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NATURAL RESOURCE ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN CANADA

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AGRICULTURE

Decision Making: Coordinating Bodies

In order to address environmental issues in agriculture effectively, producers, processors, and governments must work together. Federal/provincial agreements on environmentally sustainable agriculture are helping producers design and implement activities focused on issues such as water quality, waste management, and soil conservation. The key decisions about investing in more environmentally sustainable practices are being made at the farm level. As such, it is the farm sector that must ultimately decide on how to protect the resources upon which it relies and in so doing, minimize environmental degradation.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations

No information is available.

Decision Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

The Canadian vision of sustainable agriculture was expressed in Growing Together, the discussion paper that initiated the comprehensive Agri-Food Policy review in 1989. The vision provided a framework to integrate economic, social, and environmental goals and was endorsed by governments and a variety of stakeholders. Building on this framework, the 1990 Report of the Federal/Provincial Agriculture Committee on Environmental Sustainability translated the concept of integration into recommendations that include adjustments to agricultural practices, and policy and programme reform to strengthen economic viability and environmental sustainability. The Report also identified eight main environmental and natural resource issues facing Canada's agriculture and agri-food sector: conservation of soil resources, surface and groundwater quality, water quantity management, sustainable management of wildlife habitat, air quality and climate change, energy efficiency, pollution and waste management, and conservation of genetic resources.

Agriculture and Agri-food Canada has completed a national consultative process to examine the challenges of environmental sustainability facing the sector and to develop a federal departmental strategy and action plan. A new Strategy for Environmentally Sustainable Agriculture and Agri-Food Development in Canada will provide the key underpinning for the department's post-Green Plan environmental activities, will be completed early in 1997. It will reflect an increased emphasis on pollution prevention and environmental stewardship among farmers and agri-food industries.

In support of sustainable agriculture, farmers are forming rural conservation clubs and developing environmental farm plans in Ontario, Atlantic Canada, and Quebec. In the Prairie Provinces (Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta) the farmer-owned Wheat Pools (grain marketing cooperatives) have developed guides to environmental farm planning to be used in conjunction with other on-farm conservation planning processes. These initiatives help farmers identify their successes in effective environmental management and develop work plans to address potential risks. It is projected that from 5,000 to 6,000 of these plans will be completed in Ontario alone by the year 1997. Alberta has launched a campaign, Growing Alberta, to increase the awareness of the impact of agriculture on the environment and the economy. Producers in a number of provinces are developing management standards that guide the implementation of environmental stewardship. For example, British Columbia and Alberta have established codes of practice for the management of animal waste, and Ontario has produced 10 booklets on Best Management Practices. In Quebec, initiatives include a Sustainable Development Policy for the agricultural sector and new regulations respecting the reduction of agricultural pollution. A component of the St. Lawrence Vision 2000, an action plan between the governments of Canada and Quebec designed to conserve, protect and restore the St. Lawrence River, supports projects that contribute to reducing agricultural pollution.

Decision Making: Major Groups Involvement

Industry and public advisory committees play a key role in working with governments to determine priorities and establish programmes. Farm organizations, conservation groups, and the larger agricultural extension community are driving forces behind the sector's plans for adopting best management practices that reduce environmental impacts, such as using pesticides more efficiently and shifting to conservation tillage practices. Certain non-governmental organizations are working to accelerate development and implementation of sustainable agriculture practices and to promote awareness of the need for an agriculture that is based on sustainable principles.

Programmes and Projects

Industry has developed tools for environmental stewardship, such as programmes to reduce environmental impacts and health risks in the agri-chemical industry, publications promoting improved water quality, and videos on best management practices. Canada has instituted a number of soil conservation and habitat conservation programmes over the years, such as the Permanent Cover Programme, that will ultimately convert some half-million hectares of marginal, erosion-prone land in parts of western Canada from annual crops to sustainable land uses under permanent cover. In most provinces, Federal Green Plan programs are addressing the links between pesticides and water quality, wildlife and biodiversity. Part of a new federal agricultural adaptation initiative, that is managed by farmers, is addressing issues such as water quality and waste management.

Status

The agricultural sector has made progress in achieving its environmental objectives. In 1991, low-till and no-till practices accounted for nearly one-third of the seeded cropland in Canada compared to negligible amounts only 20 years ago. Summer fallow has decreased almost 30% in the last two decades. Through federal and provincial efforts aimed at reducing toxins, some 29 compounds affecting more than 2000 agriculture-related products have been controlled or eliminated. Also, the agricultural sector is working towards meeting the terms of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer by reducing production and use of methyl bromide, a fumigant. The sector has demonstrated a willingness and an ability to adapt to its environmental challenges.

In the future, farmers will continue their shift to sustainable management practices and industry will improve its ability to self-regulate through initiatives such as environmental codes of practices and self-assessment guides. Industry and governments will continue to promote environmental sustainability and improve the understanding of the links between the sector's activities and their impacts on the environment. Provincial and federal governments will continue to work towards ensuring that policies and programs contribute to sound environmental practice by, for example, adapting their initiatives to the ecosystem approach and addressing issues at the rural-urban interface.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-Building, Education, Training, and Awareness-Raising

Through the Green Plan, the federal government has established new projects to strengthen the national capacity to conserve plant and animal genetic resources.

Information

Federal efforts to support sustainable agriculture include the development of agri-environmental indicators that help evaluate the sector's environmental performance, provide information on key trends, and facilitate the integration of environmental considerations into the sector's decision-making processes.

Research and Technologies

Research efforts by governments, universities, and industry, through biotechnology as well as conventional techniques, include the development of disease- and pest-resistant crop varieties, reduction of pesticide use, and the development of practices that integrate disease and pest control with crop and soil management practices (integrated pest management).

Financing

Through the sustainable agriculture component of the Green Plan, the federal government is providing $138 million over six years (1991/92-1996/97) to help the sector continue to make the transition to more environmentally sustainable practices. Of this amount, $34 million has been earmarked for national initiatives; $104 million has been matched by equal funding from provinces under joint agreements. Province/producer/industry-led councils may also allocate funds for environmental projects under the $240 million Canadian Adaptation and Rural Development Fund (1995/96-1998/99).

Cooperation

Internationally, Canada is working to help other nations meet their Agenda 21 objectives. The International Development Research Centre (IDRC) is supporting research on food systems in regions where problems of food insecurity, poverty, and environmental degradation are most urgent. Indigenous knowledge and coping mechanisms at the household level will be incorporated in efforts to find local sustainable solutions. For example, the use of natural biological pesticides, which can be made locally at little or no cost, has been identified as a key area of research. The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) has a number of projects in place promoting environmentally sound farming practices and rural economic diversification in developing countries. Much of this work is carried out through community-level education and the introduction of appropriate technologies.

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Canada to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

For country reports on Plant Genetic Resources, click here.
To access the FAOSTAT Data Base for information by country, item, element and year, click here:
Click here to link to biosafety web sites in Canada.
Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to link to Country and Sub-regional Information on Plant Genetic Resources of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
Click here to go to Web Site of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, which includes information on the Codex Alimentarius and the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme.
Click here to access the Web Site of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).
Click here to access the sixteen international agricultural research centers that are members of the CGIAR.

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ATMOSPHERE

Decision Making: Coordinating Bodies

Under Canada’s Constitution, the responsibility for clean air is shared among the federal and provincial/territorial governments. The federal government is responsible for domestic transboundary air pollution (e.g., smog, particulate matter), and international air pollution. Provincial/territorial governments have been traditionally responsible for regulation of emissions from stationary sources.

At the federal level, Environment Canada cooperates with Natural Resources Canada, Transport Canada, Health Canada, and the Climate Change Secretariat in making decisions protecting the atmosphere (see Question 2 for their areas of focus). Environment Canada also facilitates the development of a shared environmental agenda with other federal departments, and with the provinces/territories.

In addition to the shared jurisdiction of the environment among governments, self-government and comprehensive land claim agreements point to the new law-making powers of Aboriginal peoples in the area of environmental management.

Environment Canada is looked on as the leader in safeguarding the Canadian environment, including the atmosphere; developing regulations on substances such as those that deplete the ozone layer; informing Canadians; and providing the science needed to understand and respond to atmospheric issues such as climate change. The Meteorological Service of Environment Canada carries out scientific research to better understand such areas as stratospheric ozone, long-range transport of persistent organic pollutants, and local air quality issues, which helps to guide policy-making groups at Environment Canada and other federal departments.
Environment Canada is responsible for regulating  emissions from vehicles and engines, including pollutants that are deemed toxic to human health (e.g., lead in gasoline), as well as fuel quality standards.  Both Transport Canada and Natural Resources Canada are responsible for managing the voluntary motor vehicle fuel consumption program. Natural Resources Canada, Environment Canada, and Transport Canada are involved to varying degrees in education and awareness that aim to reduce vehicle fuel use and emissions.

Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) conducts research and development, and advances policies and programs, for the stewardship of Canada's natural resources. Protection of the atmosphere is major consideration for NRCan’s Energy Sector and its Forest Service. The Energy Sector coordinates energy policy development and conducts programs in the areas of energy efficiency,renewables and alternatives, hydrocarbons, and nuclear energy. NRCan also coordinates energy technology research and development, operates the Energy Technology Branch, and manages the Program of Energy Research and Development. This program supports and complements the energy-related activities of several federal departments and agencies. The Canadian Forest Service conducts research on forests and forestry practices, including their effects on the atmosphere, and promotes sustainable forestry, which takes these effects into account.

The Climate Change Secretariat, established in February 1998, reports to Natural Resources Canada and Environment Canada. Besides its involvement in developing the National Implementation Strategy for Climate Change, its primary objectives are to: 

Generally speaking, emissions from air, rail, and marine engines are covered by the Aeronautics Act, the Canada Transportation Act, and the Canada Shipping Act, which are administered by Transport Canada. Natural Resources Canada and Transport Canada manage fuel economy ratings for vehicles.

Federal and provincial/territorial cooperation is also facilitated through a number of committees and working groups. For example, federal and provincial/territorial governments cooperate on air issues at the technical level through the National Air Issues Coordinating Committee. The First National Climate Change Business Plan, announced in October 2000, will create new mechanisms over the next year for federal, provincial/territorial, and municipal collaboration.

The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) is the major intergovernmental forum in Canada for discussion and joint action on environmental issues of national and international concern. The CCME comprises environment ministers from the federal, provincial, and territorial governments, who meet twice a year to discuss national environmental priorities. In 1998 the CCME committed to a new approach to environmental management in Canada when all jurisdictions (except Quebec) signed the Canada-Wide Accord on Environmental Harmonization, under which many sub-agreements are being struck on a wide range of important environmental management issues. For example, the Canada-Wide Environmental Standards Sub-Agreement sets out principles for governments to jointly agree on priorities, to develop standards, and to prepare complementary work plans to achieve those standards, based on the unique responsibilities and legislation of each government. The guiding principles in this Accord were further reinforced in February 1999 when all provincial/territorial governments (except Quebec) and the federal government signed the Framework to Improve the Social Union for Canadians. Environment Canada’s work to facilitate cooperation on the environment among provincial/territorial governments is guided by principles articulated in the Accord.

The regulation of ozone-depleting substances in Canada provides an example of federal–provincial/territorial cooperation. Both levels of government are responsible for regulating various aspects of ozone-depleting substances in the country. Their regulatory programs are complementary, forming an integral part of Canada's Ozone Layer Protection Program. The federal government is generally responsible for issues deemed to be in the national interest, and as such is responsible for implementing the provisions of the Montreal Protocol, including controls on the manufacture, import, and export of ozone-depleting substances under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. Provincial/territorial governments are responsible for regulating emissions and discharges to the environment, governing the implementation of ozone-depleting substances recovery and recycling programs, and setting emission controls under provincial regulations.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations

The Canadian Environmental Protection Act 1999 (CEPA), administered by Environment Canada,  provides the Government of Canada with new enforcement tools and powers to reduce pollution and to eliminate and regulate emissions of toxic substances. Under CEPA, the federal government has the authority to set national emissions standards for new on-road, off-road and non-road vehicles and engines, as well as the authority to set national fuel quality standards.   For more information on this Act, please consult the following Web site: http://www.ec.gc.ca/cepa

The Ozone-depleting Substances Regulations under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act ensure Canada’s compliance with the Montreal Protocol. Amendments to these regulations are made as required to reflect changes in reduction and phase-out schedules adopted by the Parties to the Montreal Protocol. At present, only the consumption of HCFCs and methyl bromide are still allowed. Both substances are controlled under regulations by a system of allowances and permits similar to the systems that were used for other ozone-depleting substances before they were phased out. A second regulation, the Ozone-depleting Substances Products Regulations, deal with the control of certain manufactured products containing ozone-depleting substances, such as small pressurized CFC containers, aerosols, and plastic foam food packaging.

As well two environmental codes of practice have also been developed under CEPA. They serve as valuable references for both the private and public sectors, recommending practices for pollution prevention, emission reduction, environmental management, and preventive maintenance. The Environmental Code of Practice for the Elimination of Fluorocarbon Emissions from Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Systems provides national guidelines for the reduction and eventual elimination of emissions of ODSs used in these systems. The Environmental Code of Practice on Halons provides direction to halon owners and users on managing halon stocks in a manner to reduce, and eventually eliminate, halon emissions to the atmosphere.

In June 2000, the Government of Canada, the provinces, and the territories adopted new Canada-Wide Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) and Ozone. These standards set ambient air quality concentration targets for ground-level ozone and fine particulate matter for the year 2010. These standards commit all jurisdictions to reaching specific reduction targets, which will lead to a significant reduction in smog- causing emissions in Eastern Canada by that date or earlier, subject to successful negotiations with the United States for equivalent reductions through an ozone annex to the Canada-U.S. Air Quality Agreement. Meeting these new standards will require a wide range of measures by the Government of Canada, the provinces, and the territories. In addition to measures for vehicles and fuels and solvent-containing products, Environment Canada is working with provinces and territories to develop comprehensive emission reduction strategies for a number of major industrial sectors in Canada. Other measures focusing largely on existing commercial and industrial sources are being undertaken by provinces and territories to ensure that the new particulate matter and ozone standards will be met by 2010. For further information, consult the following Web site: http://www.ccme.ca

Other important air quality-related Canada-wide standards were also either adopted or accepted in principle by federal and provincial/territorial ministers in June 2000. These include standards to deal with toxic air contaminants, including mercury, benzene, dioxins, and furans.

Generally speaking, emissions from air, rail, and marine engines are covered by the Aeronautics Act, the Canada Transportation Act, and the Canada Shipping Act, which are administered by Transport Canada. Natural Resources Canada and Transport Canada manage fuel economy ratings for vehicles.

The Weather Modification Information Act requires that any person proposing to engage in weather modification activities in Canada inform the Atmospheric Environment Service in advance, provide full details on those activities, maintain a daily record, and submit reports to the administrator of the Act.

The Canadian Environmental Assessment Act sets out responsibilities and procedures for the environmental assessment of projects involving the federal government. Environmental assessment provide a systematic approach for identifying the environmental effects including air emissions associated with proposed projects. By identifying adverse environmental effects before they occur, environmental assessments allow decision-makers to modify plans so that the effects can be minimized or eliminated. For further information on this Act, please visit the following Web site: http://www.ceaa.gc.ca/index_e.htm

Most Canadian provinces have now implemented mandatory recovery and recycling of ozone-depleting substances legislation. Provincial regulatory requirements to minimize emissions of ozone-depleting substances include proper labeling of equipment containing ozone-depleting substances; training for equipment service providers; and methods to be used to install, remove, repair or service products containing an ozone-depleting substance. Provincial regulations also prohibit the recharging of leaking equipment, and products containing or made with ozone-depleting substances. Many of the provincial regulations reference the codes of practice and make compliance with the codes mandatory under the law. For a list of provincial regulations on ozone-depleting substance, please visit the following Web site: http://www.ec.gc.ca/ozone/regs/prov/indexE.htm

Tax measures and other economic instruments

Recent changes in the federal tax system support sustainable energy efforts related to climate change, renewable energy, and energy conservation. These include recent increases in the capital cost allowance for some electrical field equipment in use in oilfields, and the accelerated capital cost allowances provided to various energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies.

The use of economic instruments to achieve environmental goals has remained fairly limited in Canada. Product charges/taxes and deposit refund systems tend to be the most frequently used instruments and have been used by all levels of government in Canada. For example, Canadian consumers pay several taxes on fuels to run their vehicles and equipment: federal, provincial/territorial, and municipal excise taxes, the federal goods and services tax, and in some instances, provincial sales tax. The purpose of these fuel taxes is to raise revenue for general government use, and to use market-based approaches to increase the energy efficiency of Canada's transportation system for environmental and energy policy purposes. The largest tax burdens are on sales of gasoline and diesel fuel to consumers. Various industrial and commercial users typically pay a reduced level of tax on the fuels they consume. Consumers who purchase more-fuel-efficient vehicles benefit from an effective reduction in the total excise tax required. Alternative fuels, such as ethanol produced from renewable sources, propane, compressed natural gas, and methanol, are exempted from the federal excise tax. For blended fuels, the tax exemption applies only to the proportion of the exempt fuel in the product.

As an example of a special regional tax, purchasers of motor fuel inside the greater Vancouver transportation service region pay an additional tax of 5¢ per litre compared with those from outside the region. Outside the region, the tax paid to the government is 7.25¢ per litre, whereas inside the region the tax paid to government is 4.25¢ per litre and the tax paid to the Greater Vancouver Transportation Authority (for air management programs) is 8¢ per litre. The additional tax monies are collected, kept  and redistributed by the Greater Vancouver Regional District.

There is growing interest in more innovative instruments, such as tradable permit schemes, in which the private sector is able to trade the right to emit within an established cap on emissions.

Subsidies

The use of subsidies can be justified in some situations, but in general they tend to create economic distortions and undermine the efficient working of the economy. They can also encourage pressures on resources by disguising the real costs of economic activity, thereby serving as a barrier to sustainable development. As part of the effort to reduce federal spending and to restructure the role of the federal government, steps have been taken since 1994 to substantially reduce or eliminate many government subsidies, grants, and contributions. In particular, direct government subsidies and other supports to the transportation and agriculture sectors have declined significantly. In the 1995 federal budget, the government also indicated that direct financial support for energy mega projects would end after 1995–1996. Natural Resources Canada has taken steps to increase the share of grants and contributions for energy efficiency and alternative energy in the past decade.

Other incentive measures

Methyl bromide is being phased out under federal regulations by 2005.  To ease the transition, companies that use methyl bromide have been assigned allowances on a yearly basis.  These users are permitted to trade whatever portion of their allowances that they do not use. Approximately 30 percent of methyl bromide allowances (on a kilogram basis) are transferred annually, with the majority of these transfers taking place between users and the supplier. The result has been to keep a more competitive supply of methyl bromide for the smaller applicators, however, cost savings have not been quantified.

Decision Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

Environment Canada focuses on three broad categories of air pollutants, although all air issues are closely interconnected and have common sources and common health and environmental impacts. These categories are:

In general, Environment Canada will continue research and development to evaluate greenhouse gas mitigation technologies; assess the impacts of climate change on northern water resources; understand the importance of various sources of hazardous air pollutants, and their concentrations, interactions, and effects in the Canadian environment; identify factors delaying recovery of aquatic ecosystems in response to lower emissions of acid rain; and assess the risks to human health and the environment posed by particulate matter and other contaminants. Through its Weather and Environmental Predictions business line, Environment Canada is supporting adaptation to influences and impacts of atmospheric and related environmental conditions on human health and safety, economic prosperity, and environmental quality. It is doing this through research into adaptation to day-to-day and longer-term changes in atmospheric, hydrological, and ice conditions.

Increasingly, Environment Canada seeks to take actions with its partners, other federal and provincial ministries and key stakeholders such as industrial, health and environmental associations to address several pollutants simultaneously, thus providing multiple benefits from the same investment. Over the next three years, Environment Canada will continue to focus its actions to reduce adverse human impact on the atmosphere and on air quality in the following ways.

Climate change

The National Climate Change Process established 16 Issue Tables/Working Groups involving 450 experts from industry, academia, non-governmental organizations, and government. The Tables reviewed seven key sectors of the economy and eight cross-cutting strategies. An analysis and modeling group integrated the results into a comprehensive preliminary analysis of the implications of options for meeting Canada’s Kyoto target. No other country has adopted such an open, inclusive, and comprehensive process. Among other issues, the National Process identified:

In 2000, building on the work of the National Process and acknowledging the considerable contributions of the Issue Tables, the Energy and Environment Ministers moved forward a coordinated national approach to climate change that includes the National Implementation Strategy for Climate Change and the First National Climate Change Business Plan, the federal component of which is reflected in the Government of Canada Action Plan 2000 on Climate Change.

The Strategy outlines five themes or priority areas for its first phase, which are:

The Strategy will be implemented through a series of three-year business plans. These action-based plans will be continually monitored, reviewed, and updated to reflect new understandings and opportunities, and presented to Ministers on an annual basis. The Government of Canada Action Plan 2000 on Climate Change (found at the following Web site: http://www.climatechange.gc.ca), approved in October 2000, is the federal government’s contribution to the First National Climate Change Business Plan that is being implemented with the provinces and territories. Over the next few months, the Government of Canada will work with provincial/territorial governments and stakeholders to fine-tune the measures and seek partnerships.

Under Action Plan 2000, the Government of Canada announced in the mini-Budget of October 18, 2000, that it intends to invest $500 million,  in measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Combined with the $625 million for climate change-related activities for the next five years that was announced in the 2000 federal budget, this investment results in a commitment of $1.1 billion to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Canada. This builds on the $850 million the Government of Canada has spent on climate change since 1995. The Plan reflects the Government of Canada's contribution to the First National Climate Change Business Plan that is being developed with the provinces and territories. Federal, provincial, and territorial ministers of energy and the environment have now met to discuss their respective plans for addressing climate change.

The five-year Action Plan 2000 targets key sectors and includes initiatives in transportation, energy (oil and gas production and electricity), industry, buildings, forestry and agriculture, international projects, technology, science, and adaptation. These sectors account for more than 90 percent of Canada’s greenhouse gas emissions. The initiatives in Action Plan 2000 will achieve greenhouse gas emissions reduction of about 65 megatons per year during the commitment period of  2008 to 2012. The following graph outlines the key areas that are expected to contribute to these emissions reductions.

Substances that deplete the ozone layer

Canada is a Party to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer and is subject to the controls prescribed to under the Protocol. Charged with developing a coordinated national strategy to eliminate emissions of ozone-depleting substances in Canada and to harmonize the control measures taken by governments, the working group (described under Question 2), led by Environment Canada, prepared the National Action Plan for the Recovery, Recycling, and Reclamation of CFCs. This plan, endorsed by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment in October 1992, identifies the tasks necessary to ensure that harmonized, progressive actions take place to control all ozone-depleting substances. To date Canada has banned the production and consumption of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) since 1996, carbon tetrachloride since 1995, trichloroethane since 1996 and halons since 1994, and is phasing out other ozone-depleting substances in accordance with the Protocol. Canada is committed to implementing the Protocol both domestically and internationally and contributes to the Multilateral Fund, the financial mechanism for aiding developing countries in their quest to comply with the Protocol. 

Air quality

Canada-wide standards for particulate and ozone were approved by federal and provincial/territorial ministers of the environment in June 2000.  These standards commit all jurisdictions to reaching specific reduction targets by 2010. For further information, please visit: http://www.ccme.ca

On October 13, 2000 delegations of Canada and the United States finalized a draft of the Ozone Annex to the 1999 U.S. - Canada Air Quality Agreement. The commitments in the final draft relate to the control and reduction of emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) which are precursors of ground-level ozone, a major component of smog and unhealthy air over major regions of eastern North America.

To improve air quality, Environment Canada is also

Hazardous air pollutants

For Persistent Organic Pollutants, a protocol has been negotiated under the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution.  With the signing of this regional Protocol, the stage has been set for the next step:  a global agreement on Persistent Organic Pollutants under the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP).  Canada has already prohibited the manufacture and import of new PCB equipment and instituted management controls that have led to an overall decline in the level of PCBs in the Canadian environment.  Canada is also engaging in cooperative projects with developing countries and economies in transition to reduce or eliminate the release of persistent organic pollutants that may endanger the health of Canadians, particularly Aboriginal peoples living in the North.

Dioxins and furans, released into the environment as by-products from various manufacturing and industrial processes, were declared toxic under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act in 1990.

