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INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN CHINA

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INTEGRATED DECISION-MAKING

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

China has established six environmental laws, eight resources management laws, more than thirty administrative regulations, and three hundred and sixty environmental standards. Further laws have been established on education, health, culture and social security. Further improvements and adjustments are considered necessary, e.g. the strengthening of local legislation. By the year 2000, the basis for a system of legislation governing sustainable development should be in place.

In July of 1996, the State Council held the Fourth National Conference on Environmental Protection in order to promote the implementation of a sustainable development strategy. Subsequently, the Decision of the State Council on Issues Related to Environmental Protection was drafted, and a specific sectoral five-year national plan for China's environment protection was ratified, which aims for the following:

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

In 1992 and 1993, China developed a National Agenda 21 - White Paper on China's Population, Environment and Development in the 21st Century. A Leading Group co-chaired by a deputy minister of the State Science and Technology Commission and a deputy minister of the State Planning Commission was established in August 1992 to organise and coordinate the formulation and implementation of China's Agenda 21, which was approved by the State Council in March 1994. In 1994, the State Council also issued a directive calling on government institutions at all levels, to consider China's Agenda 21 as an overarching strategic guideline for the formulation of economic and social development plans, and particularly to integrate it into the Five Year Plan (1996-2000), plans for the year 2010, and into day-to-day management.

Concurrently, government authorities under the State Council begun to engage in formulation of various sectoral Agenda 21s and plans of action, which were suited to their own area of specific requirement. For example, the Ministry of Forestry formulated the Forestry Action Plan for China's Agenda 21 which deals with sustainable development in forestry. The State Oceanic Administration drafted China's Ocean Agenda 21, China's National Environment Protection Agency formulated China's Agenda 21 for Environmental Protection, the Ministry of Water Resources drafted China's Agenda 21 on Water Resources, etc. Other government authorities have also formulated programmes of action according to their specific conditions and in line with the country's Ninth Five -Year Plan.
Beijing Municipality, Hubei Province, and Guizhou Province were selected at local levels to integrate, on an experimental basis, China's Agenda 21 into their economic and social development planning. As a result, specific suggestions were made from the perspective of laws, policies, arrangements, finance and operation mechanisms, etc. so that a sustainable development strategy which can be implemented at local levels can be developed.

In order to implement the sections in the Ninth Five-Year Plan and the Long-Term Objectives for the Year 2010 relating to environment protection, China formulated:

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

In order to adequately manage the implementation of China's Agenda 21 at the macro level, the State Planning Commission and the State Science and Technology Commission, by the request of the State Council, gave priority to the incorporation of China's Agenda 21 into state planning. In July 1994, with the support of the UNDP, the Research and Training Programme on Incorporation of China's Agenda 21 into the National Economy and Social Development Plan was initiated. This programme, taking into consideration the overall development strategy and in view of the Ninth Five-Year Plan and Long-Term Objectives for the Year 2010, puts forth the following counter-measures and suggestions:

Major Groups, including women, children and the youth, minority nationalities and minority nationality districts, workers and labour unions, science and technology institutes, have been involved in the process of decision- making for sustainable development.

Status   

No information is available

Challenges  

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

Taking China's Agenda 21 as a guiding document in the drafting of the Ninth Five-Year Plan Long-Term Objectives for the Year 2010, the State Planning Commission, and various departments and bureaus under its jurisdiction, embarked on related research programmes and personnel training. Due consideration was also given to suggestions and plans from related fields and departments.

The Administrative Centre for China's Agenda 21 (ACCA 21) is the bridge between domestic and international partners for the implementation of the Priority Programme for China's Agenda 21. It provides information on sustainable development, consultancy services for projects, training and public awareness material. China's International Training Centre for Sustainable Development (CITCSD) was established in 1993 in order to provide capacity building, provide training for administrative personnel, and promote public awareness.

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies  

No information is available

Financing  

No information is available

Cooperation

International cooperation for sustainable development is encouraged, especially in the area of training. Many international organisations and national governments have expressed interest and support for the implementation of China's Agenda 21. The UNDP-sponsored Capacity 21 Programme has played a catalyst role in promoting sustainable development in China. After the UNCED in 1992, China-UNDP cooperation has been very successful in the area of capacity building for sustainable development. China has formulated and implemented China's Agenda 21 with the support of UNDP. The Chinese Government and UNDP also signed the CSDNP (China's Sustainable Development Networking Project) in October 1995. In 1997, Capacity 21 Programme will continue to support China in the area of capacity building for local Agenda 21s.

