered a problem requiring special attention. There is no radioactive waste disposal site in the Republic of Croatia. Presently, radioactive waste is collected and placed at two national storage facilities run by research institutes. A major issue is the planned construction of LL/ILW repository for radioactive waste, generated by routine operation from the decommissioning of NPP Krsko. The plant was built as a joint venture of Croatia and Slovenia in 1984.

    Challenges  

    No information is available

    Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

    No information is available

    Information   

    No information is available

    Research and Technologies   

    No information is available

    Financing   

    No information is available

    Cooperation  

    No information is available

     

    *     *     *

    This information was provided by the Government of Croatia to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: January 1998.


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