In 1995, the Canadian government adopted the Toxic Substances Management Policy which provides a science-based framework to identify toxic substances that are bioaccumulative, persistent and predominately released as a result of human activity.  The policy calls for the virtual elimination of these substances from the environment.

The Arctic, one of the world's most sensitive ecosystems, is being further protected by projects under the Arctic Council fostered by Canada, Denmark/Greenland, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden and the United States.  Results of the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program form a data source for those involved in Arctic contaminants research.

Canada, the United States and Mexico have developed joint regional action plans on PCBs, DDT and chlordane. 

Persistent Organic Pollutants are included in the great Lakes Binational Toxics Strategy (Canada/U.S.) and other complementary agreements.    

Terrestrial and marine resource development for greenhouse gas sinks

Canada recognizes that promoting terrestrial and marine resource development for greenhouse gas sinks has both atmospheric and other environmental benefits. For example, the soil management practices that build up the carbon sink in agricultural soils have other benefits with respect to soil fertility, soil structure, erosion control, crop yields, and ultimately, farm profitability. The recently announced first business plan under the new National Implementation Strategy for Climate Change calls for concrete action to enhance carbon storage in agricultural soils and forests. See Question 8 for activities being carried out in Canada to enhance carbon sinks.

Canada has a continuing interest in the recognition of greenhouse gas sinks with respect to its Kyoto obligations, and will be actively involved in the discussion of this issue.

Substances that deplete the ozone layer

Canada is a Party to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer and is subject to the controls prescribed to under the Protocol.  To date Canada has banned the production and consumption of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) since 1996, carbon tetrachloride since 1996, trichloroethane since 1996, and halons since 1994, and is phasing out other ozone-depleting substances in accordance with the Protocol. Canada is committed to the implementation of the Protocol both domestically and internationally and is a contributor to the Multilateral Fund, the financial mechanism for aiding developing countries in their quest for compliance with the Protocol.

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions

The Government of Canada Action Plan 2000 on Climate Change, described under Question 6, sets out a package of initiatives to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in key sectors. The Plan includes a number of measures to develop and deploy emerging renewable and alternative energy sources to meet the demand for energy while decreasing emissions. The renewable and alternative energy industries have been extensively involved in the two-year consultation process. Action Plan 2000 captures many of the best ideas resulting from this process.

Specific initiatives to support the research, development and deployment of renewable and alternative energy technologies include:

Conserving and increasing greenhouse gas sinks

Terrestrial: Agriculture

Canada’s agricultural soils have lost about 25 percent of their original carbon content since cultivation began approximately 100 years ago. These soils accounted for about 7 percent of agricultural emissions of carbon dioxide in 1996. The carbon content of soils can be influenced by management practices, such as tillage systems. According to model predictions, if Canadian farmers continue to convert from conventional tillage to conservation tillage systems with less summerfallow at the present rate, agricultural soils will become a net sink for carbon by 2010. This trend will continue as long as carbon‑enhancing land management practices are adopted, until the soil reaches a new equilibrium for the new practices.

Federal and provincial agriculture departments will continue to promote land uses and soil management practices that build carbon soil by adding organic matter or reducing the rate at which soil carbon decays. Such practices include:

 Terrestrial: Forestry

Forests cover 45 percent of Canada’s landscape and are a dominant component of our economy and culture. Forests and forest soils remove and store large amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Sustainable forest management can enhance the amount of carbon that is stored, or sequestered. Canada’s Action Plan 2000 identifies afforestation (planting trees where they previously did not exist, in this case on marginal farmland) and expansion of the farm shelterbelt program (particularly on the Prairies) as two ways to increase carbon storage in forests.

Marine

In order to provide a firm scientific basis for the development of governmental policy on the reduction of fossil fuel CO2 emissions, Canada's marine greenhouse gas research programs are designed to:

As a member nation in the Climate Technology Initiative to mitigate CO2 emissions, Canada will participate in 2001 in the first international CO2 disposal experiment, which will use PVC pipe to inject 100 tons of liquid CO2 at a depth of 850 m off Kona coast of Hawaii. Canada will also participate in the international program in 2002 to determine the influence of iron on the sea-to-air flux of climatically active gases in an iron fertilization experiment in the northeast subarctic Pacific.

Mitigating ozone layer depletion

Short-term goals for mitigating ozone layer depletion are:

Long-term goals for mitigating ozone layer depletion are:

Mitigating transboundary air pollution

Canada-wide standards for particulates and ozone were signed by federal and provincial/territorial ministers of the environment in June 2000. These standards commit all jurisdictions to reaching specific reduction targets by 2010. For further information, please visit the Web site of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment: http://www.ccme.ca

 In October 2000, delegations of Canada and the United States finalized a draft of the Ozone Annex to the 1999 U.S.– Canada Air Quality Agreement, with the assistance of health, environmental, industry, and labour representatives. The Annex defines the region in each country to which the agreement applies. In Canada, this region includes within central and southern Ontario and southern Quebec, representing more than 50 percent of Canada’s population. In the United States, the region includes 18 states and the District of Columbia, representing about 40 percent of the country’s population. Commitments under the agreement relate to the control and reduction of emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOX) and volatile organic compounds (VOC), which are precursors of ground-level ozone, a major component of smog and unhealthy air over major regions in Eastern North America. Emission control measures for emissions of these compounds are specific to each country:

In Canada:

Aggressive annual caps by 2007 of 39 kilotonnes of NOX emissions from fossil-fuel power plants in southern Ontario and 5 kilotonnes of NOX  in southern Quebec aligned with U.S. standards year-round.

Implementation of stringent emission reduction regulations, aligned with the United States for:

Estimated total NOX reductions in the Canadian transboundary region of 44 percent year-round by 2010.

The agreement also provides for:

Canada is leading the negotiation of a global agreement under the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to reduce and eliminate the release through the atmosphere of the world's most toxic persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as DDT and PCBs. Canada is affected through the global transport of these and other pollutants in the atmosphere. In its Budget 2000, Canada committed $20 million over the next five years to projects that will help developing countries and countries with economies in transition to reduce or eliminate the release of POPs into the environment.

Canada was the first country to ratify the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Protocols on POPs and Heavy Metals.

Canada has signed the Canada-Wide Acid Rain Strategy for Post-2000, and is currently working in collaboration with the provinces and territories on its implementation. The Strategy calls for new emission reduction targets in eastern Canada, pursuing emission reduction commitments from the U.S., ensuring the adequacy of acid rain science and monitoring, and minimizing growth in emissions in areas where deposition is still below levels that cause harm.

Additional resources of $8.7 million over five years ($2.1 million in 2000) have been allocated for enhancing the science and monitoring programs on Acid Rain. Efforts are made to continually improve and expand the National Pollutants Release Inventory, each year providing Canadians with more information on pollutants released in their communities. Canada has doubled funding for federal–provincial air pollution monitoring with an additional $1.2 million for the National Air Pollution Surveillance Network. In 1999, Canada initiated the first program on smog forecasting in New Brunswick. This program was expanded to Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island in 2000. A pilot project is currently underway to share smog forecasting information with provincial and municipal governments in the Vancouver area. The program will be fully operational in 2001. Canada is strengthening the science of clean air through the provision of $60 million to create the Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences to strengthen science capacity in air quality, climate change and extreme weather issues.

Other

For further details on what the Canadian government is doing to protect the atmosphere, please visit the following Web site: http://www.ec.gc.ca/air/gov-efforts_e.shtml

Decision Making: Major Groups Involvement

Increasingly, Canadians participate in the decision making and economic activities related to sustainable use or development of land and natural resources. Environment Canada and Natural Resources Canada are working in partnership with provinces, territories, and municipalities to improve local access to clean air and clean water and to reduce the threat of climate change in urban and rural centres by providing $25 million to create the Green Municipal Enabling Fund and $100 million to create the Green Municipal Investment Fund. These funds will provide grants, loans, and loan guarantees for projects that increase the energy and environmental efficiency and cost-effectiveness of municipal water, wastewater, waste, energy, and public transportation facilities and services. Projects include energy-efficient retrofits of buildings, district energy systems, deployment of renewable energy technologies, improved public transportation services, and upgraded waste- and water-management services.

Municipal governments have been involved in greenhouse gas reduction for more than a decade. More than 60 Canadian communities have joined the Partners for Climate Protection Program, a joint program of the Federation of Canadian Municipalities and the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives, committing themselves to reducing greenhouse gas emissions in their own operations and communities. These municipalities are developing local action plans to guide their actions. Municipalities are actively involved in the national climate change process through their work on the Municipalities Table and as active participants on other tables as well. For further information, please visit the following Web site: http://www.fcm.ca

Several Canadian municipalities have also established regulations to protect the stratospheric ozone  layer. For example, the city of Burnaby has passed by-laws mandating the recovery of CFCs and halons. Fines are assessed to individuals and companies that ignore by-law provisions. The city of Montreal has developed a purchasing policy that mandates the use of alternative ozone-friendly products and technologies.

Decisions on suburban development, public transit, municipal sewage, garbage dumps, and other areas with a bearing on air quality are all made municipally, giving municipalities great scope for contributing to improvements in air quality and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. For example, the Toronto Atmospheric Fund (http://www.city.toronto.on.ca/taf) was established in 1992 with an endowment of $23 million from the sale of city property. The Fund was created to help Toronto meet its goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 20 percent by 2005. It is managed by a board of directors made up of city councillors, city staff, and citizens, who direct funds to finance projects that save energy and money, cut greenhouse gas emissions, create jobs, and make the city a healthier place to live and work. Loans and grants are made to community groups, government organizations, and businesses, which work in partnership with Fund to reduce emissions.

Canada recognizes the need to incorporate the views of all stakeholders in atmospheric issues, including project proponents, beneficiaries, and affected groups, including the nine groups identified in Agenda 21. Canada has opened up its governance processes and invested substantially over the past decade to promote decision making compatible with sustainable development in government and industries, and among individual citizens and consumers. Public participation is encouraged at all levels of decision making, from legislative committees to regulatory and judicial hearings and environmental assessment processes, for example for adopting the Canada-wide standards on particulates and ozone, and for the Ozone Annex.

Women, youth, indigenous people, NGOs, local authorities (e.g., the Federation of Canadian Municipalities), and business and industry have all been represented on the Canadian delegation to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change.  Please refer to Question 6 (Climate Change section) for more details on the consultation process on climate change.

Working groups also ensure the participation of a variety of stakeholders in decision making. For example, the Methyl Bromide Industry Working Group was established to provide a consultative forum where interested stakeholders such as growers, end users, fumigators, pesticide manufacturers, research organizations, and government and non-government organizations can discuss and provide strategic direction on effective implementation of Canada's program for the control of methyl bromide. The mandate of the group is also to identify priorities for research and registration of alternatives in each end use; discuss, review and make recommendations on the adoption of alternatives, including institutional barriers, if any, to such adoption; and to discuss opportunities for joint researching, demonstration and adoption of new alternative technologies. The group is co-chaired by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Environment Canada, and an industry representative. This informal group acts as a supplement to, but not a replacement for, other consultative mechanisms and related advisory bodies.

Programmes and Projects

Industrial activities

Industry Canada’s Canadian Business Environmental Performance Office is a one-stop centre for information and services to help Canadian companies improve their environmental performance. A public–private sector partnership, the office demonstrates the importance of environmental performance to profitability and competitiveness by providing quick, easy and integrated access to major providers of sources of information, services and advice on emergency, health and safety management, resource conservation and pollution prevention, waste management, resource centre and policy development, climate change, and industry-specific information.

Canadian Environmental Solutions provides a comprehensive database that matches organizations with an environmental problem with profiles of Canadian firms and their technologies that can solve them. CES describes almost 2,000 environmental problems, including climate change and other air qualityissues, and profiles 900 companies that can provide solutions to them.

Industrial activities that contribute to reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in Canada are varied and extensive. For example, energy-efficiency gains are being investigated, including the recycling of materials. Expert working groups in each industrial sector are devising and testing process modifications and new technologies.

The following federal government programs stimulate the use of renewable energy sources by industry, thus reducing greenhouse gas emissions:

Other federal initiatives directed at industry and related to reduction in greenhouse gas emissions include:

Voluntary Challenge and Registry, Inc., a stand-alone, not-for-profit corporation, encourages private and public sector organizations to voluntarily limit or reduce their net greenhouse gas emissions, as a step towards meeting Canada's climate change goals. More than 700 organizations from all sectors of the economy have joined the initiative (for further information, investigate http://www.vcr-mvr.ca).

Agricultural activities

The first step in reducing agricultural greenhouse gas emissions is developing a reliable inventory of these gases, both sources and sinks. In 1998, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada reported the results of preliminary work to create such an inventory in The Health of Our Air: Toward Sustainable Agriculture in Canada. Measurement and modeling methods continue to be refined to improve this inventory. A national agri-environmental indicator, the Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Budget, first published in 2000, provides a baseline against which to measure future changes and to assess our success in achieving emissions reductions. According to the most recent estimates, agricultural emissions of nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide make up about 10 percent of Canada’s total emissions of these gases. These amounts include all sources associated with farming except food processing and transportation, and reflect an increase of about 4 percent between 1981 and 1996. 

Between 1981 and 1996, agricultural emissions of nitrous oxide rose by 21 percent, mainly because of more-intensive farming practices and increased use of nitrogen fertilizer. Nitrous oxide emissions can be reduced by using methods of nitrogen application that improve plant-uptake efficiency, reduce nitrous oxide release per unit of nitrogen applied, and reduce the amount of nitrogen in manure by changing the composition of livestock feed. Current research and agricultural extension focuses on:

Emissions of methane remained relatively constant between 1981 and 1996. Current work to reduce methane emissions involves improved livestock feeding and better manure management.

Emissions of carbon dioxide dropped by 13 percent, mainly the result of adopting conservation farming practices. Reducing the amount of carbon dioxide emitted by the soil by increasing the amount stored by the soil is being achieved through management practices cited in Question 8.

Examples of agricultural programs that contribute to reductions in greenhouse gas emissions are:

Canada recognizes that land-use planning and practices have an impact on protecting the atmosphere. Through various programs, initiatives and partnerships with industry, government, non-profit partners, Canada undertakes research on housing technology, and type in addition to land-use and transportation planning.

The two main changes in agricultural land use in the past 15 to 20 years that have contributed to atmospheric protection are reduction of summerfallow and an increase in permanent cover.

Summerfallow, the practice of tilling cropland (using mechanical or chemical tillage, or a combination of these) and leaving it unplanted for a whole year, was once widely practised in western Canada because it helped control weeds, replenish soil moisture, and increase available nutrients in the soil. Soils frequently under summerfallow usually have a lower carbon content than those cropped annually. Fallow both hastens decomposition of soil carbon and reduces carbon inputs into the soil. Between 1971 and 1996, the area of summerfallow in Canada dropped from about 11 million hectares to about 6 million hectares and is expected to continue to drop until it stabilizes at 4.5 million hectares by about 2050. This steady reduction in summerfallow area contributed to the 20 percent decrease in bare-soil days (the number of days a soil is left without a crop and is thus exposed to the elements) in Canada between 1981 and 1996, which in turn contributed to reduced risk of soil erosion.

Returning cultivated land to permanent cover, such as grass, is another way to increase the amount of soil carbon. This land-use option reduces agricultural productivity, so it is currently practised only on marginal lands and, to a lesser extent, in small areas of cultivated lands planted to shelterbelts or grassed waterways for the control of wind and water erosion. Afforestation, or planting trees on marginal lands, including marginal farmland, is gaining interest in Canada.

In addition to activities outlined under Question 8, proposed amendments to the Ozone-Depleting Substances Regulations include:

Cooperative research and demonstration projects between government and industry have already reduced the use of methyl bromide in Canada by about 40 percent. In agriculture and agri-food production, some alternatives to methyl bromide have been identified, including different chemicals and methods. For example, a guideline has been prepared to encourage the use of integrated pest management, combining preventative and treatment practices, to control pest problems in food-processing facilities.

In 1990, Canada’s concern about its greenhouse gas emissions spurred a major expansion of federal programs to focus on this issue.

The Energy Efficiency and Alternative Energy (EAE) program, launched by Natural Resources Canada in 1991, supports economically feasible increases in energy efficiency and the use of alternative energy sources. It encourages investment in corporate and consumer EAE opportunities and seeks to engage all sectors of the economy and Canadian society in rethinking and improving energy use.  It does this by

In 1995, federal and provincial ministers of energy and environment approved the National Action Program on Climate Change, tabled at the 1st Conference of the Parties (CoP1) in April 1995. To reinforce voluntary action, the Joint Ministers of Energy and Environment agreed in February 1995 to establish the Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry, which broadens the awareness of the need to act and publicizes the plans and accomplishments of organizations that reduce their greenhouse emissions. It was incorporated in October 1997 as a non-government, not-for-profit organization.

The 1997 federal budget announced a $60-million, three-year program to stimulate energy efficiency and use of renewable energy sources. In December 1997, Canada participated in the 3rd CoP, agreeing to reduce greenhouse gas emission to 6 percent below 1990 levels by 2008–2012. In early 1998, federal and provincial/territorial governments established a National Climate Change Process to examine the impact, costs, and benefits of the Kyoto Protocol and the various implementation options open to Canada. The 1998 federal budget provided $150 million over three years for a Climate Change Action Fund to help Canada develop its response to the Kyoto Protocol.

Activities under the Climate Change Action Fund have been divided into four components:

Operation of the Climate Change Action Fund is based on a number of principles:

For more information on this program, visit this Web site:  ccaf@climatechange.gc.ca

In April 1998, the Office of Energy Efficiency (OEE) was created in Natural Resources Canada to renew, strengthen, and expand Canada’s commitment to energy efficiency, particularly in relation to the Kyoto Protocol. Programs delivered by the OEE target all final energy consumers and emphasize partnerships and economic investments. A new National Advisory Council on Energy Efficiency assists in identifying opportunities for new and greater energy efficient measures. The OEE reports annually on the state of energy efficiency in Canada and manages Canada’s new annual Energy Efficiency Conference, an energy efficiency technology products and services trade show, and Canada’s Energy Efficiency Awards ceremony. For further information on OEE programs, please visit the following Web site: http://oee.nrca.gc.ca

Environment Canada’s EcoAction Community Funding Program provides financial support to community groups for projects that have measurable, positive impacts on the environment. Non-profit groups and organizations (including community groups, environmental groups, Aboriginal groups and First Nations councils, service clubs, associations, and youth and seniors’ organizations) are eligible to apply for funding under the program. EcoAction encourages projects that protect, rehabilitate, or enhance the natural environment, and build the capacity of communities to sustain these activities into the future. Projects require matching funds or in-kind support from other sponsors. Priority for funding is given to projects that will achieve results in the areas of clear air and climate change, clean water, and nature. 

The Canadian Climate Program Board oversees research activities and facilitates cooperation in Canada in the area of climate and climate change. The Board, with membership from federal, provincial and territorial governments, universities, private industry, and environmental organizations, was responsible for preparing the science, impacts, and adaptation components of Canada’s National Implementation Strategy on Climate Change. The federal government sponsors an innovative research program called the Climate Research Network in 16 universities across the country, aiming to increase understanding of the chemical, physical, and biological changes related to climate change.

The Atmospheric and Climate Science Research Directorate of the Meteorological Service of Canada conducts research in the atmospheric and hydrological sciences related to meteorology, climate, air quality, and the associated environmental impacts and adaptations, and carries out science assessments.

The Canadian Centre for Climate Modeling and Analysis (CCCma) has developed one of the most advanced General Circulation Models in use today to predict future climate, study climate change and variability, and better understand the various process that govern our climate system. Selected data from CCCma simulations are contributed to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Data Distribution Centre to facilitate their use for climate impact studies. Work to refine the models is ongoing.

Canadian scientists participate in international research on the climate system under the auspices of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP). Within the WCRP, Canada is participating in the Global Energy and Water Experiment by studying hydrological processes in the permafrost- saturated and largely snow-covered lands of the Mackenzie River Basin. For further details, please consult the following Webcsite: http://www.gc.ca/initiatives_e.cfm

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada conducts a National Agri-Environmental Indicator Project (http://www.agr.ca/policy/environment) that, among other goals, assesses Canadian agriculture’s greenhouse budget using national five-year census data. It also carri es out ongoing research to answer the questions of how farming practices affect the composition of the atmosphere and how these emissions can be reduced. Canadian experts on agricultural adaptation and mitigation currently sit on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

Status

Canada expects long-term shifts in average climate conditions and/or a change in the frequency of extreme climate events as a result of climate change. Both will have significant direct and indirect impacts on our lands, our oceans, and our resources. In some areas of the country, current changes in climate are impacting upon natural resources, water resources and the associated socio-economic systems. Examples of the types of effects that may be felt in the various regions of Canada follow.

British Columbia and Yukon

Climate change will have significant impacts in British Columbia and the Yukon, including increased flood dangers in some areas, drought in others, and widespread disruption to forests, fisheries and wildlife. Sea levels are expected to rise up to 30 cm on the north coast of British Columbia and up to 50 cm on the north Yukon coast by 2050, mainly due to warmer ocean temperatures. This could cause increased sedimentation, coastal flooding and permanent inundation of some natural ecosystems, and could place low-lying homes, docks and port facilities at risk. In winter, increased winter precipitation, permafrost degradation and glacier retreat due to warmer temperatures may lead to landslides in unstable mountainous regions, and put fish and wildlife habitat, roads, and other man-made structures at risk. Increased precipitation will put greater stress on water and sewage systems, while glacier reduction could affect the flow of rivers and streams that depend on glacier water, with potential negative impacts on tourism, hydroelectric generation, fish habitat and lifestyles. Spring flood damage could be more severe both on the coast and throughout the interior of British Columbia and the Yukon, and existing flood protection works may no longer be adequate. Summer droughts along the south coast and southern interior will mean decreased stream flow in those areas, putting fish survival at risk, and reducing water supplies in the dry summer season when irrigation and domestic water use is greatest.

 Prairies

Current projections suggest that climate change would result in increased air temperatures and decreased soil moisture. There is less confidence about whether precipitation will increase or decrease or about how climate change may affect severe weather events. Most scenarios suggest that the semi-arid regions of the Prairies can expect an increase in the frequency and length of droughts. Some of the potential impacts of these changes include: Average potential crop yields could fall by 10–30 percent due to higher temperatures and lower soil moisture. However, higher temperatures could lengthen the growing season, and may increase crop production in northern regions where suitable soils exist. Increased demand for water pumping and summer cooling, due to drought, and decreased winter demand due to higher temperatures, could push electrical utilities into a summer peak load position at the same time as hydropower production is reduced by decreased water flow. This could result in increased thermal power production with an increase in fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.Semi-permanent and seasonal wetlands could dry up, leading to reduced production of waterfowl and other wildlife species.

 Arctic

In the past 100 years, the Mackenzie district has warmed by 1.5 o C and the Arctic tundra area by 0.5oC, while the Arctic mountains and fjords of the eastern Arctic have cooled slightly. Future winter temperature increases of 5–7oC over the mainland and much of the Arctic Islands are projected. Summer temperatures are expected to increase by up to 5oC on the mainland, and by 1–2 oC over marine areas. Annual precipitation is expected to increase by up to 25 percent. These changes in temperature and precipitation would have dramatic effects on tundra and taiga/tundra ecosystems, reducing them by as much as two-thirds. More than one-half of the discontinuous permafrost area could eventually disappear, with marked surface instability in the short term. Sea ice cover would be much thinner and would virtually disappear in summer. This would improve Arctic shipping conditions but have serious consequences for some animal species such as seals and polar bears.

 Ontario

Ontario could experience anywhere from 3-8 °C average annual warming by the latter part of the 21st century, leading to fewer weeks of snow, a longer growing season, less moisture in the soil, and an increase in the frequency and severity of droughts. Other impacts of climate change are expected to  include more days when heat stress and air pollution adversely affect people's health; increases in the frequency and severity of forest fires; and changes to aquatic ecosystems and alterations to wetlands. As well, water levels in the Great Lakes could decline to record lows by the latter part of the 21st century, reducing shipping capacity.

Quebec

In Quebec, northern regions should warm more than southern region, with precipitation likely decreasing slightly in the south and increasing in the north. Likely consequences include lower water levels in the St. Lawrence River, which will affect shipping, navigation, and the marine environment of the river; and positive effects on agriculture, including a longer growing season and the extension of agriculture further north.