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This information is based on China's submission to the 5th & 6th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: April 1998.

To access the Web Site of the China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development click here. This Site provides information on:

  1. Trade and Environment
  2. Energy Strategies and Technologies
  3. Monitoring, Data Collection and Pollution Control
  4. Protection of Biodiversity
  5. Scientific Research and Technological Development
  6. Resource Accounting and Environmental Economics


For access to the China Council Working Group on Monitoring, Data Collection and Pollution Control click here:
For information on the 1997 China Environment Forum click here:
For information about the structure and responsibilities of the National Environment Protection Agency click here:
For information on the Capacity 21 programme in China, click here:
For access to the priority programme of China's Agenda 21 "Enactment and amendment of Laws for Sustainable Development in China", click here:
For access to the priority programme of China's Agenda 21 "Investigation and Enforcement measures of Legislation for Sustainable Development in" click here:
For information on Environmental Law around the World, click here:

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MAJOR GROUPS

WOMEN

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women was signed on 17 July 1980 and ratified on 4 November 1980.
The participation of women in sustainable development is addressed in China's Agenda 21.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Policies or strategies for achievement of equality in all aspects of society have been drawn up and completed. Mechanisms are in place to assess implementation and impact of development and environment policies and programmes on women.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

The All China Women's Federation has been involved in the process of formulation and implementation of China's Agenda 21 and its associated priority programmes.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available

Status

Chinese women have taken an active part in the adoption of sustainable practices with concrete results and Chinese women's organizations have also made substantial contributions to protecting the environment.

Challenges  

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

In Benxi City a Women's Sustainable Development Centre was set up that disseminates knowledge to rural women and helps urban women to start new careers.
Curricula and educational material already promote gender-relevant knowledge.

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies  

No information is available

Financing  

No information is available

Cooperation  

No information is available

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This information is based on China's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

For information on WomenWatch in China, click here:
For information on follow-up to the Beijing Conference in China and on China's national plan in this area, click here:
For access to the priority programme of China's Agenda 21 "Capacity Building for Rural Women's Participation in Sustainable Development in Five Provinces in Northwest China", click here:
For access to the Priority Programme of China's Agenda 21 "Sustainable Development and Enhancement of Women's Status in Hainan Province", click here:

CHILDREN AND YOUTH

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

China's Agenda 21 identifies targets and activities in order to promote the participation of children and youth in sustainable development. An Outline of China's Development Program for Children in the 1990s has been promulgated. Children and Youth have been involved in the process of formulation and implementation of the sustainable development strategy in China.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available

Status

The goal, set in Agenda 21, of ensuring that by the year 2000 more than 50% of youth -- gender balanced -- have access to appropriate secondary education or vocational training has been reached.
Urban youth unemployment has increased from 2.988 million in 1992 to 3.102 million in 1995.

Challenges  

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies  

No information is available

Financing  

No information is available

Cooperation  

No information is available

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This information is based on China's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

 

INDIGENOUS PEOPLE

No information is available.

 

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NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Mechanisms exist already that allow NGOs to play their partnership role responsibly and effectively and NGO inputs are important.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available

Status   

No information is available

Challenges  

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies  

No information is available

Financing  

No information is available

Cooperation  

No information is available


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This information is based on China's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

 

LOCAL AUTHORITIES

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The Government supports Local Agenda 21 initiatives and there are at least 21 Local Agendas 21.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

Women and youth fully participate in local decision-making.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available

Status

China is a vast country and there are great disparities between the eastern, central, and western parts of the country in terms of natural conditions, economic development, and urbanisation. In view of this, it is essential for China to formulate different action plans for sustainable development which are suited to the local situations and conditions. By the end of 1996, two-thirds of the 30 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities had organised their respective Leading Groups and established working offices to implement their Local Agenda 21. Some provinces have formulated their own Local Agenda 21s and action plans. Some cities have also initiated their Local Agenda 21 works.

Challenges  

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies  

No information is available

Financing  

No information is available

Cooperation  

No information is available

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This information is based on China's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

 

WORKERS AND UNIONS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

Workers take full part in National Agenda 21 discussion and implementation.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

China's Agenda 21 identifies targets and activities in order to promote the participation of workers and labour unions in sustainable development.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available

Status

The trade unions of China have the largest membership in the world, with more than 600,000 grassroots organizations and over 100 million members.