Atlantic

Temperature rises in Atlantic Canada are expected to be more modest that in the rest of the country. The Canadian coupled climate model projects a warming of 0–4oC, with the least change along the Labrador coast and highest changes in the western portions of the region. Atlantic Canada is particularly vulnerable, however, to rising sea levels, whose impacts could include greater risk of floods, coastal erosion, coastal sedimentation, and reductions in sea and river ice. Other potential impacts include: loss of fish habitat; changes in ice-free days, which could affect marine transportation and the offshore oil and gas industry; and changes in range, distribution, and breeding success rates of seabirds.

More information on the impacts of climate change on Canada can be found through the following links:  
Impacts of climate change related to energy, forests and our physical environment at  
http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/gcc/english/html/impacts.html  
The Canada Country Study: Climate Impacts and Adaptation at:  
http://www.ec.gc.ca/climate/ccs/ccs_e.htm  
Science, Impacts and Adaptation at:  
http://sts.gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/adaptation/main.htm  

Human Health

Climate change is likely to have wide-ranging and mostly adverse impacts on human health. These impacts would arise by both direct pathways (e.g., exposure to changes in thermal stress and to changes in extreme events) and indirect pathways (e.g., increases in some air pollutants, pollens, and mold spores; malnutrition; increases in the potential transmission of vector-borne and water borne diseases; and stresses on the general public health infrastructure).

The young, the elderly, the frail, and the ill, especially those in large urban areas, are particularly susceptible to projected increases in the frequency and severity of heat waves. If temperatures warm as projected, sensitive populations in urbanized areas in southeastern Ontario and southern Québec could experience increased incidence of heat-related illnesses and death.

Although impacts on extreme events are somewhat uncertain, an increase in the frequency and severity of extreme events may lead to: (a) increases in deaths, injuries, infectious diseases, and stress-related disorders; and (b) increases in other adverse health effects associated with social disruption and environmentally-forced migration. A recent extreme precipitation event was partly responsible for a 1995 outbreak of toxoplasmosis in the capital regional district of British Columbia.

With respect to Infectious diseases, it has been suggested that western equine encephalitis, eastern equine encephalitis, and the snowshoe hare virus could expand their ranges in Canada. Malaria could potentially return to southern Canada, and the area in which populations are susceptible to dengue and yellow fever may extend northward into Canada. Other diseases that may increase their geographic distribution/incidence include heartworm, Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, and hantavirus.

Projected increases in temperature could affect the seasonality of certain respiratory disorders and could exacerbate air pollution in both urban and rural areas, and thus accentuate respiratory disorders.

Illnesses related to environmental contamination (e.g,. by Bacillus anthracis), water contamination (e.g., by Giardia, Cryptosporium, Leptospira, and sea-food toxins), and reduced water quality (e.g., by parasites) are projected to grow in number.

Additional health impacts might result from changes in water quantity, nutritional health (e.g., dietary changes resulting from shifts in migratory patterns and abundance of indigenous food sources), weather-related accidents, and increased numbers of environmental refugees.

Traditional lifestyles

The subsistence economic sector (hunting, trapping, fishing) is worth about $15,000 per household annually in the Arctic and about half that in the subarctic and often provides up to half of the total local economy. For indigenous people, the role of subsistence lifestyles in maintaining a sense of self and of connection to heritage is equally important. Subsistence living depends upon both the availability and distribution of wildlife and related resources, and the use of traditional knowledge and local adaptations to environmental conditions. Natural ecosystems are vulnerable to projected climate change with consequent changes possible in their location, habitat characteristics, and species composition. As a result, subsistence patterns (locations, timing, type of game) and the sustainability of subsistence lifestyles are also vulnerable.

Settlements

The built environment includes homes, buildings, supporting infrastructure, roads, railways, and engineering structures such as dykes and pipelines. Impacts from climate change on the built environment could include changes in construction requirements to deal with an altered climate, changes in the frequency and intensity of floods and other extreme events, and projected changes in land stability (e.g., landslides and permafrost melting).

The length of the summer construction season is projected to increase while the length of the winter season could decrease.  Although an advantage for southern Canada, a shortened winter season in the North could create difficulty for access (due to projected decreases in the viability of winter roads) and for heavy construction (due to concerns regarding disturbing sensitive tundra areas with heavy equipment).

Increases in frost heave, thaw settlement, and slope instability associated with projected permafrost melting could negatively affect the structural integrity and design of northern structures and construction requirements, including utility lines and pipelines. Foundation conditions are vulnerable in the North as permafrost thaws, with differential settlement possibly leading to changes in the integrity of structures, or even collapse of buildings. Utility lines and pipelines may rupture. Mining operations might become easier, but waste dumps, tailings dams, and water diversion channels could be vulnerable, possibly leading to their collapse and increased and expensive maintenance.

Cost savings from projected decreases in snow loadings on buildings and structures are possible in some areas; however, projected increases in wind and rain loadings and in freeze/thaw cycles could have negative impacts. The stability of foundations is of concern in those areas where increased winter rainfall, increased freeze/thaw cycles and drier summers are projected.

Although there remains considerable uncertainty regarding projections of changes in flooding and other extreme events, the potential implications of these changes for buildings and construction, warrant their consideration. The flooding of low-lying homes, docks, and port facilities, as well as stresses on water distribution and sewage systems associated with projected increases in sea level, extreme rain/snow fall, and spring ice jams on rivers are a major concern. Particularly vulnerable to changes in extreme events are electricity transmission and utility lines (due to changes in wind and ice loading), bridge piers, and dams (due to changes in flood levels and ice jams). Premature structural failure due to deterioration over months and years could be accelerated where increased occurrences of such things as temperature extremes and frequency of combined wind and rain are anticipated.

In many cases, the current margin of safety built into the National Building Code is expected to be sufficient to maintain safe and economical structures, given good workmanship and materials and no significant changes in variability. Adaptation options to address concerns related to structural safety, as well as energy conservation and the minimization of life-cycle costs of building and structures, include:

 Ecosystems

Water resources

In many parts of Canada there are conflicting demands for water which could be exacerbated by projected changes in climate.  
Improved management of water infrastructure and demand-side management of water supply have the potential to mitigate some of the impacts of conflicting and increasing water demands. Sectoral adaptive strategies to climate change should include consideration of the many and competing demands for water (e.g., natural ecosystems, municipalities, manufacturers, recreation and tourism, agriculture, hydro-electric generation, and export requirements). For example, the agriculture sector on the Prairies has identified an expected increase in the need to irrigate crops in response to projected changes in climate. Irrigation requires capital investments and a sufficient supply of water. With a projected reduction in overall available water in this region it may not be realistic to expect that increased irrigation will be a viable adaptation strategy for agriculture.

Canadians spend more than a billion dollars per year in the water resources sector adapting to current climate conditions. These adaptations include the construction of dams, sewers, drainage ditches, floodways, and other infrastructure. Adapting to climate change that includes a potentially more vigorous hydrological cycle will likely increase these expenditures substantially.

Terrestrial ecosystems

Plant growth is expected to increase on average. Where natural ecosystems are fragmented with patches linked by corridors, further disruptions and land-cover changes could sever these links, causing even greater fragmentation and consequent disruption of migration pathways. The boundaries of the ranges of existing vegetative and wildlife species could shift to higher latitudes and higher elevations, including the invasion of southern or lower elevation species, respectively. This reflects an expected northward shift in the ecoclimatic regions, as well as a change in their relative size and composition. Wildlife and biodiversity, currently reflective of existing conditions, are vulnerable under projected changes in temperatures, habitat loss or degradation, changes in food abundance or availability, and changes in predation rates, parasites and diseases. For example, Canada’s tundra area may shrink by more than 30 percent of its current size, so that it may be confined mainly to the islands north of the mainland, and its vegetative content would likely change in response to snow cover and soil moisture changes. High Arctic Peary caribou and muskoxen may become extinct, while mainland caribou would come under significant stress. A real concern is the capacity for terrestrial species to adapt to a rate of climate change that is anticipated to be faster than any experienced historically. An additional impact of a warmer tundra region is increased carbon dioxide and methane emissions as permafrost melts, thus amplifying projected climate change.  

Forest ecosystems

Changes are projected in the growth and regeneration capacity of forests in many regions of Canada. In some cases, this could alter the functioning and compositions of forests with implications for associated natural ecosystems and the long-term sustainability of the forest products market.

Generally, as a result of projected changes in climate, Canadian forests could experience increased drought stress, an increase in frequency and severity of fire, increase in vegetation growth rates, and potentially, more frequent and severe storms and wind damage in coastal areas. Forests are expected to shift northward (and to higher altitudes), but expansion may be limited by the ability of species to migrate. Some species may become extinct at the edges of their current range as more competitive species move in from the south and northern expansion is curbed by geographical and anthropogenic obstacles. The boreal forest (for example) is expected to undergo an extensive reduction in size. Grasslands and temperate deciduous species may invade from the south and northern expansion of the boreal forest is limited by poor soils, permafrost and insufficient sunshine amounts. Forest structure of the Pacific northwest is expected to remain similar to the present with richness in species diversity compensating for individual species migration. Wildlife habitat and natural reserves may suffer due to a lack of connectivity and the imbalance between habitat and climate created by climate change.

Wetlands

Wetlands are a critical resource providing habitat for species (including some of Canada’s rare, threatened, or endangered ones), storage for atmospheric carbon, nutrient and mineral cycling, water purification, and natural flood control. The most important waterfowl breeding area in North America is the Prairies wetland area, while the Great Lakes provide important migration and staging habitats.

As a consequence of climate change, semi-permanent wetlands may change from open-water dominated basins to vegetated areas and wetland salinity could increase significantly. Where lowered water level is the major impact, waterfowl habitat may be significantly altered both in quantity and quality. Over a third of the wetlands in Canada’s parkland region may shrink under warmer temperatures despite increased precipitation; the impact is expected to be less severe in the grassland region. There is some possibility that prairie wetlands may expand northward offsetting some of the anticipated losses in other parts of the region.

Aquatic ecosystems

Many fish species in lakes and streams are likely to shift northward by about 150 km for every 1oC rise in temperature; as a result, freshwater habitat for some key aquatic wildlife including salmonids could be lost in parts of Canada. Cold water species such as brook trout might be at greater risk. Reduced sea ice thickness and extent will result in mixed impacts. Some species such as the sea otter may benefit from being able to expand into new areas while others such as seals may decline due to reduced sea-ice expanses for breeding and feeding. The polar bear is particularly of concern; it could become extinct through starvation if the Arctic Ocean becomes seasonally ice free for a long enough period. Some large breeding colonies of seabirds, including colonies of Common Murre and Northern Gannets in Newfoundland, are at risk due to projected increases in sea level.

Migratory birds

Summer and winter habitats and migratory routes are vulnerable as a result of projected changes in climate. Included are important coastal staging grounds that could be subject to sea-level rise such as those in Atlantic Canada and wetlands which could be subject to drying such as those in the Prairies. In addition, the environment of migratory bird sanctuaries may no longer be suitable for the intended species and there may be implications for international agreements governing affected migratory birds.

Economic activities

Our current climate is variable and Canadians and the economy react to it in different ways.  There are many examples of successful adaptation to climate, ranging from adopting design codes, to developing and planting appropriate types of vegetation, to situating buildings or roads in certain locations, to promoting specific types of recreation activities, and so on. Canadians spend billions of dollars annually adapting to our current climate.

While some partial estimates of potential costs have been made, these are limited in scope and remain uncertain or even speculative. Values cited by the IPCC of some percentage of GDP (i.e. 1–2 percent of GDP for developed countries assuming a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide by 2050 and a mean global warming of 2.5o C) should not be taken as an estimate of the aggregate potential cost of climate change to Canada. To date, estimates downplay the incalculable risk of costly catastrophe scenarios and the possibility of unanticipated impacts, disregard the costs of adapting to a changing climate and all but ignore the social value of most non-market goods and services. As a result, a reasonable arguments could be made to either raise or lower existing estimates substantially.

 The costs of climate change adaptations are expected to arise from either technological, environmental or social considerations:

The manufacturing, industrial and non-renewable resource extraction industries are closely intertwined with the availability of appropriate energy and transportation. Projected impacts of climate change on Canada’s industrial sector are primarily related to possible changes in heating and cooling demands, possible implications from greenhouse gase reduction requirements, as well as altered transportation availability. For the foreseeable future, fossil fuel use is expected to remain dominant within the Canadian industrial sector. The viability of alternative sources of energy, such as wind and solar, will remain sensitive to cloud and wind regimes.

Energy sector

Demand: The industrial sector is the largest energy user in Canada, accounting for 43 percent of the total end-use energy demand. Energy demand for the industrial sector is expected to increase to 47 percent by 2020, thus remaining the most important energy user. The energy demands of the residential sector are anticipated to decrease in relative terms (from 19 percent of total end-use demand in 1995 to 15 percent in 2020) due to implementation of energy efficient technologies and appliances. Energy demand profiles for heating are expected to decrease and for cooling are expected to increase as a result of projected increases in temperature. It has been suggested that the Prairie agricultural sector could experience increases in energy requirements to meet projected increases in demands associated with irrigation, grain drying and harvesting.

Supply - Electricity: Hydro-electric generation potential is sensitive to changes in water availability and river flow regimes. Projections of water availability and flows suggest possible increases in generation potential in Labrador and northern Québec, and possible decreases in Ontario, the Prairies, and southeastern British Columbia. Transmission lines are sensitive to storm-related outages and, as such, concerns have been raised regarding the security of these lines should projected changes in extreme events occur. Particularly vulnerable are those industries dependent on a sustainable and uninterrupted supply of electricity (e.g., aluminum production).

Supply - Fossil fuels: Offshore oil and gas operations in the North could benefit from a retreat in the southern ice boundary, but are sensitive to more intense and frequent extreme storms projected as a result of a potentially longer open-water season. Pipeline costs in the Arctic are likely to be more expensive due to the need to address increased permafrost instability. Costs for ice-breaking tankers should be reduced. Uncertainties are still high enough, however, that the positive impacts cannot be incorporated into current design while negative impacts have to be included due to the conservative approach adopted by industry for frontier activities. As a consequence, there may be an increased cost for frontier oil and gas operations in the short term. For coal mining operations, increased erosion and landslides may be a concern in mountainous areas, such as British Columbia.

Historically, the energy industry has been able to adapt fairly successfully to changes in supply and demand, and to tackle new challenges such as the search for oil and gas under ice-covered waters through innovation. As a result, the adaptation capacity of the energy sector is considered to be high. This capacity may be challenged, however, by the expected rate of climate change and by possible surprises.

Forest industry

While an increased potential harvest level appears favoured (at least indirectly) by projected temperature levels for Canada, losses due to possible forest decline and modified fire and insect regimes, as well as drought stress in some areas, could challenge the adaptive capacity of the industry. This seems likely to be the case where long-run sustainable yield levels are considered. As a consequence, the overall impact on the Canadian forest industry is expected to vary by regions.

The adaptability of the forestry sector is dependent on the industry’s ability and willingness to adapt to whatever species do prevail as a consequence of climate change, to salvage-cut dying stands, to plant cut areas with species better adapted to the altered climate, and to move to locations where resources are more plentiful. Confidence in the industry’s ability to adapt is, in part, a reflection of the expectation that future impacts will be simply extensions of the types of conditions currently dealt with - that is, same problems, different locations and extent. Adaptation, in addition to considering the social and environmental costs, will need to address concerns regarding ecosystem sustainability (e.g., increasing forest landscapes to reduce fragmentation and maintaining migration corridors, and managing stands and landscapes to reduce crown and large area fires).

Agriculture

An important dimension to the relationship between climate and agriculture is the wide range of conditions for agricultural production existing in different regions. These differences are reflected in the projected impacts:

Crop development: The rate of development of grain crops is projected to increase, with the time between seeding and harvesting being reduced (e.g., reduced by up to 3 weeks in most regions for spring-seeded cereals and coarse grains). In northern regions, the increased development rate could reduce the risk of frost-induced crop injury.

Yields: In the Prairies, spring-seeded cereal yields are projected to decrease in the west and increase in the east. Ontario and Québec are projected to experience similarly variable results except that northern areas may experience increased production especially for corn. In both the Atlantic region and British Columbia, increased grain yield potential is foreseen, but realization of this potential is likely dependent on increased irrigation. In the Peace River area, positive impacts on cereal yields are expected to be confounded by increases in crop moisture stress and accelerated crop maturation. Oilseed yields may be generally reduced in Canada, although the effects may possibly be offset by northern expansion of the area capable of oilseed production.

Land capability: The Peace River region and northern agricultural areas in Ontario and Québec could see some expansion of the land area suitable for commercial crop production. Agricultural opportunities may develop in the southern Yukon and the lower Mackenzie River area, but they are not expected to be substantial. The area suitable for growing fruit and vegetables could expand beyond current locations in southern Québec and Ontario.

Livestock: For the western Prairies, increased summer stress on livestock is plausible due to dry pastures and poor feed production, while reduced cold stress in winter is likely.

Economics: Limited studies of the economic impacts of climate change suggest that there will be substantial variations at the sub-provincial or sub-regional levels with the potential for increased variability in annual farm profits.

There is a strong consensus that projected changes in climate could result in longer and warmer frost-free periods across Canada and, thereby, generally enhance thermal regimes for commercial agriculture. These changes in agro-climatic conditions are not expected to impact regions on an equal basis, with the longest extensions of the frost-free season expected in Atlantic Canada. The extent to which these longer and warmer frost-free seasons might benefit Canada, however, will in all likelihood be diminished by less soil moisture in all regions and under all climate change projections. Hence, it is crucial that all assessments of the implications of climatic change for Canadian agriculture take account of the possibility of both negative and positive impacts on agro-climatic properties.

The assessment of adaptation strategies has focused mainly on the Prairies or the boundaries of Canadian agriculture as defined by the current climate (where appropriate soils may limit expansion). Adaptation options include delaying the onset and rate of climate change through the reduction of greenhouse emissions using altered crop mixes and cropping practices or coping with and adapting to climate change by spreading the risks, reducing the potential occurrence and/or magnitude of negative impacts, capitalizing on new "opportunities" arising from climate change and developing appropriate research and education programs.

Adaptive measures at the farm or local level include: switching to different cultivars or introducing higher value field crops; increased use of irrigation; and diversification of farming mix to include more livestock. At the regional or national level, adaptation approaches could include: altered subsidy structures to reflect actual climate risk; crop assistance programs linked to soil conservation; and strengthened rural education programs to encourage sustainable land use practices.

Most studies to date, however, have not generally addressed the economic feasibility of such adaptation options nor the ability or willingness of the farm community to undertake them.

Fisheries

Pacific marine: Decreased and more variable sustainable harvests are projected for southern salmon populations. Pacific cod abundance is also projected to be reduced. Increased, more consistent sustainable harvests are anticipated for northern salmon populations, with sockeye salmon being most vulnerable.

Atlantic marine: Overall sustainable harvests from coastal and estuarine waters could decrease due to projected decreases in freshwater discharge and consequent declines in ecosystem productivity. Widespread changes in sustainable harvests, locations of fishing grounds, and efficiencies of fishing gear for many species are plausible due to complex and likely unpredictable changes in the ocean currents that shape offshore marine habitats and migration patterns.

Arctic marine: Increases in sustainable harvests are projected for most fish populations, due to increased ecosystem productivity as shrinking ice cover permits greater nutrient recycling.

Southern freshwater: There may be decreases in sustainable harvests for many of these fisheries due to declining water levels in lakes, declining flow rates in streams, and reductions in nutrient loading and recycling for many lakes and streams on the Canadian Shield. The proportion of the overall sustainable harvest comprised of valuable cold water fish, including species such as trout, whitefish, and grayling, could be reduced.

Northern freshwater: Increases in sustainable harvests are projected for most northern freshwater fish species, due to longer, warmer growing seasons and relatively small changes in water levels. Potentially, there will also be an increase in the diversity of fish species that can be harvested sustainably due to projected increases in the diversity of thermal habitats available to support species currently limited to more southerly ranges.

The daily activities that sustain the life of individual fish (e.g., feeding, predator avoidance, body maintenance and growth) and the seasonal activities that maintain the existence of populations (e.g., gonad development, reproduction, parental care) are all strongly effected by the annual pattern of water temperatures that fish experience. For fish, the temperature tolerance zones for survival, growth and reproduction are species-specific characteristics.

Concerns have been expressed that pooling and averaging of impacts can hide smaller scale inequities and that responses at the larger scale alone may not be sufficient. In addition, fisheries adaptation options identified, for the most part, have been used previously in response to other environmental or use changes and each has limitations, typically assuming orderly change. As such, considerations in the development of adaptation options include:

Transportation

Land-based: It is expected that overall land-based transportation costs could be reduced due to shorter and/or less harsh winters (more efficient engine operation, less warm-up time, shorter snow removal seasons although with greater amounts during the winter season in some areas of the country). This is particularly applicable for southern areas of the country. In the North, however, such as in the Mackenzie Basin, winter transportation costs may be raised due to a reduced length of season for ice roads. Projected increases in permafrost instability will likely lead to increased maintenance costs for existing all-weather roads and rail-beds.

Marine: The shipping season could lengthen for areas currently characterized by sea ice for all or part of the year, such as Hudson Bay and the western and central Arctic, and marine design needs related to sea ice may be relaxed. Projected sea-level rise will generally contribute to deeper drafts in marine harbours and channels, but could lead to significant damage to coastal support infrastructure in Atlantic and Arctic Canada. The potential of increased storm activity has raised concerns regarding the necessity of increased navigational aid support.

Freshwater: Although longer open-water seasons are possible, projected reduction of water levels could translate into significant, negative impacts for commercial navigation on major rivers and lakes, such as the Great Lakes - St. Lawrence River system. On the Mackenzie River, the barge season could lengthen (suggested by as much as 40 percent), but navigation may be more difficult with the projected lower water levels.

Air: The impacts on air travel have not been rigorously investigated;, however, it is suggested that aviation would be more sensitive to climate change than any other mode of transportation. Inclement weather causes delays for Canadian airlines that cost more than $81 million in 1981 due to disrupted flights. For smaller aircraft, longer seasons for the operation of float planes are likely, with conversely shorter seasons for snow and ice landing strips.

Canada provided the United Nations with its national inventory data on emissions of greenhouse gas emissions, in accordance with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

Canada’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory for 1990-1998 shows Canada’s greenhouse gas emissions in 1998 were 13% above 1990 levels.  However, the growth in emissions is slowing down.  From 1997 to 1998 total greenhouse gas emissions grew by only 1%. In the mid 1990s, emissions were growing at about 3% per year, while Canada’s economy grew at an average rate of about 2% per year.  In 1998, the year that emissions growth slowed, GDP grew 4.4%.

The data also points to areas where action will be required to start reducing Canada’s emissions.  For example: Emissions in the industrial and manufacturing sectors are slightly below 1990 levels.  Energy efficiency improvements in the industrial and manufacturing sectors are keeping pace with production increases.  Emissions in the electricity sector are 28% above 1990 levels.  Emission in the electricity sector continued to grow as coal was being used to pick up much of the increased demand for electricity.  Emissions in the transportation sector are 20% above 1990 levels.  The average fuel efficiency of the new vehicle fleet have not improved since 1990.  Road freight and the number of sport utility vehicles, vans and light trucks continue to increase. The Kyoto Protocol commits Canada to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 6% below 1990 levels by the period between 2008-2012.

Information on Canada’s greenhouse gas emissions for 1990 to 1998 can be found at the following Web site: http://www.ec.gc.ca/press/000906_m_e.htm The Web site of Environment Canada’s Greenhouse Gas Division is:http://www.ec.gc.ca/pdb/ghg/english/ehome.html

Agricultural land

There is potential for carbon sequestration on all agricultural land in Canada. The adoption of farming practices that reduce soil disturbance caused by tillage and increase the amount of biomass (crop) production will result in an increase in soil carbon. Adoption of zero tillage practices, reduced summerfallow frequency, the conversion of marginal cropland to permanent cover crops and pasture, increased forage production, and improved (more intensive) pasture management all promote carbon sequestration.

Agricultural land occupies 61 million hectares in Canada, of which 34.4 million hectares is cropland, 6.8 million hectares is hayland, 4.4 million hectares is improved pasture land, and 15.6 million hectares is unimproved (native) pasture land. The largest potential for greenhouse gas sinks is associated with the cropland, hayland, and improved pasture, because they are the most highly managed lands. They represent 75 percent of the agricultural land in Canada.

The proportion of the agriculture land base that is currently being managed in such a way that soil carbon is increasing is less than 75 percent. Zero tillage, reduced summerfallow frequency, conversion to permanent cover, and improved grazing land management occur on about 14.5 million ha in 1999, and are projected to increased to about 21 million ha by 2008.

Under the Montreal Protocol, Canada controls and monitors the consumption (import plus production minus exports) of ozone-depleting substances. Over the past five years, consumption has remained steady at less than 3 percent of 1986 levels.

Challenges

Many residents of urban centers are concerned with local air quality, especially in the summer. The most frequent causes are ground-level ozone and airborne particles, which, combined with other air pollutants, produce a condition known as smog. Urban air also contains trace amounts of many toxic chemicals, including various volatile hydrocarbons, such as benzene.

Air pollution can have significant effects on human health, ranging from eye, nose, and throat irritation to reduction of lung capacity, aggravation of respiratory diseases, and even premature death. Health research has shown that there is no threshold below which smog would have no negative effect on health and that the majority of health effects caused by air pollution, including the most serious (hospitalization and death), can occur at ozone concentrations below the value used to issue smog advisories. Hospital admissions increase with increasing air pollution, even at pollution levels regularly experienced by Canadians. Even healthy young adults breathe less efficiently during air pollution episodes, especially when exercising vigorously. Pollutants like ground-level ozone, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide also injure plants, resulting in reductions in crop yields and forest tree growth.

Within the last few years it has become clear that finer particles whose diameters are less than 10 µm (PM10), the so-called inhalable particles, may be responsible for most of the airborne particle threat to human health. Elevated levels of inhalable particles can occur across Canada, throughout the year, and in urban as well as rural areas. The factors favouring higher levels include important local sources (e.g., industry), long-range transport from other sources, and local topography and weather conditions, which can trap pollutants.

The average number of days on which ozone exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Objective (82 ppb, 1-hour) has decreased by 50 percent since 1980, despite a 37 percent increase in average year-round ozone levels. A notable exception to this was the summer of 1988, which was particularly hot and hazy. In Canada, ozone levels tend to peak in summer, during mid-afternoon in the city, and during late afternoon to early evening in rural areas downwind of cities. Ground-level ozone is primarily a problem in the Windsor––Quebec City corridor and, to a lesser extent, in the southern Atlantic region and the Lower Mainland of British Columbia.

Urban air contains small amounts of the toxic hydrocarbon benzene. This is cause for concern, since benzene is known to cause a specific form of leukemia, and even low levels of exposure can increase the risk. Apart from cigarette smoking, the main route of human exposure to benzene is breathing air in city centres. Benzene levels at the perimeter of gasoline service stations are generally higher than average city levels. Benzene levels are generally four times higher in city centres than in rural areas. Average benzene levels in Canadian cities have fallen by 49 percent since monitoring began in 1989. This is largely due to better emission controls on vehicles.

Canada's widely dispersed and rapidly increasing population, our geography and climate, and our export-oriented, resource-dependent economy create challenges to progress on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. Further, energy exports alone account for a substantial amount of Canada's growth in emissions of greenhouse gases since 1990. Because nuclear and hydro provide a substantial portion of our electricity generation, there is less scope for reductions than in some other countries.

Two barriers to eliminating the use of ozone-depleting substances are identifying alternatives for the use of

Carbon sinks are associated with managed resources, such as agricultural land and managed forests. Such resources represent a small proportion of the land area in Canada (although a large expanse of Canada is under forest cover, most of this forest is unmanaged Crown land). Also, the amount of carbon potentially stored in terrestrial sinks is far outweighed by growing emissions from transportation. Another significant challenge is that of scale, measurement, and verification of changes in carbon stocks.

Smog

Smog is linked to a variety of adverse health impacts. Scientists have found that the number of hospitalizations for respiratory ailments increases with increasing levels of air pollution. A recent study in 11 Canadian cities concluded that air pollution contributed to the premature deaths of at least 5,000 Canadians per year. A similar number of Canadians were hospitalized, while even greater numbers suffered other effects. In Canada, the number of children with asthma has risen more than fourfold in twenty years, and it is estimated that 25 per cent of school absences are due to asthma. Although scientific research is ongoing in this area, it is accepted that air pollution contributes significantly to asthma attacks.

To protect Canadians from the adverse effects of air pollution, there are plans to deliver regular and timely air quality forecasts that will:

 Planned future air quality forecasts will move:

Agriculture

Farmers depend on certain levels of crop yields to make their operations profitable. Any environmental condition that reduces yields poses a threat to farm viability. Crops and crop varieties show a wide range of tolerance to ground-level ozone, but a number of studies have demonstrated lower crop yields as a result of exposure to this pollutant. Crops are rarely exposed to only one pollutant; plants growing in high ozone concentrations may also suffer injury from sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, acid rain, and UV radiation. The effects are further complicated by crop type, time of exposure, weather conditions, previous exposure, and other environmental stresses.

With atmospheric ozone depletion, more UV radiation reaches the earth. Although plants have mechanisms to protect against UV radiation, high exposure to this radiation can injure plant tissues and damage DNA inside the cells, in turn reducing plant growth. Some plants produce lower yields under increased UV radiation. Increased UV-B may also disrupt marine food chains.

Depending on existing conditions, global warming and CO2 enrichment can have either positive or negative effects on crop yields. It is believed that yield increases in mid and high latitudes are caused by positive physiological effects of CO2, longer growing season, and amelioration of the effects of cold temperature on growth. Decreases in yield and even total crop failure could result from shortening the growing period, reduced water availability, and/or poor vernalization. The effects of diurnal and interannual climate variation may have important implications for farm values. Economic analysis has shown that greater interannual variation is harmful to farm values, and the marginal effect of temperature variation is relatively larger than the effect of variations in precipitation. Currently in Canada, crop failure due to drought, flooding, hail, and other weather events and conditions can be covered by crop insurance.

Capacity-Building, Education, Training, and Awareness-Raising

In November 1999, the Public Education and Outreach Issue Table (one of 16 Issue Tables created to study climate change issues in Canada) presented its strategy to reach out to Canadians on climate change. The strategy recognized the need for long-term, integrated, and sustained public education and outreach, and provided the following overall objectives for a national strategy:

The strategy recommended a variety of activities and audiences that should be targeted to achieve the above objectives. It also proposed that the strategy be implemented through the establishment of multi-stakeholder centres or “hubs” at the regional and national levels. The Climate Change Action Fund has allocated $30 million over its first three years to the Public Education and Outreach Program. Environment Canada’s Climate Change Bureau manages the program in partnership with the Office of Energy Efficiency at Natural Resources Canada. The information component of the Climate Change Action Fund includes publications and information kits, a climate change Web site (http://www.climatechange.gc.ca), newspaper supplements, and print and radio advertising. In the first two years of this program, more than 100 national and local projects received support for such varied activities as educational materials and exhibits, community activities and events, and workshops. For example:

 Other federal programs and initiatives that support public education and outreach include:

The EcoAction Community Funding Program is an Environment Canada program that provides financial support to community groups for projects that have measurable, positive impacts on the environment. EcoAction encourages projects that protect, rehabilitate or enhance the natural environment, and build the capacity of communities to sustain these activities into the future. Projects require matching funds or in-kind support from other sponsors. Priority for funding is given to projects in the areas of Clean Air and Climate Change, Clean Water, and Nature.

Canadian Environment Week celebrates the efforts and commitments of Canadians all over the country who are working for a cleaner and healthier environment. Activities are underway in many communities that take action on clean air, clean water, climate change, and nature. In order to assist these community actions Environment Canada has developed their Outreach Program. Please visit the following Web site: http://www.ec.gc.ca/eco/eweek_e.htm

Clean Air Day Canada has been proclaimed by the Government of Canada to increase public awareness and action on two key environmental priorities, clean air and climate change. Since the early 1990s, every year in May and June, environmental, health and transportation groups have organized clean air-related community activities across Canada. Clean Air Day Canada builds on this solid tradition and is very much a grassroots, locally-based event relying on strong partnerships with all sectors of society, founded on concrete actions in communities across Canada.

Environment Canada  helps communities recognize the activities, projects, and general efforts that help improve the environment. Environmental citizenship certificates are available for individuals or groups deserving recognition for their demonstrated commitment to improving the environment. For further information, please visit the following Web site: http://www.ec.gc.ca/ecoaction/hero

The Tree Canada Foundation, Natural Resources Canada (Canadian Forest Service), and hundreds of companies from across the country are supporting community involvement in planting 1.5 million of Canada’s Millennium Trees. This project promotes green communities green and recognizes the value of trees in carbon cycling and storage.

The Pollution Data Branch (PDB) of Environment Canada is responsible for analyzing, disseminating, developing, and improving inventories of pollutant information in partnership with others. They also strive to continually improve the public's access to information. They maintain such databases as air contaminant emissions for Canada, found at Environment Canada's Web site, the Green Lane, at http://www.ec.gc.ca/pdb  

An education initiative on the protection of the ozone layer was undertaken by Environment Canada in partnership with the Knowledge of the Environment for Youth Foundation. The initiative resulted in the development and implementation of teacher-friendly curriculum materials (manuals for students and teachers, as well as background material) for use in schools across Canada. The initiative was based on the recognition that Canada's education systems have an important role to play in encouraging appropriate actions and discouraging damaging behaviors.

The following educational programs are being developed with funding from the Climate Change Action Fund: 

 Climate change

The Canadian Climate Research Network (CRN) was created in 1994 as a mechanism to enable the Canadian government to engage the energies, ideas, and talents of the university and private sector communities in providing the critical scientific knowledge required for policy-making related to climate change and climate variability. It consists of a network of Collaborative Research Groups linked together through an electronic network, interchange of personnel, workshops, and similar activities. CRN was established not only to tap the research capabilities of the universities but also to train new researchers in the area of climate change. The Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric  Science, announced in February 2000, supports research in climate change, air quality, and severe weather mainly at universities, thereby helping build research capacity. Climate research and the Climate Change Action Fund (Science, Impacts, and Adaptation), mentioned earlier in this document, also contribute to building capacity. The Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC) has in place post-graduate scholarship and visiting fellowship programs to train new researchers in the climate and atmospheric sciences.

MSC technical staff are currently provided on-the-job training and some specialized workshops on the deployment and maintenance of equipment and sensors for systematic climate observation programs. MSC is currently developing a national technical workforce renewal plan that addresses succession planning, recruitment standards, and occupational training and career progression. It is envisaged that web-based distance learning approaches will be employed to augment requisite formal institutional education programs.

A pilot program on air quality predictions was successfully conducted and a national program is being proposed and developed. Such a program could significantly heighten the awareness of the general population to air quality issues and broadens the knowledge base from a few scientists to the general scientific population. Such a program is also expected to create a snowball effect in areas of awareness, training, education, and research by making the issue a more visible.

One of the most important components of the National Action Plan for the Recovery, Recycling, and Reclamation of CFCs is training for the people involved in the recovery and recycling of these substances. In consultation with the relevant service industry associations, and based on the original addition of the Environmental Code of Practice for the Elimination of Fluorocarbon Emissions from Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Systems, Environment Canada developed a training program for technicians involved in  servicing refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment. This training component is a valuable product that Canada can export to the rest of the world.  

Agriculture                 

The Climate Change Funding Initiative (CCFI) helps to improve the scientific understanding of the agriculture sector’s contribution to greenhouse gas emissions. Among other things, the initiative focuses on:

Programs that raise producers’ awareness of climate change and transfer technology to minimize agricultural greenhouse gas emissions and to deal with the agricultural effects of climate change include:

Information

The Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC) operates and maintains a monitoring system comprising a network of meteorological and hydrometric observations across Canada. Many of the observations, such as hourly temperature, humidity, wind speed and pressure, are collected and archived nationally from telecommunications circuits. Most of the observations, such as stream flow and level, daily temperature, and precipitation amounts, are collected and processed by the regional MSC offices, and forwarded to the National Archive System for long-term storage and access for a wide variety of purposes. The observations in the National Archive System date back to 1840. Most observations are archived in a digital relational database. A small portion of the data holdings is in paper or microfilm. As a whole, the National Archive System is the main source of physical observations related to climate change in Canada, which are used to monitor trends in the main observational elements such as temperature, precipitation, and stream flow. The Climate Research Branch maintains special data sets of temperature and precipitation, based on temperature and precipitation retrieved from the National Archive System that have been assessed for nonhomogeneity due to siting and instrument changes and adjusted accordingly where necessary. These homogeneity-adjusted data sets are then assessed for trends and other changes such as in variability and extremes. Results are posted quarterly on the Web at: http:// www.msc-smc.ec.gc.ca/ccrm/bulletin. Other data sets such as remotely sensed sea ice are also used for climate change monitoring by various researchers in Canada

The Canadian (national) Climate and Water Archive holds daily information from meteorological, climatological, and hydrometric networks, with additional hourly observations from meteorological and some climatological networks. This archive is further described by the station information system that holds the metadata information. A  Web site (http://www.cmc.ec.gc.ca/climate) provides access to the station catalogue, the 1961/90 normals, and documentation on the archive, price list, and access policies. Canadian climate summaries are also available from this site, but this is restricted to subscribers (at cost). External users can query the normals and the station catalogue directly from this Web site but must request the information through regional MSC offices or from the National Service Desk, who then extract the information, perform the requested analysis and submit the information to the user. A top priority this fiscal year and next is to develop and implement an external Web site to allow external users to access directly the national climate and water archive. Furthermore, we are also participating in the Canadian “Government On Line” initiative to develop a one-stop window for accessing all archived climatological/hydrometric observations.

The National Pollutants Release Inventory (NPRI) is a publicly accessible, facility specific inventory of information on toxic substances released to the air, as well as to water and land. The NPRI list of toxic substances was recently expanded by 50 percent and now tracks 268 pollutants of concern. The NPRI continues to improve and expand. Information on the 1998 NPRI is now available on a provincial and regional basis. The provincial and regional fact sheets provide more detailed information on the direct releases of pollutants to air, water and land, and their transfers to other locations for treatment or disposal. The fact sheets also provide information on the inter-provincial movement of the NPRI-listed pollutants being transferred for disposal. For further information on this inventory, including how to carry out a data search, please visit the following Web site: www2.ec.gc.ca/pdb/npri

Canadians need information about air quality that is up-to-date and more frequent than the handful of advisories currently available each year. Smog forecasts issued every single day allow sensitive individuals, particularly children, the elderly, and those with asthma and other respiratory illnesses, to make their plans based on what they know about their own response to air pollution. Daily air quality forecasts, combined with public awareness programs at the community level, allow Canadians to make more informed choices in much the same way the UV Index works in assessing the risks of exposure to the sun. Air quality reports for all areas of Canada can be seen at Canada’s Air Quality Services Web site: http://www.msc.ec.gc.ca/ag_smog/index_e.cfm

Information on climate model outputs is available on the Web site of Environment Canada’s Canadian Centre for Climate Modeling and Analysis for those engaged in research to study the impacts of climate change (http://www.cccma.bc.ec.gc.ca).

The Climate Trends and Variability Bulletin produced by Environment Canada is routinely available at http://www.msc-smc.ec.gc.ca

Agriculture

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada calculates a national Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Budget indicator that estimates the net exchange of nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide (expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents) associated with agriculture. The performance objective for this indicator is to have declining net emissions of greenhouse gases over time (a specific goal for agriculture has not yet been set). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodology is used to estimate nitrous oxide emissions in three categories: direct emissions from agricultural fields, direct emissions from animal production systems, and indirect emissions derived from nitrogen that came from agricultural systems. Direct emissions from fields include those from mineral fertilizers applied to soil, animal manure used as fertilizer, nitrogen-fixing crops, crop residues, and the cultivation of organic soils. Methane emissions are also calculated using IPCC methodology. Carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using the Century model for carbon exchange, which accounts for agricultural management practices, including planting, fertilizer application, tillage, grazing, and addition of organic matter. Canada’s national inventory of greenhouse gases avoids overlapping estimates by attributing carbon dioxide produced from fuel consumption and the manufacture of fertilizers and machinery to the transportation and manufacturing sectors.

Agriculture’s involvement in the responding to the challenge of climate change is described in a public document entitled The Health of Our Air: Toward Sustainable Agriculture in Canada. The national agri-environmental indicator Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Budget is reported in Environmental Sustainability of Canadian Agriculture: Report of the Agri-Environmental Indicator Project. Both of these reports are available electronically at http://res2.agr.ca

Research and Technologies

The Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC) is Canada's primary source for meteorological information. MSC operates and maintains Canada’s national atmospheric and hydrometric monitoring networks. These include:

Weather (Public and Aviation), comprising more than 700 surface stations, made up of a combination of automated and human observing programs. Systems in place include Automated Weather Observing Systems (AWOS) , Campbell Scientific loggers, and antiquated MARS/MAPS technology.

Climate, currently comprising about 2,200 automated and human volunteer stations that provide basic climate information. Supplementary data are collected at a sub-set of  these stations with the number of stations recording a parameter varying from 10s to 100s of stations depending on the requirements for this information. Supplementary programs include: rate-of-rainfall, typically using the Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge; evaporation with the Class A Evaporation Pan; snow on ground with a ruler or sonic snow depth sensor (i.e., SR-50); wind using an 78-D or R.M. Young anemometer; sunshine, primarily with a Campbell-Stokes Sunshine Recorder; radiation using a number of different commercially available pyranometers; and soil temperature profiles with thermocouples or thermisters.

Marine, for which more than 40 moored and six drifting buoys provide data. To augment this, some 300 Volunteer Observing Ships provide on-going reports.

Ice, for which information on ice formation and thickness are collected in Canada using satellites (e.g., Radarsat).

Hydrometric, using a network of more than 2,000 stations. The monitoring technology is currently a mix of aging analogue water level recorders and modern digital recorders.

Air Quality (for information on the technologies used to obtain atmospheric composition information, see: http://www.msc.ec.gc.ca/ag_smog/index_e.cfm).

Most of these networks provide data on a real or near real-time basis and as such provide information on the current and changing state of atmospheric conditions.

Numerous technologies are being developed to advance the uptake of renewable energies, increase energy efficiencies, and reduce energy intensities. For example, solar thermal and photovoltaic systems are being improved in order to develop cost-effective solutions that will be demanded by the public. Alternative fuels for vehicles, including electric vehicles and the required battery packs, are quickly evolving. Several projects are examining fuel cells, including Proton Exchange Membranes, solid oxide types, and methods for reforming fuels either for stationary or mobile applications. There are also several industrial projects designed to improve energy efficiencies mainly through process modifications in the pulp and paper sector, oil and gas sectors, aluminum manufacturing, and in the food and beverages domains.

In agriculture, beyond the management practices described in Questions 7 and 9, research is being done into ways to store carbon in value-added products such as strawboard; and to reduce fossil fuel use, such as:

Many technologies are related to and advanced by communities.  These are generally associated with heating and cooling of public buildings; use of methane from landfills; and district heating installations, including co-generation.

Canada faces particular challenges given its varied land mass and extreme climatic conditions.  This is the case for our different industrial and natural resource sectors.  Increase productivity, improved performance, including environmental, and greater efficiency are goals our industries are constantly striving to achieve. New and cleaner technologies are regularly introduced as part of continuous business improvements.  This is the case for our major resource sectors such as mining and pulp and paper.  Individual industries have introduced technologies to reduce industrial emissions.  Major emissions reductions have also been achieved from the use of cleaner fuels and new motor vehicle emissions technologies.

Financing

Canada’s 2000 federal budget: 

The Government of Canada Action Plan 2000 on Climate Change, described under Question 6, will invest $500 million on measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.  This plan targets key sectors including initiatives in transportation, energy (oil and gas production and electricity), industry, business, forestry and agriculture, international projects, technology, science and adaptation. For further information, consult http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/css/imb/hqlib/200079e.htm

The private sector is a major player in investing in new technology and proactive in protecting the atmosphere.

Projects approved under the Climate Change Action Fund (CCAF) must have at least 25 percent of their funding from other sources. This funding is in the form of cash and in-kind support (e.g., professional services, volunteer time, materials, supplies, and equipment). At one point in the program, $16 million in CCAF financing had leveraged $38 million in other funding, for a total of $54 million. The network of partners created by the Fund helps to ensure that projects will continue after CCAF support has ended. 

For example, Technology Early Action Measures is funded through the Climate Change Action Fund. Eligible projects in this program must demonstrate innovation in the transportation, energy, agriculture, and various industrial sectors and must work with Canadian industry to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, support community‑based implementation of greenhouse gas emission reduction technologies, and/or transfer Canadian greenhouse gas reduction technologies to other countries, particularly developing nations. Top priority is given to projects that demonstrate significant financial partnering with a number of interested parties, such as the private sector, provinces, and municipalities.

Cooperation

There is increasing awareness and recognition that global environmental problems are adversely affecting the Canadian environment. Climate change, urban smog, loss of species, and the transport of pollutants to the Arctic are examples of the way that global pressures are affecting the quality of life of Canadians. Environmental issues such as these have led to an unprecedented degree of global action, since no nation acting alone can ensure national or global environmental security. Canada must work in partnership with other nations and international organizations to monitor the environment and conduct environmental research and development, to tackle problems at their source, and to implement international agreements effectively.

Scientific cooperation

Canadian participation in international scientific programs help to focus attention on issues of concern to Canada and attracts the interest of other leading international scientists and external funding sources to scientific work being done in Canada.  For example:

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was created in 1988 by the United Nations Environment Program and the World Meteorological Organization to assess scientific information, assess the potential impacts, and formulate strategies to respond to climate change. Canadian scientists have been lead authors, contributors, and reviewers for the IPCC’s First and Second Assessment Reports, produced in 1990 and 1995, respectively. More than 30 Canadian scientists are participating as authors and editors of the IPCC’s Third Assessment Report, scheduled for completion in 2001.

The World Climate Research Programme furthers scientific understanding of the climate system and climate processes. Within the program, Canadian scientists are working on the World Ocean Circulation Experiment and the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study to help improve understanding of ocean processes and to contribute to the development of ocean components of climate models. Canada  also participates in the Global Energy and Water Experiment. Furthermore, Canada is involved in the Global Climate Observing System, which combines observations of the atmosphere, oceans, and terrestrial systems into an integrated set of observations of the global climate system. Canada’s main contribution to the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment is through the Mackenzie GEWEX Study (MAGS), details of which are available at  http://www.msc-smc.ec.gc.ca/GEWEX/MAGS.html

Ozone-depleting substances

Recognizing that the successful implementation of the Montreal Protocol depends on global participation, a  Multilateral Fund was created to work as a mechanism to help developing countries eliminate substances that are controlled under the Montreal Protocol within the agreed time frame. The Fund, which is replenished every three years, is financed by industrialized countries party to the Montreal Protocol, based on the United Nations scale of assessment. Under the rules or the Fund, developed countries can reserve up to 20 percent of their contribution for bilateral cooperation projects with developing countries. Canada's annual contribution to the Fund (1997–1999) amounts to US $5.7 million. This sum is shared between the Canadian International Development Agency (80 percent) and Environment Canada (20 percent). Environment Canada’s share (US $1.14 million/year) is used to finance bilateral activities with Article 5 countries subject to the rules and approval of the fund’s executive committee. The Technology and Industry Branch of the Environmental Technology Advancement Directorate at Environment Canada is responsible for developing and managing bilateral projects, along with the promoting opportunities for Canadian businesses under the Fund. Sectors covered under the Multilateral Fund are refrigeration, aerosols, solvents, halons and methyl bromide alternatives. Projects in the refrigeration and methyl bromide sectors are currently a priority due to the upcoming freeze deadlines. The halon sector is also high priority since halons have a high ozone-depleting potential.

Bilateral agreements

The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) is the primary agency for delivering Canada's Official Development Assistance program and the technical cooperation program with economies in transition. CIDA's two-fold mandate is to support sustainable development in developing countries in order to reduce poverty and to contribute to a more secure, equitable, and prosperous world, and to support democratic development and economic liberalization in Central and Eastern Europe by building mutually beneficial partnerships. To implement these programs, CIDA works with partners in the private and public sectors in Canada and in the target countries as well as with international organizations and agencies. Environmental protection and infrastructure services are among the six priority areas addressed by CIDA. Consequently, CIDA has numerous projects addressing environment, energy, and transport issues. CIDA is also responsible for managing the new $100 million fund to support technology transfer to address climate change issues. Descriptions of all CIDA’s programs and projects can be  accessed at the following Web site: http://www.acdi-cida.gc.ca

Canada has Memoranda of Understanding (MOU) with 18 countries. These MOUs establish a framework under which collaborative projects can be undertaken in the areas of environmental management policies, approaches, and tools; environmental pollution prevention and control approaches, development of national science capacity; conservation and sustainable resource management policies, practices, and technology transfer and solutions; and exchange of information on a range of environmental issues.