Challenges  

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies  

No information is available

Financing  

No information is available

Cooperation  

No information is available

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This information is based on China's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

 

BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

There are governmental policies encouraging increasing the efficiency of resource use, including reuse, recycling, and reduction of waste per unit of economic output. Several big enterprises and a few small and medium sized enterprises have adopted sustainable development policies.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

In 1994, the Technical and Financial Enhancement Programme was initiated by the Chinese Government. The aim of this programme is to enhance technical reform investment, accelerate enterprise reform, and set up technical progress mechanisms. In two separate steps more than 3,000 projects within the Technical and Financial Enhancement Programme have been arranged, with a total investment of RMB 290 billion yuan. Energy conservation and reduction, comprehensive utilisation of resources, and environmental protection are three of the key priority areas within this programme. There are over 232 projects in the above areas and the total input is RMB 30 billion yuan. 30.c increasing number of enterprises that subscribe to and implement sustainable development policies.

Status   

No information is available

Challenges  

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies  

No information is available

Financing  

No information is available

Cooperation  

No information is available

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This information is based on China's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

 

SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

Chinese scientists and technologists have taken an active part in implementing sustainable development.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

The Chinese Science and Technology Society has more than 10,000 branches at the provincial and prefectural levels, about 50,000 township offices, and 2,000 community groups. The people in this circle are all working diligently and conscientiously to gear their endeavours to economic construction and social progress, propagate advanced technologies where applicable to the local conditions, advocate civilised, healthy and scientific ways of living, eliminate feudal superstitions and ignorance, and promote the concept of sustainable development.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available

Status   

No information is available

Challenges  

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies  

No information is available

Financing  

No information is available

Cooperation  

No information is available

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This information is based on China's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

 

FARMERS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Farmer participation is essential for the cost reduction of the country's environmental control projects. Their input enables the Central Government to work on many projects with limited investment.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Chinese farmers have developed many new methods in their practice of enhancing the agricultural ecological environment, such as eco-farming and comprehensive control of small drainage areas. In addition, they have been actively studying and practising the application of new technologies in their efforts towards sustainable development. This is illustrated by the fact that over 30 million person-hours have been spent by farmers attending training courses on various applied technologies. The flourishing of township and village enterprises is another major contribution of the Chinese farmers towards the national industrialisation. This sector provides 120 million non-farming job opportunities in the rural areas and has created substantial wealth. These enterprises constitute a strong pillar of China's rural economy, an important part of the national economy, and the majority of the medium- and small-sized enterprises.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available

Status

Farmers are the main agents of land control and, at the same time, the main beneficiaries of investment in land quality. In the water and soil control projects from 1991 to 1996, farmers provided 70% of the total input and completed work on the prevention of soil erosion in 211,300 square kilometres.

Challenges  

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies  

No information is available

Financing  

No information is available

Cooperation  

No information is available

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This information is based on China's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

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SCIENCE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

China is in the transition period from a highly resource-consuming, low-efficiency, and heavily polluting economic development pattern to a resource-saving, high-efficiency, and less polluting economic development pattern. Therefore, all kinds of sciences and technologies which can promote the transformation of the economic development pattern are given priorities since there is still a shortage of these kinds of sciences and technologies in China. Revitalizing China through science and education has served as a major strategy in China.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available

Status   

No information is available

Challenges  

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies  

No information is available

Financing  

No information is available

Cooperation  

No information is available

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This information is based on China's submission to the 5th & 6th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: April 1998

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INFORMATION

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available

Status   

No information is available

Challenges  

The need for improvements of communication technologies is expressed in Chapter 12: Sustainable Development of Industry, Transportation and Communication in China's Agenda 21. The present capacity in telecommunication is inadequate. Delays in the transfer of information hinders social and economic sustainable development.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available

Information

Various government agencies and different localities have established information centres and the State has set up a broad-based information centre. These provide a foundation for the development of an information system for sustainable development.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available

Financing  

No information is available

Cooperation  

No information is available

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This information is based on China's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

To go to China's Sustainable Development Networking Programme, click here:
For access to the priority programme of China's Agenda 21 "Formulation of Sustainable Development Indicators for China", click here:

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INTERNATIONAL LAW

No information is available.

 

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