Canada supports the Environmental Technology Verification Program, which provides a third-party independent assessment of a vendor’s technology or project performance claim. The program has bilateral/multilateral projects in China, Indonesia, and Bangladesh, and has signed MOUs with the California Environmental Protection Agency, the State of New Jersey, and Korea.

Canada endorses the objectives of the World-Wide Fuel Charter for Gasoline and Diesel Fuels.  The charter is an "effort to develop common, world-wide recommendations for 'quality fuels', taking into consideration customer requirements and vehicle emission technologies, which will in turn benefit our customers and all other affected parties."  Global fuels standards are vital if the developing world, where car ownership is increasing at an enormous rate, is to benefit from the newest vehicle technologies.   This objective is in line with the United Nations Agreement Concerning the Establishing of Global Technical Regulations for Vehicles, Engines and Components.

In addition, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is working with member countries to reduce the level of emissions from aircraft while recognizing the need to balance these efforts with safety issues.  The ICAO is also working on measures to mitigate air traffic congestion and reduce fuel consumption.  Similarly, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) is working to reduce emissions from ships.  Canada participates in both these organizations and encourages their continued progress in these areas.                                      

1992 United Nation’s Framework Convention on Climate Change and 1997 Kyoto Protocol

Immediately after the negotiation of the Kyoto Protocol, Canada’s First Ministers recognized the importance of climate change and agreed that Canada must do its part to address the issue. The First Ministers agreed, as a guiding principle, that no region should bear an unreasonable burden from implementing the Protocol. The First Ministers directed the federal, provincial, and territorial energy and environment ministers to examine the impacts, costs, and benefits of implementing the Kyoto Protocol, as well as the options for addressing climate change. In the spring of 1998, the Energy and Environment Ministers responded by establishing an inclusive and collaborative National Climate Change Process.

The National Climate Change Process established 16 Issue Tables/Working Groups involving 450 experts from industry, academia, non-governmental organizations, and government. The Tables reviewed seven key sectors of the economy and eight cross-cutting strategies. An analysis and modeling group integrated the results into a comprehensive preliminary analysis of the implications of options for meeting Canada’s Kyoto target. No other country has adopted such an open, inclusive, and comprehensive process. Among other issues, the National Process identified:

In 2000, building on the work of the National Process and acknowledging the considerable contributions of the Issue Tables, the Energy and Environment Ministers moved forward a coordinated national approach to climate change that includes the National Implementation Strategy for Climate Change and the First National Climate Change Business Plan, the federal component of which is reflected in the Government of Canada Action Plan 2000 on Climate Change. These documents, described under Question 6, can be found at the following Web site: http://www.nccp.ca

Under the Kyoto Protocol, Canada has committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions to 6 percent below 1990 levels by 2008–2012. Canada’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory for 1990–1998 shows that Canada’s greenhouse gas emissions in 1998 were 682 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent, 13 percent above 1990 levels (see the graph below). However, the growth in emissions is slowing down. From 1997 to 1998, total greenhouse gas emissions grew by only 1 percent. In the mid-1990s, emissions were growing at about 3 percent per year, while Canada’s economy grew at an average rate of about 2 percent per year. In 1998, the year that emissions slowed, GDP grew 4.4 percent. If business proceeds as usual in Canada, greenhouse gas emissions will continue to climb, reaching about 761 megatonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents by 2010, 26 percent over our Kyoto target. Mitigation measures must take this projected growth into account.

A Compendium of Canadian Initiatives: Taking Action on Climate Change describes Canada’s programs on climate change. On the individual level, Canadians are being encouraged – through governmental communications, workplace and community initiatives, and the campaigns of non-governmental organizations – to become informed about climate change and to support efforts to slow its progress. On a practical level, the most important step individual Canadians can take to slow climate change is to practise energy efficiency in our everyday lives. Efforts continue to help Canadians become more energy efficient in our homes, our transportation, and the workplace. Further information can be found under “What’s new” at the following Web site: http://www.nccp.ca

Canada continues to invest in research on climate change to better understand its scope and impacts. Canadian scientists are making important contributions to scientific work on climate change, including through the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. They play a critical ongoing role in informing policy- and decision-makers of the potential impacts of climate change across the county. This work includes supporting the development of Canada’s positions in international negotiations and helping to identify and develop options for domestic mitigative measures and adaptation strategies. For example, Canada has developed

In the short term, Canada can address climate change through energy efficiency and conservation. Ultimately, a major shift to alternative, less-emitting energy sources (like small-scale hydroelectricity, wind energy, and biomass, which have untapped potential) will occur as new technologies penetrate the market and alternative energy becomes more competitive.

Canada continues to pursue its international objectives as well in the continuing negotiations related to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change and details of the Kyoto Protocol. Canada’s international objectives with respect to climate change are to:

As an active participant in the 6th Conference of the Parties (CoP6), Canada will seek to ensure that the rules for the Kyoto Protocol are designed to effectively address the challenge of climate change in the long term. We will also be seeking decisions that establish a cost-effective and credible market for protocol instruments to help meet our target. While it is Canada’s aim to achieve the majority of our reductions at home, these instruments will complement domestic action. Canada has considerable experience in forestry and agricultural practices that remove carbon from the atmosphere and store it in “carbon sinks”. At CoP6, we will be seeking rules on sinks that allow Canada and other countries credit for such activities. The Government of Canada has been consulting closely with the provinces and territories, industries, and other key stakeholders to develop Canada’s position for CoP6. Many member countries have already launched major national strategies on climate change, and more countries are expected to follow suit throughout this year. Initiatives in Canada’s 2000 federal budget, as well as the development of a National Implementation Strategy, ensure that Canada moves in parallel with other OECD countries on climate change.

The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer

Canada was among the first countries to ratify the Montreal Protocol and is in full compliance with the Protocol and all of its amendments. Canada has ratified the amendments to the Protocol up to the 1997 Amendments in Montreal and is in the final stages of ratifying the most recent amendment, the 1999 Beijing Amendment. More information on measures to implement the Protocol can be found at Environment Canada’s Web site: http://www.ec.gc.ca/ozone

Canada was the first country to ratify the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Protocols on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and Heavy Metals and is leading the negotiation of a global agreement to reduce and eliminate the release through the atmosphere of the world's most toxic POPs, such as DDT and PCBs. In its Budget 2000, Canada committed $20 million over the next five years to projects that will help developing countries and countries with economies in transition to reduce or eliminate the release of POPs into the environment. 

Through the North American Commission on Environmental Cooperation, Canada is involved in air quality initiatives with the US and Mexico.

In October 2000, Canada and the United States finalized the Ozone Annex to the 1999 U.S.– Canada Air Quality Agreement. The Annex will reduce air pollution flows from the United States thereby improving air quality and the health of Canadians living in downwind areas in eastern Canada. It will also commit to reduce flows of pollution from areas in Ontario and Quebec into the United States.

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This information was provided by the Government of Canada to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 17 July 2001.

For further information on energy related to the atmosphere, please see Canada’s response to Guidelines for National Reporting to CSD IX on Energy and Energy-Related Aspects of Atmosphere and Transport (Agenda 21, Chapter 9), Part III. 
For further information on transportation related to energy and atmosphere, please see Canada’s response to Guidelines for National Reporting to CSD 9 on Transport (Agenda 21, Chapter 7 & 9), Part IV.
The Canadian Web sites listed below offer information on Canadian programs and initiatives related to the atmosphere and to climate change. Most of them also provide links to other related sites.
National atmosphere and climate change Web sites:

Government of Canada Climate Change Site: 
http://www.climatechange.gc.ca
National Climate Change Secretariat:  http://www.nccp.ca
Environment Canada’s Green Lane:  http://www.ec.gc.ca
Atmospheric Environment Service: http://www1.tor.ec.gc/index.html
Canadian Centre for Climate Modeling and Analysis: http://www.cccma.bc.ec.gc.ca/eng_index.html
Climate Trends and Variations Bulletin: http://www.tor.ec.gc.ca/ccrm/bulletin
EcoAction 2000: http://www.ec.gc.ca/ecoaction
Science Assessment of Climate Change: http://www.tor.ec.gc.ca/apac
The Canada Country Study: http://www.ec.gc.ca/climate.ccs
Natural Resources Canada: http://www.nrcan.gc.ca
Canadian Forest Service: http://www.nofc.forestry.ca/climate
Energy Technology Branch: http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/es/etb
Office of Energy Efficiency: http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca
Office of Energy Research and Development: http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/es/new/oerd.htm
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada: http://www.agr.ca/envire.html
Healthy Air: http://www.agr.ca/research/Healthy_Air/toc.html
Fisheries and Oceans Canada: 
The Ocean’s Role in Climate Change:
http://csas.meds.dfo.ca/aosb/Oceans/Welcome.htm
Clean Development Mechanism and Joint Implementation Office: http://dfait-maeci.gc.ca/cdm-ji
Health Canada: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/english/climate.htm
Industry Canada – Technology Partnerships Canada: http://tpc.ic.gc.ca
Transport Canada: http://www.tc.gc.ca/envaffairs/english/climatechange.htm
National Roundtable on the Environment and the Economy: http://www.nrtee-trnee.ca
Voluntary Challenge and Registry Inc.: http://www.vcr-mvr.ca
Provincial/territorial/municipal Web sites:
Alberta:
http://www.climatechange.gov.ab.ca
British Columbia: http://www.elp.gov.bc.ca/epd/epdpa/ar
Manitoba: http://www.gov.mb.ca/environ/index.html
New Brunswick: http://www.gov.nb.ca/environm
Newfoundland and Labrador: http://www.gov.nf.ca/env/Labour/OHS/default.asp
Northwest Territories: http://www.gov.nt.ca
Nova Scotia: http://www.gov.ns.ca
Nunavut: http://www.inac.gc.ca/nunavut/index.html
Ontario: http://www.ene.gov.on.ca
Prince Edward Island: http://www.gov.pe.ca/te/index.asp
Quebec: http://www.mrn.gouv.qc.ca
Saskatchewan: http://www.gov.sk.ca
Yukon: http://www.gov.yk.ca
Federation of Canadian Municipalities: http://www.fcm.ca
International Council of Local Environmental Initiatives: http://www.iclei.org/iclei.htm
Other Canadian sites:
Canadian Institute for Climate Studies:
http:/www.cics.uvic.ca
Canadian Climate Research Network: http://www.cics.uvic.ca/climate/crn/crn.htm
Click here for Canada's Second National Report on Climate change.
Click here for information on Air.
Click here for information on Atmospheric Change.
Click here for Canada's Pollution Prevention Strategy.
Click here for information on Pollution.
Click here for information on Acid Rain Indicators.
Click here for information on Climate Change Indicators.
Click here for information on Ozone Depletion Indicators.
Click here for information on Urban Air Quality Indicators.
Click here for national information from the Web Site of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.  
For the access to the Web Site of the Ozone Secretariat, click here:
Click here for Canada's 1997 and 1998 "Green Reports" (Reports of the Commissioner of the Environment and Sustainable Development), including information on Canada's implementation strategy to respond to climate change.

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BIODIVERSITY

Decision Making: Coordinating Bodies

Domestically, management of biological resources falls primarily within provincial jurisdictions. However, the federal government, industries, Aboriginal groups, scientific societies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) all play important roles in the decision-making process.

A number of co-management boards have been established, composed of representatives of Aboriginal communities and government appointees. Within the Northwest Territories and Yukon, these boards have become the main instruments of wildlife management in land claim areas. Through the Nunavut Wildlife Management Board, Inuit of the Northwest Territories' eastern areas co-manage wildlife in what will become the Nunavut Territory. The Quebec government has prepared a list of parks, ecological reserves, and wildlife management activities for its northern regions that will involve Aboriginal communities. In 1994, the government and the Montagnais concluded an agreement for the co-management of the Louis-Babel ecological reserve. In existence since 1982, the Beverly-Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board is an excellent example of the incorporation of traditional knowledge into the political process. The BC government has appointed a 19-member panel comprised of scientists and Nuu-Chah-Nulth elders to study ways of changing management practices in old-growth forests around Clayoquot Sound. And Parks Canada and the Inuvialuit of the Western Arctic are working together on a Management Plan for Aulavik National Park on Banks Island.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations

In October, 1996, the bill of the Endangered Species Protection Act was introduced into Parliament. The Act is designed to prevent extirpation or extinction of wildlife species, and to secure their recovery. The scope of the Act covers wildlife within federal jurisdiction, and will be complemented by provincial and territorial legislation and programs under a National Accord for the Protection of Species at Risk. Other important legislative or policy initiatives include the proposed Oceans and Endangered Species legislation, and a National Program of Action on Land-Based Sources of Marine Pollution.

Decision Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

In November 1995, environment ministers from each of Canada's provinces and territories joined the federal Minister of the Environment in signing the Canadian Biodiversity Strategy. Based on extensive consultation with all sectors of Canadian society, the Strategy will be implemented through measures such as: the filing, within one year of Strategy approval, jurisdictional reports on policies, activities, and plans that help implement the CBD; coordination of national and international Strategy elements; formal mechanisms that permit and encourage non-government participation in Strategy implementation; and reports on the status of biodiversity.

Decision Making: Major Groups Involvement

As Canada moves from strategy to implementation, there is much evidence that economic sectoral groups are becoming increasingly engaged in advancing biodiversity conservation and sustainable use objectives. The forest and agricultural sectors have done much work to identify biodiversity indicators. The Canadian Pulp and Paper Association have created a position and budget for the purpose of developing a biodiversity strategy for the industry. The agricultural community is also developing a response to the Strategy, and has recently compiled an impressive inventory of activities and initiatives undertaken at the farm level.

Programmes and Projects

In 1996, the federal government in cooperation with the provinces, territories, and Aboriginal communities, created two new national parks and provided interim protection for two areas that have been proposed as national parks. In addition, the federal government has announced that it is considering the establishment and management of national marine conservation areas.

Status

No information is available.

Challenges

In order to fully implement the CBD, much scientific research remains to be accomplished. For example, Canada needs to improve basic inventory data at both species and ecosystem levels. Only about 50% of the species that are thought to exist in the country have been identified. Moreover, we must continue to heighten public understanding of the issues related to conservation and sustainable use of biological resources. As well, at both the national and international levels procedures and mechanisms must be in place to ensure that the sharing of benefits from biological resources is fair and equitable. Adequate financing continues to be a challenge for the implementation of the CBD through the Canadian Biodiversity Strategy.

Capacity-Building, Education, Training, and Awareness-Raising

No information is available.

Information

The national Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network (EMAN) is providing the opportunity to develop inventories and engage in long-term biodiversity monitoring at many locations across the country.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

Canada signed and ratified the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in 1992. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Florawas ratified in 1975, with the latest report submitted to the Secretariat in 1996. In November 1995, Montreal was chosen as the site for the Permanent Secretariat of the CBD by the second meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the CBD meeting in Djakarta, Indonesia. The new premises of the Permanent Secretariat in Montreal were officially opened in May 1996.

Canada has been very active internationally in support of the Biodiversity Convention. It has co-sponsored workshops and symposia in Costa Rica, Chile, and Cote d'Ivoire. It has participated in and hosted meetings of United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Expert Panels, and has played an active role in the two meetings of the Inter-governmental Committee for the CBD. At the first two meetings of the Conference of the Parties (COP) in the Bahamas and Indonesia respectively, Canada co-hosted a Biodiversity Technology Fair. Through the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation, Canada has entered into cooperative biodiversity programs with its North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) partners. The Canadian Museum of Nature is assisting other countries in the production of biodiversity country studies. Finally, Canada is collaborating in an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) project under its Development Assistance Committee (DAC) to develop biodiversity indicators; and with Germany, Australia, and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the creation of an international Clearing House Mechanism for scientific and technical information exchange.

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This information was provided by the Government of Canada to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

Click here for national information on Biodiversity.
Click here for national information on Environmental Conservation.
Click here for information on wildlife.
For access to the Web Site of the Convention on Biological Diversity, click here:
For access to the Web Site of the CITES Convention, click here:
For access to the Web Site of the CITES Convention, click here:
For the Web Site of the CMS Convention, click here:
For the country-by-country, Man in the Biosphere On-Line Query System, click here:
Click here to link to biosafety web sites in Canada.
Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to go to the Web Site of UNEP's International Register on Biosafety.
Click here for Canada's 1997 and 1998 "Green Reports" (Reports of the Commissioner of the Environment and Sustainable Development), including information on biodiversity in Canada.

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DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

Decision Making: Coordinating Bodies

The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) was Canada's lead agency in the negotiations. CIDA, along with the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), will implement the Convention on Canada's behalf. Current initiatives under the Convention respond to the Urgent Action for Africa Resolution supporting preparation of National Action Programs and Public Awareness Raising. Both CIDA and IDRC have ongoing programs addressing land degradation in dryland areas.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations

No information is available.

Decision Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

A component of IDRC's programming is directly in support of the Convention. It is intended to support the processes of selected African countries' preparation of National Action Plans. Support programmes of this type are currently underway in Burkina Faso. CIDA is exploring the use of an umbrella program in the West African region which would permit support to a variety of small scale national initiatives related to the consultative processes for the preparation of National Action Programs. CIDA supports the efforts of Southern Africans in a community drought mitigation program. In addition, Canada also provides support through multilateral partners.

Decision Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

Some of CIDA's programming deals directly with the problem of land degradation by focusing on natural resource management techniques. In Burkina Faso, programs focus on improving soil fertility through composting, drought preparedness, small scale irrigation, and plant and tree protection. Action on desertification often reflects the place of poverty alleviation as a core programming theme for CIDA. The agency undertakes programming which focuses on education, popular participation, and the promotion of alternative livelihoods. In China, CIDA is running a desertification related program focusing on alternative livelihoods and income generation to reduce poverty and improve the situation of women.

Other CIDA programs focus on the role of grass root organizations in the process. In Burkina Faso and Mali, CIDA is working with the Canadian NGO Solidarit?Canada- Sahel (SCS) and local non-governmental organizations to encourage communities to get involved in the preparation of their countries' National Action Programs. In partnership with CIDA, other organizations such as CARE Canada and the Unitarian Service Committee of Canada (USC-Canada) work with their counterparts in developing countries to encourage and promote action at the grass-roots level. CIDA supports the work of the Developing Countries Farm Radio Network (DCFRN). This organization uses radio broadcasts and the distribution of reading material through its network in Africa and around the world to provide a forum for partners to increase public awareness and initiate dialogue.

Status

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-Building, Education, Training, and Awareness-Raising

Canada has been raising domestic public awareness about international desertification. Supported by CIDA or through SCS and USC-Canada, activities marked World Day to Combat Desertification in 1996 across the country. In addition, public service announcements in French and English were also produced for national television to reach out to the Canadian public.

Information

No information availble.

Research and Technologies

IDRC's activities focus on research and knowledge sharing. Programming includes: fostering local community participation through sponsored workshops, research on coping and adaptive strategies, indigenous production, and social and environmental indicators. Research is also taking place on integrated decision-support systems and information networks for future reporting. CIDA supports United Nations organizations and international research networks that deal with desertification issues. It also provides bilateral funding for research on pest control, agriculture, and drought mitigation.

Financing

No information availble.

Cooperation

Canada demonstrated a strong commitment to combatting the world-wide desertification problem by ratifying the International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Drought and/or Desertification Particularly in Africa on December 1, 1995. Canada is responding primarily through its participation in the negotiation and implementation of the Convention related to the monitoring of regions prone to desertification and drought in order to develop comprehensive drought relief schemes and integrated anti-desertification programs to eradicate poverty. In addition, Canada is offering to host the Permanent Secretariat of the Convention in Montreal.

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This information was provided by the Government of Canada to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

For access to the Web Site of the Convention to Combat Desertification and Drought, click here:

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ENERGY

Decision Making: Coordinating Bodies

In Canada’s constitution, jurisdiction over energy is divided between the federal and provincial/territorial governments.

Federal powers

Federal powers in energy are primarily associated with the interprovincial and international movement of energy and energy-using equipment, and with works extending beyond a province’s boundaries. This arrangement permits the federal government to develop policies and to regulate interprovincial and international trade, pipelines, and power lines. For example, the federal government governs the energy-efficiency standards of equipment that crosses interprovincial or international borders.

The federal government is responsible for the management of oil and gas resources in Canada’s frontier lands, both northern and offshore. In these areas, an independent offshore petroleum board regulates oil and gas exploration, development, and production on behalf of federal and provincial/territorial governments; legislation and regulation are enacted both federally and provincially/territorially.

The federal government is also responsible for uranium and nuclear power; trans-boundary environmental impacts; and policies in the national interest, such as economic development and energy security. It has a leading role in areas such as energy science and technology and energy-efficiency research. Federal taxation in the energy field is currently limited to conventional corporate taxation, excise taxes, and the Goods and Services Tax.

Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) conducts research and development, and advances policies and programs, for the stewardship of Canada's natural resources. Protection of the atmosphere is major consideration for NRCan’s Energy Sector and its Forest Service. The Energy Sector coordinates energy policy development and conducts programs in the areas of energy efficiency,renewables and alternatives, hydrocarbons, and nuclear energy. NRCan also coordinates energy technology research and development, operates the Energy Technology Branch, and manages the Program of Energy Research and Development. This program supports and complements the energy-related activities of the following federal departments and agencies: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Industry Canada, Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Environment Canada, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Health Canada, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, National Defense, National Research Council of Canada, Public Works and Government Services Canada, and Transport Canada. Other federal agencies whose mandates affect or include the energy sector include the National Energy Board, the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency, the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, and the Commissioner of the Environment and Sustainable Development.

At the federal level, Environment Canada cooperates with Natural Resources Canada, Transport Canada, and the Climate Change Secretariat in making decisions protecting the atmosphere on issues such as acid rain, smog, fuel quality standards and emissions arising from the use of generators, engines and motor vehicles, including equipment such as farm machinery. Cooperation with federal and provincial/territorial partners has led to the recent development of a national strategy on climate change, as well as a business plan. Dealing effectively with climate change requires the establishment of extensive linkages within and across governments, with the public and industry, and with other countries – extensive consultation and cooperation are required on all major initiatives.

Provincial powers

Provincial/territorial governments have jurisdictional responsibility for energy resources and policy management within their borders, which includes taxes, resource royalties, utility regulation, intra-provincial trade, and environmental impacts. Responses in this questionnaire reflect mainly the national or federal perspective, with occasional reference to provincial/territorial and municipal initiatives. Further information on provincial/territorial perspectives can be found at their government Web sites, which can be found through http://www.gc.ca.

Cooperation

Canada’s constitutional division of powers requires that federal and provincial/territorial governments work together in such areas as climate change, environmental assessment, and the regulation of Canada’s energy infrastructure. Industry associations, energy producers, energy users, and environmental organizations are major stakeholders that contribute to the policy development process.

In general, energy policy is developed and implemented using a consultative and iterative approach, in cooperation with the energy industry and other key parties at the federal, provincial/territorial, and local government levels, with First Nations, and with environmental and other non-government organizations. This approach ensures that energy initiatives are thoroughly reviewed and enables all parties to use their resources more efficiently.

The federal and provincial/territorial governments cooperate on energy matters through the Council of Energy Ministers. This Council cooperates with the corresponding Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment on matters concerning both energy and environment through Joint Ministers’ Meetings. Officials from the federal and provincial/territorial governments cooperate on air issues at the technical level through the National Air Issues Coordinating Committee.

Coordination among federal departments is achieved in part through interdepartmental committees. For example, Natural Resources Canada and two auto industry representatives co-chair the Government Industry Motor Vehicle Energy Committee, which includes representation from Environment Canada, Transport Canada, and Industry Canada.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations

Energy regulatory policy in Canada is shaped by the constitutional division of powers between federal and provincial/territorial governments. It is further influenced by significant differences in resource endowments, development patterns, and the varying objectives of governments. Harmonizing the objectives of Canada’s 14 jurisdictions is a challenging process that must recognize differences in the perspective of government versus private ownership, industrial and regional benefit objectives, and a range of social, environmental, and health objectives.

In Canada, the regulation of energy covers export approvals and rate setting in regulated monopoly situations. Health, safety, and environmental issues are also covered. Canada’s energy markets operate within a framework of regulations and treaties. Key federal elements include:

·             the National Energy Board and the National Energy Board Act, by which the export of oil, gas, and electricity are regulated in the public interest. The Board also regulates  interprovincial commerce in oil and natural gas, but not in electricity.

·             the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, which requires an environmental assessment of all federal projects or projects that a federal department or agency proposes, funds, or otherwise authorizes by issuing a permit or licence

·             the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which limits the use of export restrictions and ensures that imports receive national treatment

·             the Agreement on Internal Trade (Energy chapter), which, when completed, will provide limited uniform access to cross-territory transmission of electricity

·             the Energy Supplies Emergency Act, which allows the allocation of energy supplies in Canada during a state of emergency

·             the Energy Efficiency Regulations, under the Energy Efficiency Act, which relate to energy-performance levels and energy labelling for products that use energy, and to collection of data on energy use and alternative energy.

·             the Nuclear Safety and Control Act, which provides a modern framework for regulating the nuclear industry. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission is the federal regulator that ensures health, safety, security, and environmental protection.

For more information on these and other energy-related acts, please visit the following Web site: http://canada.justice.gc.ca/bireg/index_en.html

Tax measures and other economic instruments

Recent changes in the federal tax system support sustainable energy efforts related to climate change, renewable energy, and energy conservation. These include recent increases in the capital cost allowance for some electrical field equipment in use in oilfields, and the accelerated capital cost allowances provided to various energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. Favourable tax treatment is also provided for the use of alternative transportation fuels such as propane and natural gas, as well as ethanol from biomass.

The use of economic instruments to achieve environmental goals has remained fairly limited in Canada. Product charges/taxes and deposit refund systems tend to be the most frequently used instruments and have been used by all levels of government in Canada. For example, Canadian consumers pay several taxes on fuels to run their vehicles and equipment: federal, provincial/territorial, and municipal excise taxes, the federal goods and services tax, and in some instances, provincial sales tax. Consumers who purchase more-fuel-efficient vehicles benefit from an effective reduction in the total excise tax required. Alternative fuels, such as ethanol produced from renewable sources, propane, compressed natural gas, and methanol, are exempted from the federal excise tax. For blended fuels, the tax exemption applies only to the proportion of the exempt fuel in the product.

The government will undertake analytical work to explore the potential of future policy approaches such as emissions trading, in which the private sector is able to trade the right to emit within an established cap on emissions.

Subsidies

The use of subsidies can be justified in some situations, but in general they tend to create economic distortions and undermine the efficient working of the economy. They can also encourage pressures on resources by disguising the real costs of economic activity, thereby serving as a barrier to sustainable development. As part of the effort to reduce federal spending and to improve economic efficiency by ensuring that economic activities are financially viable on their own wherever appropriate, steps have been taken since 1994 to substantially reduce or eliminate many government subsidies, grants, and contributions. In particular, direct government subsidies and other supports to the transportation and agriculture sectors have declined significantly. In the 1995 federal budget, the government also indicated that direct financial support for energy mega projects would end after 1995–1996. Natural Resources Canada has taken steps to increase the share of grants and contributions for energy efficiency and alternative energy in the past decade.

Decision Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

Sustainable development of the energy economy requires that Canada’s present energy needs be satisfied without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Sustainable development means that the energy sector performs well economically and environmentally – that sound economic performance is balanced with appropriate consideration of the environmental effects of producing and consuming energy. The challenge for governments is to establish an economic framework in which Canadians enjoy maximum benefit from the country’s natural resources, technology, labour, and capital, while consuming and producing energy in ways that meet the principles of sustainable development.

Canada’s approach to sustainable development is to build on the strength of markets while addressing their limitations through carefully targeted initiatives. Well-functioning markets balance the competing benefits and costs of alternative activities. They also channel resources to maximize the welfare of Canadian society. Sustainable development requires efficient resource allocation, which is often accomplished best by competitive markets. Governments can foster competitive markets by establishing essential market conditions (institutions, laws, regulations, etc.) that ensure transparency, predictability, and fairness to all market participants, and provide a stable basis to encourage investment. Governments also have general laws intended to promote competition and deter anti-competitive practices. Energy infrastructure that has the characteristics of a natural monopoly, such as pipelines or electricity transmission and distribution systems, is generally provided either by government enterprises or by private companies subject to public regulation.

There are possible adverse environmental and social consequences of energy production and use that markets do not address. To correct for such limitations, Canadian jurisdictions use a mix of policy instruments, such as information and suasion; voluntary measures (e.g., encouraging firms and other organizations to achieve ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 certification, or to register their climate change action plans with the Voluntary Challenge and Registry, Inc.); scientific research and technological development; economic instruments; and various types of regulations to ensure high standards of environmental stewardship and social responsibility at all stages of energy development and use. Canada’s experience affirms that jurisdictions require the flexibility to select policy instruments that best address their own circumstances.

Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) tabled its first sustainable development strategy in December 1997, committing to work with Canadians to implement activities that will “enable us to protect the health of the natural environment and landmass, while efficiently meeting human needs for energy, forest and mineral based products, and providing similar opportunities for future generations.” The action plan under the strategy identified 68 action commitments to further the four goals of sustainable development. In 1999, NRCan reported on its progress in meeting the objectives outlines in the Strategy. It is now preparing its second sustainable development strategy, to be tabled in December 2000. For more information, consult http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/dmo/susdev

Canada’s energy policy objectives are to:

·             implement a framework that promotes a competitive and innovative energy sector

·             ensure that the environmental impacts of energy development, transportation, and use are adequately and responsibly addressed

·             ensure that future generations of Canadians have secure access to adequate supplies of competitively priced energy.

Energy supply, access, and distribution

As markets evolve, the need for and nature of economic regulation is being questioned, as well as the appropriate roles for federal and provincial governments.  For electricity, which is in the midst of restructuring in jurisdictions across North America, open access to markets will necessitate new regulatory approaches. For natural gas, which has entered a period of significant pipeline expansion and construction, the regulatory system is being challenged to examine new approaches to pipeline regulation.

At the same time, globalization and industry restructuring exert pressure on the federal government to exercise its energy responsibilities in a different manner. Similarly, identifying new resources may require innovative approaches. Developing agreements with the provinces and territories (with adjacent offshores) to delegate or administratively share responsibility for resource development is an important evolution of regulatory activity in Canada.

Energy efficiency

The Government of Canada has had programs to promote energy efficiency for many years. Many of its market transformation programs have been consolidated and new programs have been added in Natural Resources Canada’s (NRCan) Office of Energy Efficiency. The Office of Energy Efficiency was established to renew, strengthen, and expand Canada’s commitment to energy efficiency, particularly in relation to the Kyoto Protocol. The Office’s programs are aimed at overcoming market barriers posed by inadequate information and knowledge about energy efficiency and alternative transportation fuels, and at addressing institutional deterrents in energy-use markets and economic constraints facing energy users. Many of its programs are noted in the responses to Questions 12 and 13. NRCan’s National Energy Use Database initiative is helping to track changes in energy consumption at a disaggregated level, including the development, where possible, of quantified progress indicators for program outcomes. For information on its programs, publications and data development, please consult the following Web site: http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca

Energy consumption and production in relation to environmental protection

In early 1998, federal and provincial/territorial governments established a National Climate Change Process to examine the impact, costs, and benefits of the Kyoto Protocol and the various implementation options open to Canada. Recommendations resulting from this work formed the basis for a national climate change implementation strategy.

The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment also consults widely to develop Canada-wide standards concerning air emissions, including many emissions related to energy production and use.

Research & development on cleaner fossil fuel, nuclear energy, and renewable energy technologies

Canada is taking steps to make more use of alternative energy sources and to make other changes in the ways we use energy in order to increase energy diversification and efficiency and reduce environmental impacts. In November 1996, Natural Resources Canada released a new renewable energy strategy. The department allocates most of its support for renewable energy to R&D to reduce costs, improve performance, develop safety and performance standards, and increase the scope of renewable energy technologies. It also disseminates reliable information to consumers and assesses economic and environmental aspects of renewable sources of energy. The federal government has implemented a number of market-based initiatives to promote greater use of renewable energy sources, such as:

 ·             the Renewable Energy Development Initiative, to help industry gain experience with renewable energy sources and develop and implement marketing strategies

 ·             the Renewable Energy Technologies Program, to fund industrial research and development

 ·             RETScreen, a software program to assess the cost-effectiveness of using renewable energy technologies available for free at the following Web site:  http://retscreen.gc.ca

The Program of Energy Research and Development supports activities focussed on the area of distributed electricity generation. The program provides the science and technology necessary to improve the economics and efficiency of conversion of non-renewable energy to electricity. Areas under examination include storage, hybrid and systems technologies.

Because fossil fuels will continue to contribute significantly to the total global energy mix for the foreseeable future and the demand for these fuels will increase, Canada recognizes the importance of the promotion, transfer, research and development, and use of advanced and cleaner fossil fuel technologies. Important developments to date include advanced gas turbines, fuel cells, advanced syngas production technologies, alternative transportation fuels, next-generation power plants and vehicles, and new methods of oil and gas extraction. Examples of federal government initiatives to promote the development of advanced fossil fuel technologies are:

·             the Advanced Combustion Technologies Program, which supports the development of new combustion and pollution-abatement technologies

·             the Processing and Environmental Catalysis Program, which assists in solving industrial process problems and in researching selected chemical conversion processes

·             the Alternative and Future Fuels Program, which promotes the development and use of ATFs through reductions in market barriers to ATF vehicles and the establishment of a refuelling infrastructure.

Nuclear energy has helped Canada reduce emissions from the electricity sector by 50 per cent over the past 30 years and continues to be an important option in our energy mix. Canada places utmost priority on safety and responsible management of nuclear energy, and is committed to ensuring that nuclear waste is managed in a safe, environmentally-sound, comprehensive, cost-effective, and integrated manner.

Decision Making: Major Groups Involvement

Increasingly, Canadians participate in the decision making and economic activities related to sustainable use or development of land and natural resources. Natural Resources Canada and Environment Canada are working in partnership with provinces, territories, and municipalities to improve local access to clean air and clean water and to reduce the threat of climate change in urban and rural centres by providing $25 million to create the Green Municipal Enabling Fund and $100 million to create the Green Municipal Investment Fund. These funds will provide grants, loans, and loan guarantees for projects that increase the energy and environmental efficiency and cost-effectiveness of municipal water, wastewater, waste, energy, and public transportation facilities and services. Projects include energy-efficient retrofits of buildings, district energy systems, deployment of renewable energy technologies, improved public transportation services, and upgraded waste- and water-management services.

Municipal governments have been involved in greenhouse gas reduction for more than a decade. More than 60 Canadian communities have joined the Partners for Climate Protection Program, a joint program of the Federation of Canadian Municipalities and the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives, committing themselves to reducing greenhouse gas emissions in their own operations and communities. These municipalities are developing local action plans to guide their actions. Municipalities are actively involved in the national climate change process through their work on the Municipalities Table and as active participants on other tables as well. For further information, please visit the following Web site: http://www.fcm.ca

Canada recognizes the need to incorporate the views of all stakeholders in energy issues, including project proponents, beneficiaries, and affected groups, including the nine groups identified in Agenda 21. Canada has steadily improved the openness, accessibility, and responsiveness of its governance processes and invested substantially over the past decade to promote decision making compatible with sustainable development in government and industries, and among individual citizens and consumers. Public participation is encouraged at all levels of decision making, from legislative committees to regulatory and judicial hearings and environmental assessment processes.

Women, youth, indigenous people, NGOs, local authorities (e.g., the Federation of Canadian Municipalities), and business and industry have all been represented on the Canadian delegation to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

Canada and its provinces exercise ownership over a large part of the natural resources of Canada. However, the development of energy resources and provision of energy services are conducted primarily by private companies under agreements with governments, which monitor the implementation of these agreements and collect appropriate resource royalties. These companies operate in competitive markets, which help to ensure the efficient resource allocation necessary to sustainable development. Governments can foster competitive markets by establishing essential market conditions (through institutions, laws, regulations, etc.) that ensure transparency, predictability, and fairness to all market participants. Governments may also have general laws intended to promote competition and deter anti-competitive practices.

A notable exception to this general pattern of private provision of energy services in Canada is electricity, which has been provided by government-owned corporations or regulated monopolies throughout most of the country. Until recently, competitive provision of electricity services has not been considered technically feasible, but this is now changing. Some jurisdictions are now restructuring their electricity sectors, and moving toward wholesale and retail competition where feasible, e.g. in electricity generation and service provision. Transmission and distribution, dependent as they are on a single set of wires for greatest efficiency, will continue to be regulated as a natural monopoly.

Fossil fuel pipelines require similar government regulation or ownership to ensure that supply is not unduly restricted nor prices excessive. At the same time, there must be adequate rates of return to attract investment in these important elements of energy infrastructure.

Companies involved in energy production and distribution are represented by various organizations, such as Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, Small Explorers and Producers Association of Canada, Canadian Petroleum Products Institute, Canadian Electricity Association and Independent Retail Gasoline Marketers Association, to name a few. These organizations engage in dialogue from time to time with the federal and provincial/territorial governments on issues pertinent to their members. The governments and these organizations maintain a good working relationship with each other.

NGOs, consumer groups, and other interest groups can influence the energy use of the Canadian public through public awareness activities. Through the Climate Change Action Fund, the Government of Canada is working in partnership with NGOs, community groups, business and industry, and other levels of government to raise awareness of climate change and encourage action to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. In some cases, government programs are delivered through or in cooperation with regional groups or associations. For example, Natural Resources Canada manages the R-2000 HOME program, and more than 30 industry partners across Canada (e.g., energy utilities, home builders’ associations, and financial institutions) deliver it at the provincial level. In the industrial sector, the Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation (CIPEC) has task forces for a majority of industrial sectors to determine their potential for energy efficiency improvement, establish targets for improvement, create action plans for reaching these targets, and track and report on progress. CIPEC’s Executive Board provides “top-down” leadership for associations, task forces, and member companies.

These groups can also exercise an influence on energy-consumption patterns in Canada by participating in public consultations that help shape government energy policy and practice.

For example:

·           Public consultation is a key element of the sustainable development strategies required of all federal departments.

·           The federal Minister of Finance receives advice in the form of pre-budget submissions from environmental groups, business, and other interested parties on various ways to integrate environmental considerations into the budget process.

·           The National Energy Board holds public hearings in order to hear all sides and points of view before making decision on specific matters. It also conducts inquiries, issuing news releases to publicize the process; all correspondence on the matter becomes part of inquiry records.

·           The National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy takes an impartial, inclusive approach, with open and free debate. They invite input from key stakeholders and assimilate research and consultation to clarify the debate.

Programmes and Projects

The development of near universal access to electricity in Canada was achieved over an extended period from 1920 to 1960. Steps taken to achieve this goal were: electrification of cities; connection of major consumption centres through a grid; extension of that grid to feasible load centres; and finally, the provision of electricity, through various means, to areas considered otherwise unviable mainly due to remoteness. In Canada, only about 1.3 percent of households are not currently connected to the grid, and all of these are in small, isolated communities.

Isolated areas provide their own electricity through independent sources. Today, more choices are available, including wind turbine generators, solar photovoltaic cells, biomass sources, and smaller-scale gas turbines and hydroelectric. These new technologies are being gradually adopted in a number of currently off-grid communities. In addition, grid extension is continuing; in the past decade, the number of off-gird communities has been reduced from 380 to 300.

Canada does not recognize the concept of “unsustainable energy sources”.  The role of energy in sustainable development must be seen in an integrated way, considering the availability and costs of various energy sources and technologies in different locations and at different stages of development. However, Canada is committed to enhancing its energy diversification, improving the efficiency of energy production and use, and steadily increasing the role of renewable energy in order to improve the sustainability of its energy economy.

Canadian jurisdictions have income support and welfare programs so that all members of society can afford essential energy services, as well as other basic items. Direct subsidies for energy consumption are generally avoided, as they can promote inefficient use and exacerbate environmental impacts. However, in some cases, Canadian jurisdictions have instituted subsidies or authorized cross-subsidies, notably for electricity, in order to ensure access, especially in rural and remote areas. Some energy companies also maintain voluntary funds to help particularly needy households with the costs of winter heating.

Canada has started to slow the growth in greenhouse gas emissions. In the mid-1990s Canada’s emissions were increasing at a rate of about 3 percent per year. In 1998, the last year for which complete data are available, the increase had slowed to 1 percent per year. Climate change is a “horizontal” issue that cuts across all economic sectors, affects all ecosystems, and involves every political jurisdiction. A step-by-step path for reducing Canada’s greenhouse gas emissions is documented in the National Implementation Strategy and the first national climate change business plan, released in October 2000.

For a comprehensive listing of Canadian initiatives taken on climate change, please see A Compendium of Canadian Initiatives: Taking Action on Climate Change (found under “What’s new” at http://www.nccp.ca). All federal programs related to the energy sector include some component of greenhouse gas reduction.

The Climate Change Action Fund, announced by the federal government in 1998 and renewed in the 2000 federal budget, will invest $150 million in climate-change projects over three years. Federal government investments through the fund are also leveraging significant funding from project proponents and other private sector and government partners. For a complete listing of energy-related projects funded under the Climate Change Action Fund, please visit the Government of Canada’s climate change Web site at http://www.climatechange.gc.ca 

In addition, the federal government recently committed $500 million over five years as  its contribution to the First National Climate Change Business Plan, which can be found under “What’s new” at the following Web site: http://www.nccp.ca

Federal and provincial governments have put a large number of measures in place to reduce vehicle emissions. The most recent measures include vehicle inspection and maintenance programs in two provinces, vapour pressure limits for gasoline in most provinces, implementation of new national vehicle emission standards for 1998 and subsequent model years, and federal regulations to reduce the sulphur content in diesel fuel and the levels of sulphur and benzene in gasoline.

In 1997, the federal government put into place regulations to limit the benzene content of gasoline to less than 1 per cent by volume and to restrict the amount of sulphur in diesel fuel for on‑road vehicles to a maximum of 0.05 per cent by weight. The federal government has also announced its intention to further reduce sulphur in diesel to 15 parts per million (ppm) by 2006 in line with similar requirements for diesel sold in the United States. It will also limit the average level of sulphur in Canadian gasoline to 30 parts per million (ppm) in 2005, with a phase‑in of 150 ppm in 2002. The reductions are especially important in Ontario, which has the highest sulphur levels in gasoline in Canada.

Canadian emissions standards for new vehicles generally match those of the U.S. and are among the most stringent in the world.  Canada has fuel quality standards that are comparable in many respects with standards in Europe and the U.S., although there are differences.   The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is setting new standards for cars and light duty trucks, including SUVs to be phased in from 2004 to 2009. As well, Europe has already taken action to reduce sulphur in diesel fuels and the U.S. is considering similar measures. In April 2000 Environment Canada began nation-wide consultations concerning future vehicle emission and fuel standards in Canada. A discussion paper, “Future Canadian Emission Standards for Vehicles and Engines and Standards for Reformulation of Petroleum-based Fuels,” was distributed to stakeholders prior to the Cleaner Vehicles and Fuels Workshop held in Toronto in May 2000. Submissions received during the consultation process have now been reviewed, and Environment Canada will proceed in 2001 to publish a Notice Of Intent to set the agenda for vehicles, engines, and petroleum fuels for the next decade. 

In June 2000, the Government of Canada, the provinces, and the territories adopted new Canada-Wide Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) and Ozone. These standards set ambient air quality concentration targets for ground-level ozone and fine particulate matter for the year 2010. These standards commit all jurisdictions to reaching specific reduction targets, which will lead to a significant reduction in smog- causing emissions by that date or earlier. Meeting these new standards will require a wide range of emission reduction actions by the Government of Canada, the provinces, and the territories. In addition to measures for vehicles and fuels and solvent-containing products, the Government of Canada is working with provinces and territories to develop comprehensive emission reduction strategies for a number of major industrial sectors in Canada.

Other important air quality-related Canada-wide standards were also either adopted or accepted in principle by federal and provincial/territorial ministers in June 2000. These include standards to deal with mercury, benzene, dioxins, and furans. For further information, consult the following Web site: http://www.ccme.ca

In October 2000, Canada and the United States finalized a draft of the Ozone Annex to the 1999  U.S.– Canada Air Quality Agreement. Health, environment and industry representatives were on the Canadian negotiating team.  The Annex defines the region in each country to which the agreement applies. In Canada, this region includes central and southern Ontario and southern Quebec, representing more than 50 percent of Canada’s population. In the United States, the region includes 18 states and the District of Columbia, representing about 40 percent of the country’s population. The draft Ozone Annex is a significant milestone in bilateral relations with the U.S.  The Annex embeds a commitment to Canada to implement an aggressive U.S. emission reduction program that will have direct air quality and health benefits for millions of Canadians living in central and eastern Canada.  Commitments under the agreement relate to the control and reduction of emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOX) and volatile organic compounds (VOC), which are precursors of ground-level ozone, a major component of smog.

As well, the following federal programs have the reduction of emissions from petroleum-based fuels as one of their aims:

·             The Motor Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Program encourages automobile manufacturers to voluntarily meet the Company Average Fuel Consumption targets, which are sales-weighted fuel consumption averages for new cars, vans, and light-duty trucks sold by each manufacturer.

·             Auto$mart encourages motorists to buy, drive, and maintain their vehicles in ways that reduce fuel consumption, save money, and benefit the environment.

·             FleetWise (federal fleet operations) gives federal fleet managers the information and tools needed to improve the operational efficiency of fleets, reduce greenhouse gas emissions from fleet operations, and accelerate the use of alternative transportation fuels.

·             FleetSmart (commercial and fleet operations) provides fleet managers in the private sector with information, workshops, technical demonstrations, and training programs on fuel-efficient practices for fleet vehicles.

·             The EnerGuide for Vehicles program encourages manufacturers voluntarily attach an EnerGuide label to new cars, vans, and light-duty trucks sold in Canada. The label indicates the vehicle’s fuel consumption rating and estimated annual fuel costs to help consumers select the most fuel-efficient vehicle that meets their needs.

Canada focuses on energy efficiency. Over the past ten years, there has been a major expansion of federal programs designed to improve energy efficiency and to increase the use of alternative energy sources. The Energy Efficiency and Alternative Energy (EAE) program, launched by Natural Resources Canada in 1991 supports economically feasible increases in energy efficiency and the use of alternative energy sources. It encourages investment in corporate and consumer EAE opportunities and seeks to engage all sectors of the economy and Canadian society in rethinking and improving energy use.  It aims to

·             increase the energy efficiency of new and existing buildings, equipment, systems, and vehicles, and persuade individuals and organizations to purchase these products

·             ensure that energy-consuming equipment is used in the most energy-efficient way

·             influence the energy-use practices of individuals and organizations

·             develop new technologies to give consumers, industry, and communities new opportunities to improve energy efficiency.

This program

·             uses a variety of policy instruments, including leadership, information, voluntary actions, financial incentives, research and development, and regulation

·             helps the demand side of the energy market move toward more-energy-efficient capital stock, production processes, and operating practices, without reducing service levels or comfort

·             ensures that Canada participates in the development of technology for tapping renewable energy sources and alternative transportation fuels, as well as increasing the energy efficiency of energy production

·             provides a foundation for long-term processes that can respond to evolving environmental and economic development priorities.

In 1992, Canada signed and ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. In 1995, federal and provincial Ministers of Energy and Environment approved the National Action Program on Climate Change, tabled at the 1st Conference of the Parties (CoP) in April 1995. To reinforce voluntary action, Ministers of Energy and Environment agreed in February 1995 to establish the Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry, which broadens awareness of the need to act and publicizes the plans and accomplishments of organizations with respect to reducing their greenhouse emissions. It was incorporated in October 1997 as a non-government, not-for-profit organization.

The 1997 federal budget announced an additional $60-million over three years to fund new programs to stimulate energy efficiency and use of renewable energy sources. In December 1997, Canada participated in the 3rd CoP, agreeing to reduce greenhouse gas emission to 6 percent below 1990 levels by 2008–2012. In early 1998, federal and provincial/territorial governments established a National Climate Change Process to examine the impact, costs, and benefits of the Kyoto Protocol and the various implementation options open to Canada. The 1998 federal budget provided $150 million over three years for a Climate Change Action Fund to help Canada develop its response to the Kyoto Protocol. In addition, the federal government recently committed $500 million over five years as its contribution to the First National Climate Change Business Plan, which can be found under “What’s new” at the following Web site: http://www.nccp.ca

In April 1998, the Office of Energy Efficiency (OEE) was created in Natural Resources Canada to renew, strengthen, and expand Canada’s commitment to energy efficiency, particularly in relation to the Kyoto Protocol. Programs delivered by the OEE target all final energy consumers and emphasize partnerships and economic investments. A new National Advisory Council on Energy Efficiency assists in identifying opportunities for new and greater energy efficient measures. The OEE reports annually on the state of energy efficiency in Canada and manages Canada’s new annual Energy Efficiency Conference, an energy efficiency technology products and services trade show, and Canada’s Energy Efficiency Awards ceremony. For further information on OEE programs, please visit the following Web site: http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca

Natural Resources Canada’s Office of Energy Research and Development coordinates and funds non-nuclear, energy-related R&D. More than 50 percent of its annual R&D budget is devoted to studying options related to energy efficiency and alternative energy.

 The following are examples of programs aimed at promoting energy efficiency in Canada.

 Energy efficiency in buildings

·             The R-2000 HOME Program is an industry-endorsed, voluntary certification program for new houses that features a technical performance standard for energy efficiency, indoor air quality and environmental responsiveness, and a quality assurance process for industry training, house evaluations, and inspections.

·             EnerGuide for Houses is an energy-performance evaluation and rating program that provides homeowners with the facts they need to make informed decisions about energy efficiency when buying a house or making improvements to their existing homes.

·             The Commercial Building Incentive Program provides financial incentives to eligible building owners who construct new commercial, institutional and multi-unit residential dwellings that are at least 25 percent more energy efficient than similar buildings constructed to meet the Model National Energy Code for Buildings.

·             The Energy Innovators Initiative encourages investment in energy-efficient equipment and practices to reduce the operating costs of commercial and institutional buildings. Financial incentives may be available for retrofit pilot projects that can be replicated in other facilities.

·             The Federal Buildings Initiative is a voluntary program that helps federal government departments and agencies improve the energy efficiency of their buildings and heating equipment.

·             The Buildings Energy Technologies Program is developing a new generation of technologies that improve energy efficiency, indoor air quality, durability and comfort, while making the environmentally responsible design, construction, operation, and renovation of energy-efficient buildings easier.

·             The Federal Industrial Boiler Program offers advisory and project-management services related to maintaining, selecting, and installing equipment to owners and operators of heating and cooling systems in buildings.

Energy efficiency  in equipment

·             Under the authority of the Energy Efficiency Act, the Energy Performance Regulations require that specified types of energy-using equipment meet or exceed minimum levels of energy performance.

 ·             The Energy Performance Regulations also require that specified major household appliances must display an EnerGuide label that shows the yearly energy consumption rating of an appliance and positions it on a scale between the most and least efficient comparable models.

 ·             The voluntary EnerGuide Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) Energy Efficiency Rating System provides consumers with the information they need to purchase energy-efficient home HVAC products and provides contractors with the tools to increase sales of energy-efficient HVAC equipment.

 ·             The Refrigeration and Intelligent Buildings Program focuses on the development and deployment of technologies in the areas of ground source heat pumps, refrigeration, and intelligent buildings.

 Energy efficiency in industry

·             The Advanced Combustion Technologies Program supports the development of novel combustion and pollution abatement technologies.

 ·             The Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation (CIPEC) and the Industrial Energy Innovators Initiative (sectoral and company-level initiatives, respectively) help Canadian industries identify energy efficiency potential, establish energy efficiency targets and programs, and report on progress.

 ·             The Heat Transfer and Storage Systems Program develops and improves industrial and commercial heat transfer and storage technologies.

 ·             Energy Systems Analysis and Modelling explores the use of state-of-the-art methodologies that promote more efficient use of energy in a variety of sectors and environmentally safer industrial practices.

 ·             Industry Energy Research and Development encourages and supports industry proposals for developing and applying leading-edge, energy-efficient, and environmentally responsible processes, products, systems, and equipment.

 ·             Energy Technologies for High-Temperature Processes strives to improve coke-making and iron-making processes by researching coal injection into blast furnaces.

·             The Processing and Environmental Catalysis Program aims at solving industrial process problems, and also researches selected chemical conversion processes for natural gas, biomass-derived oils, petroleum products, and engine emissions.

 ·             The Minerals and Metals Technologies Initiative helps Canada’s minerals and metal industries improve energy efficiency and reduce energy costs.

·             Voluntary Challenge and Registry, Inc., a stand-alone, not-for-profit corporation, encourages private and public sector organizations to voluntarily limit or reduce their net greenhouse gas emissions, as a step towards meeting Canada's climate change goals. More than 700 organizations from all sectors of the economy have joined the initiative (for further information, investigate http://www.vcr-mvr.ca).

Energy efficiency in transportation

·             The Alternative Transportation Fuels Market Development Initiative promotes propane, natural gas, methanol, ethanol, electricity, and hydrogen as automotive fuels.

·             The Transportation Energy Technologies Program has programs for alternative fuels and advanced propulsion systems, advanced energy storage systems, emissions control technologies, vehicle transportation systems efficiency, and fuelling infrastructure.

Status

Canada has extensive energy resources and is one of the world’s largest energy producers and exporters of resources, particularly oil, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower.

Primary energy production by commodity in 1998 was: 37.5 percent gas; 36.1 percent petroleum; 12.0 percent electricity (generated mainly from hydro, coal and nuclear energy); 11.1 percent coal; and 3.3 percent waste wood, spent pulping liquor, and firewood, for a historic high of 16,292 petajoules. Alberta accounted for 68 percent of total production; British Columbia, 13 percent; Saskatchewan, 9 percent, Quebec, 4 percent; and Ontario, 1 percent.

Primary energy consumption by commodity in 1998 was: 39.7 percent petroleum; 24.0 percent gas; 17.9 percent electricity; 13.2 percent coal; and 5.2 percent waste wood, spent pulping liquor, and firewood, for a total of 10,414 petajoules. Ontario accounted for 34 percent of total consumption; Quebec, 21 percent; Alberta, 20 percent; British Columbia, 12 percent; Saskatchewan, 5 percent; Manitoba, 4 percent; and the Atlantic Provinces, 4 percent.

For a discussion of the availability and consumption of renewable energy resources, please refer to Questions 28 and 29.

Natural gas: Remaining established reserves at the beginning of 1997 were: natural gas, 64.9 trillion cubic feet (Tcf): 64.6 Tcf in conventional areas and 0.3 Tcf in frontier areas, for a reserves-to-production ratio of 12.2 years. The total in-place raw undiscovered potential of natural gas in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin is estimated at 275 Tcf. Marketable production of natural gas in 1998 was 5.7 Tcf. In 1997, natural gas exports were valued at $8.7 billion, and almost no natural gas was imported. Canadian gas consumption in 1997 was 79 billion m3. Canadian gas exports to the United States are slightly higher than domestic consumption, having quadrupled since 1986.

Oil: Crude oil reserves in 1997 were estimated at 8.6 billion (B) barrels consisting of: conventional, 3.5 B barrels; oil sands, 3.8 B barrels; and frontier, 1.3 B barrels (of which 0.85 B barrels are off the east coast), for a reserves-to-production ratio of 10 years. The ultimate recoverable potential from the Alberta oil sands is more than 300 B barrels. Canada is a net exporter of crude oil. Canadian total crude oil and equivalent production in 1999 was 2.1 million barrels per day (BPD). Crude oil demand in 1999 was 1.8 million BPD. Net exports in 1999 were 0.436 million BPD (1.253 million BPD of exports minus 0.817 million BPD of imports).

 

Source: Canada’s Energy Outlook 1996-2020, Annex C-6

Coal: Coal reserves are estimated at 6,294 million tonnes (Mt) for a reserves-to-production ratio of 84 years. Total coal resources are estimated at well over 200 gigatonnes (Gt). Most of these resources (90 percent) occur in the three western provinces. Canada produced 75 million tonnes of coal valued at $1.8 billion in 1998, broken down as: 33 percent Alberta sub-bituminous, 15 percent Alberta bituminous, 33 percent British Columbia bituminous, 16 percent Saskatchewan lignite, and the remainder from the Maritime Provinces. Of the coal available in Canada, including that imported, 90 percent was used to produce electricity. In 1998, Canadian coal provided 70 percent of all coal consumed in Canada. That year, coal accounted for about 19 percent of Canadian electricity generation. Coal exports fell by about 6 percent in 1998 to a value of about $2.3 million. Canada’s 1998 imports rose by 39 percent between 1997 and 1998, mostly due to Ontario’s increased consumption.

Summary of Coal Supply and Demand, 1990 to 2020  (Million Tonnes)

 

 

 

1990

 

1995

 

1998

 

2000

 

2010

 

2020

 

Production

 

66

 

77

 

74

 

75

 

79

 

88

 

Imports

 

14

 

10

 

19

 

8

 

13

 

23

 

Total Supply

 

80

 

87

 

93

 

83

 

92

 

111

 

Domestic Consumption

 

49

 

53

 

59

 

48

 

55

 

74

 

Exports

 

31

 

34

 

34

 

35

 

37

 

37

 

Total Demand

 

80

 

87

 

93

 

83

 

92

 

111

 

Net Exports

 

17

 

24

 

15

 

27

 

24

 

14

                                                                                                                                           Source: Energy in Canada, p.93

Electricity: Electricity generation in 1998 was 543 net terawatt hours. Quebec accounted for 39 percent of total generation (97 percent from hydro), and Ontario for 24 percent (42 percent from nuclear sources). Hydroelectricity, a renewable energy source, is the dominant form of electricity in Canada (67 percent), reaching a production of 344,201 gigawatt hours in 1997. Canada is the world leader in hydroelectricity, and significant potential remains for further development. The gross remaining potential is estimated at 182,832 megawatts. There is about 1,500 megawatts of installed small hydro capacity in Canada, with the potential for another 1,200 megawatts of economically feasible development.   

 Estimates of Primary Energy Production from Renewable Sources, 1997 (Input in Petajoules)

 

Hydro

 

1255.0

 

Tidal

 

0.1

 

Biomass

 

 

 

    -Industrial Pulp and Paper (P&P) Electricity from Wood Waste

 

144.4

 

    -Industrial Pulp and Paper (P&P) Electricity from Black Liquor

 

357.9

 

    -Independent Power Production (IPP) Electricity from Wood Waste

 

37.5

 

    -Electricity from Landfill Sites

 

7.2

 

    -Electricity from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)

 

0.5

 

    -Municipal Waste Incinerators

 

12.5

 

    -Biogas from Sewage Plants

 

n/a

 

    -Industrial Pulp and Paper (P&P) Heat from Wood Waste

 

393.0

 

    -Residential Space Heating

 

95.0

 

    -Commercial and/or Institutional Heating

 

n/a

 

    -Thermal Energy from Landfill Sites

 

2.4

 

    -Thermal Energy from MSW

 

12.0

 

    -Ethanol from Biomass*

 

4.1

 

    -Energy Crops Plantations

 

n/a

 

    -Agriculture Waste

 

n/a

 

Earth Energy Systems

 

1.5

 

Geothermal

 

0.003

 

Wind Electric

 

1.2

 

Wind Mechanical

 

n/a

 

Solar Thermal (Water and Air)

 

0.2

 

Solar Photovoltaic

 

0.01

 

Total Renewable Energy

 

2424.51

                                                                                * Includes output from a plant opened in 1998

                                                                                                     Source: Energy in Canada, p.96

Nuclear: Twenty-two CANDU nuclear reactors are owned and operated by utilities in Canada, producing about 15 percent of Canada’s electricity. CANDU reactors are also in operation or under construction in Korea, China, Argentina, and Romania.

The following table shows Canada’s energy export standing in 1998.

 

1998 Commodities

 

Canada’s production ranking

 

Exports

 

Country of destination

 

Total energy

 

 

 

$26.3 B (100%)

 

U.S. $23.8 B (90%)

Japan $1.2 B (5%)

S. Korea $0.4 B (2%)

Brazil $0.2 B (0.8%)

 

Petroleum*

 

10th in the world (3.5%)

 

$13.3 B (50%)

 

U.S. $13.1 B (99%)

 

Natural gas

 

3rd in the world (6.9%)

 

$8.9 B (34%)

 

U.S. $8.9 B (100%)

 

Coal**

 

9th in the world (1.8%)

 

$2.6 B (10%)

 

Japan $1.2 B (46%)

S. Korea $0.4 B (15%)

U.S. $0.3 B (12%)

 

Electricity

 

4th among OECD*** countries

 

$1.5 B (6%)

 

U.S. $1.5 B (100%)

* trade data include crude oil, liquefied petroleum gases (LPGs), and petroleum products. Production ranking includes crude and LPGs.

** Includes coal and coal products.

*** Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

Electricity is available in Canada on a reliable and affordable basis for all sectors of the economy.

The primary sources of energy in Canada have changed over time. In the 19th century, wood was the primary energy source. At the turn of the 20th century, coal was on the rise, replacing wood as the primary source for the next 50 years. With the proliferation of the automobile and the growing demand for gasoline to power it, petroleum and its associated products have become the primary source of energy in Canada. A substantial portion of Canada’s electricity generation is from hydro and nuclear energy.  Today, energy is produced as a mix of all energy sources. That mix changed in the past, is changing now, and will change in the future. Therefore, sustainable energy development challenges us to examine the present mix of energy sources in Canada; to develop new, more environmentally benign energy technologies; and to ensure that the generations that follow enjoy an equally secure energy future.

Natural Resources Canada’s Office of Energy Efficiency (OEE) collects and analyses data on energy use and each year publishes an annual review of trends in energy use and related greenhouse gas emissions in Canada since 1990. Between 1990 and 1998, the amount of energy used by Canadians to heat and cool their homes and workplaces and to operate their appliances, vehicles, and facilities, including the energy used to generate the electricity, increased by about 9 percent. Greenhouse gas emissions associated with this energy use increased by about 10 percent. However, the OEE Energy Efficiency Index indicates that, over the same period, Canada’s energy efficiency improved by 6 percent, saving Canadians about $5 billion per year in energy costs and reducing energy-related greenhouse emissions to 5 percent below what they otherwise would have been.

Globalization is about the dramatic increase in the level and speed of exchanges which have been facilitated by recent technological advances, and the further integration of communication and market networks worldwide.  Trade liberalization is both the result and a driving force of this globalization process.  From a Canadian energy producer perspective, more open and freer markets allow Canadian firms to specialize in what they do best, particularly in the areas of technological innovation, energy efficiency and specialized energy applications.  From an energy consumer perspective, it allows Canadians to increase their standards of living by having access to a wider range of products and services at competitive prices.  Privatization, on the other hand, is another means by which markets are made more transparent and responsive to changes.

Energy-producing industries are capital intensive and need access to international capital markets for investment, technology transfer, risk sharing, and the development of new export markets.  Canadian energy firms also invest more and more abroad and require better access to investment opportunities in other countries so they can maintain their diversified portfolio. Moreover, the growing services sector allows Canadian energy firms to participate more in international trade activities through the provision of energy services.

Environmental considerations are playing a growing role in Canada’s trade liberalization efforts, notably through the North American Free Trade Agreement and bilateral trade agreements, and multilaterally, through the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. To this end, Canada has developed a framework to review the environmental impact of trade liberalization and will be conducting a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) of WTO negotiations.

The larger exports that come from positioning the Canadian energy industry in the global marketplace will strengthen the industry and create jobs for Canadians. A stronger industry will in turn improve existing technologies, reduce costs, and lead the way in technological development.  On the environmental side, Canadian firms can introduce their innovations internationally, especially in the areas of energy efficient and alternative energy technologies and services, helping other nations meet their energy-related goals.

Challenges

All energy production and consumption brings about some degree of environmental impact. The most widespread environmental degradation caused mainly by energy production and consumption is from atmospheric emissions.

Atmospheric emissions

Canada contributes about 2 percent of the world’s total greenhouse gas emissions. In 1997, Canada emitted about 692 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent. Canada ranks eighth in the world for energy-related CO2 emissions, and fourth for per-capita greenhouse gas emissions. With the second-highest population growth rate among industrialized nations, Canada can expect a growing demand for goods and services, with the resulting increase in greenhouse gas emissions.  However, Canada is answering this challenge with broad-based actions designed to improve our use of energy, introduce alternative forms of energy, and develop and deploy innovative climate change technologies.

Acid rain     

 In 1995, acid rain deriving from SO2 emissions totalled 2.7 million tonnes, broken down by source as: industrial sources, 61 percent; electric utilities, 21 percent; fuel combustion, 13 percent; and transportation, 5 percent.

In 1995, acid rain deriving from NOx emissions totalled 2.0 million tonnes, broken down by source as: transportation, 59 percent; fuel combustion, 23 percent; electric utilities, 11 percent; and industrial sources, 7 percent.                                                             

Air quality

The transportation sector is the single most important contributor to urban air pollution in Canada. Smog levels in Canada are measured against National Ambient Air Quality Objectives and Provincial Standards (air quality objectives), which are developed jointly by federal, provincial/territorial, and municipal governments. These objectives aim to protect the health of humans and the environment by specifying target levels for key air pollutants. Through the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, governments have recently developed Canada-wide standards for particulate matter and ozone.  On October 13, 2000 delegations of Canada and the United States finalized a draft of the Ozone Annex to the 1999 U.S. - Canada Air Quality Agreement. The commitments in the final draft relate to the control and reduction of emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) which are precursors of ground-level ozone, a major component of smog and unhealthy air over major regions of eastern North America.

The use of vehicles, engines and petroleum fuels contributes significantly to air pollution in Canada and consequently has major impacts to the environment and on the health of Canadians.  Emissions from vehicles and engines are primarily a function of vehicle/engine technology and the properties of the fuels. Since the performance of vehicle emission control systems can be impaired without the right fuels, fuel standards and vehicle/engine emission standards must be considered as an integrated system in developing policies and programs to reduce emissions.  In recent years because of more sophisticated equipment being installed in new vehicles, fuels have become more of an issue in the challenge to reduce vehicle emissions.  In some cases, vehicle technology to achieve lower vehicle emission standards requires cleaner fuels. Emissions from gasoline and diesel-powered vehicles and engines are a major source of air pollution, on a national basis contributing 65 percent of carbon monoxide, 50 percent of nitrogen oxide, 25 percent of VOCs, 25 percent of greenhouse gases and 65 percent of benzene emissions.  In urban areas, the vehicle contribution to air pollution is higher.

Emissions of fine particulates come directly from the exhaust of engines, and also result from secondary formation of aerosols from SOx, NOx and VOC emissions.  In urban areas vehicles are a major contributor (greater than 20 percent) to emissions of fine particulates. 

The table below presents the contribution of the sources of interest as a percentage of national inventories. The contributions of vehicles and light fuel oil combustion (primarily in residential furnaces) are much larger in urban areas.  It should also be noted that heavy fuel oils are almost entirely combusted in central and eastern Canada, areas that are sensitive to acidic deposition.

Percent Contribution to Total Canadian Emissions in 1995

 

 

 

Direct

PM2.5

 

SO2

 

NOx

 

VOCs

 

CO

 

CO2

equiv.

 

On-Road Vehicles

 

9

 

2

 

35

 

22

 

54

 

21

 

Off-Road Engines

 

5

 

1

 

10

 

3

 

11

 

3

 

Rail

 

4

 

n/a

 

5

 

n/a

 

n/a

 

1

 

Light Fuel Oil Combustion

 

n/a

 

1

 

n/a

 

n/a

 

n/a

 

n/a

 

Heavy Fuel Oil Combustion

 

n/a

 

12

 

n/a

 

n/a

 

n/a

 

n/a

Notes: Open sources are excluded. Contributions to total PM2.5 are larger.

“n/a” means not available.

Initiatives to reduce emissions from vehicles, engines and fuels can have significant positive effects on smog, acid rain, hazardous air pollutants and may also contribute towards reductions in greenhouse gases. 

Canada's widely dispersed and rapidly increasing population, our geography and climate, and our export-oriented, resource-dependent economy create challenges to progress on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. Further, energy exports alone account for a substantial amount of Canada's growth in emissions of greenhouse gases since 1990. Because nuclear and hydro provide a substantial portion of our electricity generation, there is less scope for reductions than in some other countries.

Renewable energy sources

Canada is already a world leader in the development and use of renewable energy sources.  About 18% of energy supply is from these sources, compared to an average of 6% in countries who are members of the International Energy Agency.  Most of Canada’s success is attributable to hydroelectricity which contributes two-thirds of the electricity generation in the country.

In contrast, high-carbon electricity sources such as conventional coal and oil based generation represents only one fifth of current generation.  Given the Kyoto Protocol, there is an interest in Canada in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from these high-carbon forms of generation.  New hydroelectricity generation would represent an attractive option on an economic basis.  Contrary to most industrialized countries, Canada still has significant remaining hydroelectric potential and its possible contribution to Canada’s domestic and international climate change strategy was recognized by federal and provincial energy and environment ministers.

Barriers towards increased hydroelectricity include the value of the undepreciated assets in these higher-carbon generation plants and limited interprovincial transmission facilities.

Emerging renewable electricity sources such as wind and solar also face a cost barrier with higher production costs than conventional hydroelectricity and industrial natural gas-fuelled cogeneration.  Given its extensive and varied conventional energy resources, Canada has one of the lowest electricity costs in the world which increases the challenge of deploying new emerging sources of generation.

In the industrial and space heating/cooling markets, the fuel of choice in Canada is currently domestically-produced natural gas.  Low natural gas prices between the mid-1980s and until recently have contributed to a significant expansion in the use of natural gas.  Renewable energy is also present in these markets, particularly the combustion of wood and industrial wood waste as well as biogas.  Recent increases in natural gas and fuel oil prices may contribute to increase the penetration of other renewable energy sources.  Beyond relative prices, other barriers include the often higher initial costs of renewable energy systems.  This raises issues such as financing cost and payback periods.  Other barriers for renewable energy systems include the lack of awareness and the perceived risks associated with newer technologies.  Stakeholders such as building owners, builders and designers often express a preference for well-established, conventional technologies.

Cleaner fossil fuel techniques

In Canada, there are a number of challenges to the promotion of cleaner fossil fuel technologies.  Canada needs to improve its technological capabilities and the application of these capabilities to improve performance.  In this regard, Canada is working with other countries facing similar challenges through, for example, the International Energy Agency Implementing Agreements and a Memorandum of Understanding with the United States of America’s Department of Energy and its specific Implementing Arrangements dealing with fossil fuels.

Typically, coal- and oil-fired utility units operate at 33% overall efficiency, whereas the latest generation of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles, Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustors, Fluidized Bed Combustion Gasifiers and Supercritical Pulverized Coal units can readily exceed 40% efficiency.  Present fossil fuel-based utilities still have a ten to twelve years life to go and the present context leads to no new coal-fired electricity generation stations in the foreseeable future in Canada. Challenges include:

1.        R&D initiatives to improve market penetration and energy efficiency, including advanced control systems to optimize the production and load management of heat and electricity, advanced cogeneration cycles to improve efficiency, developments to improve the economies of small-scale cogeneration, and Combined Heat and Power/fuel cell technologies, will be required to fully develop the potential in this area.

2.        Displace coal with renewable biomass as one of the lowest-cost methods for reducing fossil CO2 emissions from existing power plants: available experience and data with operating boilers is too limited to allow ready implementation of this CO2 reduction technology by electric utilities and R&D is needed to fill data gaps in support of utilities.

3.        R&D needs in furnace modelling to optimize retrofit designs and operating conditions for fuel switching/co-firing, or a combinations of fossil fuels, biomass and other waste fuels.

4.        R&D needs to improve pressure- and corrosion-resistant alloys, for more robust hot gas cleanup technologies, sorbent reactivation/recycling methods, fuel preparation advances, and studies on integration of large-scale fuel cells in the advanced gasification processes.

5.        R&D needs to further enhance low NOx burners for coal, oil and natural gas; for improved expert systems and furnace combustion models to optimize furnace operation by reducing NOx emissions and increasing energy efficiency; for FBC sorbent technologies that improve sulphur capture and ash disposal; for NOx predictive emissions monitoring technology; and for fine particulate sampling and controls technology.

6.         R&D needs to establish and optimize design parameters for CO2/O2 combustion of coal as a retrofit into existing western and Maritime Canadian power plants such that the captured, concentrated CO2 can be utilized for enhanced oil recovery and/or coal bed methane fuel production.  Such developments should lead the sector to meeting the Kyoto target and improving on it.

Market penetration by new energy efficient technologies and  renewable energy systems is hampered, because these technologies and systems are often capital-intensive and have long payback periods.  As a result of low market penetration, production volumes are low, and the lack of economies of scale leads to high production costs.  One way of helping to increase production volumes, and bring down production costs, is by governments promoting these technologies and systems through their own procurement.  “Governments leading by example” is a theme of Canada’s First National Climate Change Business Plan that encourages such measures.  The Government of Canada and some provincial governments also have incentives to encourage the adoption of energy efficient technologies and renewable energy systems more broadly.

Capacity-Building, Education, Training, and Awareness-Raising

The Climate Change Action Fund has allocated $30 million over its first three years to the Public Education and Outreach Program. Environment Canada’s Climate Change Bureau manages the program in partnership with the Office of Energy Efficiency at Natural Resources Canada. The information component of the Climate Change Action Fund includes publications and information kits, a climate change Web site (http://www.climatechange.gc.ca), newspaper supplements, and print and radio advertising. In the first two years of this program, more than 100 national and local projects received support for such varied activities as educational materials and exhibits, community activities and events, and workshops. For example, related to energy efficiency, the Waterloo Region – Residential Energy Efficiency Program seeks to build public awareness and understanding of the climate change issue and the link to personal energy consumption through home energy audits in the Waterloo Region of Ontario.

Other federal programs and initiatives that support public education and outreach include:

·            Natural Resources Canada’s Public Awareness Program, which educates Canadians about the environmental impact of energy use and encourages them to adopt energy-efficient practices and alternative forms of energy. The department’s sector-specific market transformation initiatives include actions to improve awareness of the opportunities for, and value of, energy efficiency improvement and access to expert advice and training. In addition to becoming more energy efficient at work, the commercial, institutional, and industrial programs encourage company employees to become more energy efficient at home and on the road.

·             EcoAction 2000, which provides financial assistance and advice to non-profit Canadian groups that want to undertake local environmental projects. It offers free information on transportation issues, hundreds of practical environmental tips for Canadians and their communities, and special resources targeted at youth and educators.

·             The Moving on Sustainable Transportation program, which supports projects that produce the kinds of education, awareness, and analytical tools Canada needs to make sustainable transportation a reality.

·             The Millenium Eco-Communities initiative, which brings together resources for communities wanting to improve their environment. MEC is a place both to find and to share information – a comprehensive resource on environmental issues, best practices, tools, tips, and networking opportunities.

·            Inuit Observations on Climate Change, which will produce and distribute a video informing the population about the change in lifestyle occurring to the Inuits.

·             Local Action and Climate Protection Workshop, which provides information to decision makers on the regional and municipal level.

The following educational programs are being developed with funding from the Climate Change Action Fund:

·             The Society, Environment, and Energy Development Studies (SEEDS) program actively engages Canadian secondary school teachers and students with a comprehensive package of instructional resources in both of Canada’s official languages. This tool addresses the basic concepts of global climate change and the associated scientific, political, economic, social, national, and international issues. It encourages critical thinking and the development of strategies to respond to climate change. This program is funded under the Climate Change Action Fund.

·             Learning for a Sustainable Future is expanding its series of  “Inquiries” on sustainable development by adding units on climate change. The new inquiries will help teachers and students in Grades 5 to 8 understand the complexity and importance of climate change and make informed decisions for themselves and the community. Units will relate climate change to science and technology, transportation, energy, and the economy.

Special issues of Green Teacher magazine and the Canadian Journal of Environmental Education also offer teachers resources on environmental issues related to energy. 

Education is a provincial/territorial mandate, with each jurisdiction designing its own curriculum. Science, environment, and geography curricula typically include units on energy, transportation, and climate change. For example, the province of British Columbia has the Climate Change Curriculum, which supports the development of teaching materials for elementary and secondary schools.

In general, the private sector is the main communicator with teaching institutions regarding training programs.

Lower energy consumption and improved efficiency in all sectors of the economy are essential if Canada is to meet its Kyoto target. Policies and programmes to improve energy efficiency are developed and promoted in the belief that on-site employees will ultimately determine the overall success of energy efficiency-related projects. Fully qualified building systems managers, operators, and technicians are best-placed to identify and exploit potential in‑house energy saving opportunities, but all other employees have an important role to play as well. Full and fair access to appropriate high-quality education, training, skills development, and employee awareness information provides individual employees at all levels with the know-how to improve the bottom-line performance of their facilities.

A collaborative approach to energy-related training is favoured. Natural Resources Canada has worked closely with Seneca College of Applied Arts and Technology and a network of community colleges to build a nationwide alliance for the delivery of accredited post‑secondary energy management and building environmental systems training—known as the BES Program—for technical managers, supervisors, and operators. 

In addition, Natural Resources Canada offers series of workshops on energy efficiency awareness throughout Canada for anyone with a work-related interest in energy budgeting and building systems management and operations. These workshops provide practical training and flexible hands-on exercises to identify, exploit, and measure energy-saving opportunities in a full range of industrial, commercial and institutional settings. 

Ambitious, all-inclusive programs to reduce energy use will have an impact on the operational dynamics of the home organizations. Experience has shown that senior executives of organizations who do not champion energy-related issues will not achieve the savings of those who pledge their full support. 

The Dollars to $ense series of workshops was developed to demonstrate how energy efficiency can be integrated with the corporate cultures of all types of organizations. Step-by-step advice and instruction is provided to garner the support of senior executives and maximize the impact of energy efficiency initiatives. The workshops provide a detailed model for participants to use in the design, implementation, and monitoring of comprehensive energy-efficiency strategies that promote improvements in energy performance on a continuous basis.

Well-managed energy awareness campaigns for all employees can boost savings beyond those generated by equipment retrofits and formal changes to operating procedures. Comprehensive employee awareness program kits are available from Natural Resources Canada free of charge to anyone interested in offering all employees an opportunity to provide feedback and suggestions for maximizing savings.

Natural Resources Canada’s market transformation programs to improve energy efficiency include actions to educate consumers on the value of, and opportunities for improvement. For example:

·             The EnerGuide for Equipment Program educates consumers about the energy consumption of major household appliances by displaying a label on new appliances showing the annual energy use of a product and its ranking on an energy efficiency scale for similar products available in Canada. Comprehensive information campaigns, through all media including the Internet, foster consumer understanding. Training material is provided to educate retail salespeople on how to use the label.

·            The EnerGuide for Vehicles program provides new-vehicle buyers with information on energy consumption and costs to compare different vehicle and purchases the most fuel-efficient one that meets their needs. Program tools include the EnerGuide Label that appears on all new cars, vans, and light-duty trucks sold in Canada, the Fuel Consumption Guide, which provides a complete listing of fuel consumption information for all new vehicles, and the EnerGuide for Vehicles Awards, which recognize the most fuel-efficient vehicles in different categories.

·            The Auto$mart Program provides Canadian motorists with helpful tips on buying, driving, and maintaining their vehicles to reduce fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The program promotes energy-efficient practices through publications, events, and joint projects, as well as a Student Driver Kit available to driver trainers across Canada.

·            The EnerGuide for Houses Program encourages Canadians to improve the energy performance of their houses. The program provides homeowners with the facts they need to make informed decisions about energy efficiency during renovations and new purchases. Site inspection and computerized analysis provide the homeowner with an estimate of annual energy requirements and recommended energy-efficiency improvements.

·             Natural Resource Canada’s sector-specific programs provide information on how employees can become more energy efficient at home and on the road.

·             The Public Information Program increases awareness of the environmental impact of energy use and encourages consumers to adopt energy-efficient practices and to switch to alternative forms of energy. Numerous publications are available on-line via http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca

Information

Databases such as ENERSTAT are maintained to support the joint publication, by Statistics Canada and Natural Resources Canada, of the Energy Statistics Handbook in electronic and hard-copy formats (Statistics Canada catalogue 57-601). The handbook is a compendium of energy‑related general economic indicators, data on energy commodity reserves, monthly and annual primary energy demand and supply data, energy trade, demand and supply balances for individual energy commodities and, pricing and capital expenditure data.  These databases also facilitate the preparation of the monthly, quarterly, and annual statistical questionnaires filed, on Canada's behalf, with the International Energy Agency and with the Statistical Agency of the Asia‑Pacific Economic Co‑operation forum.

The statistical database Energy in Canada 2000 is a compendium of 120 economic and energy‑related statistical series contained in a user‑friendly ACROBAT database document to be available on the Internet. The database contains never‑before‑published data and related graphs for 1970–1998 on Canada's energy economy drawn largely from the Energy Statistics Handbook. The database also contains recent and forecast energy supply and demand balances and associated greenhouse gas emissions of energy and other industries. Forecasts were published originally in the Natural Resources Canada's publication Canada's Emissions Outlook: An Update. This database will be available on the Natural Resources Canada Web site at http://www.nrcan.gc.ca 

Given its regulatory mandate, the National Energy Board (NEB) generates and collects a substantial amount of data and information.  These include trade data on the various energy commodities (oil, gas, electricity and coal), regulatory information on hearings, licences, export permits, tolls and tariffs, the construction of pipelines and transmission lines, and drilling activity data on Canada frontier areas.  These types of information are generally used for analyses and briefings.  The NEB in its regulatory capacity also prepares, energy demand and supply outlooks (e.g., Canadian Energy Supply and Demand to 2025), various special energy studies and an annual report.  These studies/reports are usually used as inputs on which to base analyses. Additional information on the NEB can be found on its website - http://www.neb.gc.ca/

In the analysis of energy end-use, it became apparent in the early 1990s that more detailed and comprehensive data was needed.  To address these needs,  the Government of Canada set up the National Energy Use Database (NEUD) Initiative. This effort was established to enable the federal government to monitor and evaluate progress toward its goal of limiting greenhouse gas emissions, to provide information to support the development of future initiatives, and to ensure the development of a base of expertise in the analysis of energy consumption and the end-use level in Canada.  This initiative supports the development of energy end-use data  in all sectors of the economy by reviewing existing data and assessing information needs, expanding existing surveys or creating new ones to meet these data needs, and establishing energy end-use data and analysis centres at selected universities in Canada. More information can be found at the following Web site:  http://oee1.nrcan.gc.ca/dpa

Under the National Energy Use Database Initiative several surveys have been funded to collect data on energy consumption at the end-use level, the characteristics of energy-using equipment and buildings, the attitudes of Canadian consumers toward energy use, and the adoption of energy-efficient technologies. Examples of these surveys are:

·             Expansion of Annual Industrial Consumers of Energy Survey (1992–1997)

·             Energy Consumption of Major Household Appliances Marketed in Canada – Trends from 1990 to 1997

·             Survey of Household Energy Use (1993, 1997)

·             Household Equipment Survey (1994, 1995)

·             Survey of Houses Built in Canada (1994)

·             Home Energy Retrofit Survey (1994, 1995)

·             National Private Vehicle Use Survey (1994–1996)

·             Farm Energy Use Survey (1997).

Natural Resources Canada’s Office of Energy Efficiency implemented the NEUD initiative and it has been responsible for its guiding its development. The OEE has created a detailed end-use analysis framework that contributes to prospective analyses of energy use (such as Canada’s Energy Outlook), as well as historical reviews of energy efficiency in Canada that are revised and updated regularly. The fifth annual Energy Efficiency Trends in Canada document was released in October of 2000. Under the analytical framework, new data are brought together with old, providing more comprehensive data and guidance for new survey activities. The trends document can be found at: http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/infosource/businesses/index.cfmnd the outlook document can be found at:     http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/es/ceo/toc‑96E.html

Canadian Environmental Solutions is an interactive database of Canadian companies that provide technological solutions to a wide range of environmental problems and renewable energy requirements and was developed and is maintained by Industry Canada at: http://strategis.ic.gc.ca/SSG/es00001e.html.

The Sustainable Communities Initiative makes geographical data available to Canadians through the Internet at: http://www.sustainable.org. Canadian communities can use this information in planning for social and economic development.

Information targeted at consumers and managers is delivered through such programs as the EnerGuide Program for major appliances, vehicles, and houses, the Auto$mart Program, Fleetwise, and FleetSmart, described elsewhere in this questionnaire and can be found at http://energy-publications.nrcan.gc.ca/index_e.cfm.

Data, analysis, and other information on energy use in Canada can be found at the Natural Resources Canada Web site for the Office of Energy Efficiency: http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca

The Pollution Data Branch (PDB) of Environment Canada is responsible for analyzing, disseminating, developing, and improving inventories of pollutant information in partnership with others. They also strive to continually improve the public's access to information. They maintain such databases as air contaminant emissions for Canada, found at Environment Canada's Web site, the Green Lane, at http://www.ec.gc.ca/pdb

Data on transportation energy fuel consumption, taxation and pricing is available on Transport Canada’s Web site: http://www.tc.gc.ca/pol/en/t-facts_e/Energy_Data_Menu.htm

Research and Technologies

Canada is endowed with abundant supplies of water, biomass, solar, wind, and earth energy. These renewable resources have long been an important source of energy in Canada and they currently account for about 18 percent of Canadian primary energy supply. Large-scale hydroelectric power constitutes about 62 percent of this supply, biomass about 37 percent, and a combination of other sources for the remaining 1 percent. Aside from the extensive and well-established use of hydroelectric power, renewable resources in Canada remain virtually untapped. As technology has improved, however, renewable energy sources are becoming more feasible and less costly to exploit.

Hydroelectricity constitutes about 11 percent of Canada’s primary energy supply. About 60 percent of Canada’s electricity is obtained from hydroelectric sources, so Canada’s electric power industry depends less on fossil fuels and produces lower levels of greenhouse gas emissions than the electricity sectors of most industrialized countries. Research and development in this sector focuses mainly on small-scale hydroelectric projects with a capacity of 20 megawatts or less. Research efforts concentrate on reducing equipment complexity, increasing efficiency, finding better materials, standardizing equipment, and lowering the cost of construction. Research is also directed to the more sustainable use of existing large hydroelectric equipment and facilities.   There are also plans to to develop new applications for control systems for use in ultra low head hydro technologies.

Energy from biomass, such as wood, wood waste from manufacturing, agricultural products and waste, and municipal wastes contributes about 6 percent of Canada’s primary energy for industrial process heat, electricity generation, and residential space heating. Biomass is viewed as the least costly of all renewable energy, and several different biomass technologies have been developed and demonstrated in Canada. Federal government research focuses on biomass conversion to further optimize combustion methods, ensure high efficiency, and reduce emissions, as well as expanding work on biomass pyrolisis.

Canada has a very large wind resource potential due to its vast land mass and northern location. Wind energy is reliable and is becoming less expensive to exploit, particularly for electricity generation and to provide mechanical power for uses such as water pumping. Since the early 1990s, Canada has developed wind farms across the country that generate more than 300 gigawatt hours per year. Further advancement in wind energy technologies, with a focus on turbines, microturbines, and energy systems, could provide more growth in the use of this resource, particularly in Canada’s marginal geographical areas.

Two main types of technologies in Canada make use of solar energy: active solar thermal technologies and solar electric (or photovoltaic) technologies. Canada has more than 13,000 active solar domestic water systems and 300 active solar commercial and industrial hot water systems in place. In the early 1990s, technology improved with the Solarwall, a cost-effective system now being used worldwide. In 1998, the installed capacity of photovoltaic systems in Canada was about 4.5 megawatts, with an estimated annual production of 3.5 gigawatt hours of electricity. The bulk of this capacity is off-grid, where photovoltaics are more price competitive with conventional stand-alone power systems or extensions of the grid to remote locations. Although Canada has the relevant expertise in photovoltaics, there is currently little capacity for system manufacturing. Current research goals for this technology are increasing efficiency of conversions and lifetime, and improving cost effectiveness.

Earth-energy systems, such as ground source heat pumps, currently supply less than 1 percent of Canada’s market for space and water heating and cooling. Most of the estimated 30,000 ground-source heat pumps are used in the residential sector.

Nuclear energy provides for about 15 percent of Canada’s electricity needs. Its use contributes to the mitigation of damaging atmospheric emissions. A high priority is placed on public health and safety and responsible management of this energy option. Canada’s Nuclear Safety and Control Act updates the regulatory system to the highest international nuclear safety standards, and the Canadian nuclear industry has had an excellent track record in protecting the environment and the health of workers and the Canadian public. The federal government is committed to safe management of nuclear waste, and to its nuclear non-proliferation policy, which is one of the strictest and most stringent in the world.

The Government of Canada released its Renewable Energy Strategy in November 1996, calling for the government to act as a catalyst in the development and marketing of renewable energy technologies and aiming to improve the environmental performance of the energy sector, thereby enhancing the sustainability and diversity of Canada’s energy mix. Under this strategy and other federal policies, the federal government delivers several initiatives to encourage the development and use of renewable energy sources and technologies.  These initiatives include:

·             market transformation programs designed to encourage and help Canadians modify their energy use through information, demonstration, training, incentives, and regulation

·             research and development programs designed to help create renewable energy technologies and bring them to the market.

For example:

·             Technology Early Action Measures aims to identify, coordinate, and recommend technology opportunities, including those related to energy, in support of action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions nationally and internationally.

·             The Program of Energy Research and Development supports the development of cleaner sustainable transportation fuels and systems in order to improve the environment, reduce emissions, including those of greenhouse gases, and to increase economic activity through development of domestic and export markets.

·             The Renewable Energy Information and Awareness Program focuses on examining the information needs of market participants and preparing specialized information to show how renewable energy technologies can economically and reliably help meet Canada’s energy needs. 

·             The Renewable Energy Market Assessment Program reviews renewable energy sources and use in Canada and determines the potential of commercially available technologies to meet Canada’s energy needs and environmental goals. Program activities include compiling data on demand and supply constraints, evaluating market prospects for existing and new technologies, and developing strategies to increase the capacity of the renewable energy industry to meet demand in identified markets.

·             Under the Green Power Initiative, Natural Resources Canada purchases electricity generated from renewable energy sources and encourages other Canadian departments to do the same.

·             The Renewable Energy Deployment Initiative stimulates demand from businesses and federal government departments for commercially reliable and cost-effective renewable energy systems for space and water heating and cooling.

·             The Renewable Energy Technologies Program encourages efforts by Canadian industry to develop renewable energy technologies. Program activities are directed at improving the reliability and lowering the cost of these technologies, disseminating information, and helping industry to commercialize these products in domestic and foreign markets. 

·             Through the Community Energy Technologies Program, the federal government works in partnership with Canadian communities and businesses to help them meet their energy needs with a more efficient energy mix. The program identifies and develops opportunities to use renewable energy and provides planning and implementing services for projects in both urban centres and remote communities.

·             The Renewable Energy for Remote Communities Program accelerates the deployment of renewable energy technologies in more than 300 remote Canadian communities that are not connected to either the main electricity grid or natural gas networks. The program provides community decision makers with the tools, information, and knowledge needed to assess the feasibility of renewable energy systems, select the most cost-effective technologies, and implement projects.

Clean coal technology

Canada is currently working on new coal conversion technologies to increase both the competitiveness and environmental acceptability of coal through increased overall thermal efficiency and reduced emissions. The challenge will be to commercialize these clean coal technologies so that coal can continue to be an attractive and low-cost fuel.

One group of clean coal technology aims to increase the amount of electrical energy extracted from a unit of coal. Technologies in this category include:

·             various advanced pulverized coal combustion technologies (sub-critical, supercritical, and ultra-critical)

·             fluidized bed combustion technologies (circulating and pressurized)

·             coal gasification combined cycle technologies, with efficiencies ranging from 40 to 50 percent compared to 33 to 35 percent for a conventional unit.

In addition, work is also currently being done on developing artificial intelligence to maximise combustion in industrial processes.

CO2 Capture and Storage

CO2 capture and storage represents a further option to decreasing national GHG emissions. The technology involves removing carbon dioxide from large single point sources such as power station stacks, making use of the CO2 where applicable, and storing it underground in geological reservoirs and aquifers.  It has particular application in western Canada where large fossil-fuel users are located close to suitable underground reservoirs.  Similar circumstances may also apply in Atlantic Canada and the adjacent offshore.  It is an attractive option because it allows continued use of Canada’s fossil-fuel resources, while at the same time contributing to GHG mitigation and providing the time required for the transition to lower carbon intensive technologies.

Current activities related to CO2 capture and storage include:

·             International Test Centre for CO2 Capture : to examine refinements to current capture technologies and ways of reducing the cost of capturing CO2 from stack gases.

·             CO2 Monitoring Project at Weyburn (Saskatchewan): this International Energy Agency project is focussed on assessing the long-term integrity of CO2  storage when used for enhanced oil recovery.

·             O2/CO2 Combustion Technology : technique to create a CO2-rich flue-gas stream by displacing air with oxygen in the combustion process.

·             CO2 Enhanced Recovery of Coal-Bed Methane : to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by injection of CO2 into deep coal beds and to enhance coal-bed methane recovery factors and production rates.

·             CO2 Storage Capacity of Canadian Coal Seams : to understand the adsorptive capacity for CO2 of representative coal samples from coal seams in Canada.

·             Canadian Clean Power Coalition : a joint public-private initiative proposed by a group of leading Canadian coal and coal-fired electricity producers to reduce emissions from coal-fired power plants.  Proposed projects include feasibility studies, development of low emission technologies and full-scale demonstrations.

·             Zero emission anaerobic hydrogen or electricity production from coal : a techno-economic feasibility study (a US-Canada joint project) of a proposal to transform coal by means of the high-temperature chemical reaction of steam with coal, producing hydrogen and CO2. The released CO2 would be reacted with naturally-occurring serpentine, a magnesium silicate.

·            International CO2 Ocean Disposal/Sequestration Experiment : Canada participate in this project where liquid CO2 will be injected into deep ocean.  Liquid CO2 behavior and environmental impacts will be studied.

Other energy efficiency and cleaner production technologies

The Environmental Technology Advancement Directorate of Environment Canada is involved in the following areas of technology as they pertain to cleaner production:

·             Microwave Assisted Process development, testing, and validation to enhance or accelerate biological, chemical, or physical processes including:

-  liquid-phase extraction

-  gas-phase extraction

-  chemical synthesis

-  separation processes

·             biotechnology, such as:

-  biocatalysis: more-efficient processes catalyzed by enzymes or microorganisms

-  renewable feedstocks: biomass as the source of renewable energy and chemicals

-  abatement: limiting the spread of pollution through biological mediated processes

-  remediation: biologically mediated cleanup and restoration of existing contamination

·             the Expert Systems process in industrial applications to improve the overall efficiency of computer-controlled processes

·             eco-efficiency projects designed to explore ways to improve energy efficiency across entire plant facilities.

Many other federal government groups are looking at developing new, cleaner technologies in a variety of industrial sectors. Many of these projects deal with the modification of industrial processes, resulting in reduced greenhouse gas emissions.

Canada is also developing more comprehensive modelling software to better analyze energy efficiencies for residential as well as commercial.buildings. These software have already been tested in developed markets such as Japans, and work is currently underway to test them in emerging markets in Eastern Europe.

Renewable energy technologies

Research and development in the hydroelectric sector in Canada focuses mainly on small-scale hydroelectric projects with a capacity of 20 megawatts or less. Research efforts concentrate on reducing equipment complexity, increasing efficiency, finding better materials, standardizing equipment, and lowering the cost of construction. Research is also directed to the more sustainable use of existing large hydroelectric equipment and facilities.   There are also plans to to develop new applications for control systems for use in ultra low head hydro technologies.

Federal government research in bioenergy focuses on biomass conversion to further optimize combustion methods, ensure high efficiency, and reduce emissions, as well as expanding work on biomass pyrolisis.

Research and development in wind energy technologies focuses on turbines, microturbines, and energy systems.

Current research goals for solar energy technology are increasing efficiency of conversions and lifetime, and improving cost effectiveness.

Transportation fuels and technologies

Canada’s overall objective in transportation research and development is to reduce energy demand and emissions in all modes of transportation – including road, rail, and marine – while maintaining a reliable fuel supply. As part of this effort, Canada is developing competitive, energy-efficient and environmentally responsible technologies for gaseous and alcohol-based fuels, biodiesel, fuel cells, and hydrogen-based technologies. These alternative transportation fuels could reduce emissions of carbon dioxide by 20 percent per vehicle. Research is underway into reformulated fuels derived from oil sands that will meet the technical needs of government, the fuels industry, the manufacturers of engines and motor vehicles, and the end-users of motor vehicle fuels. The work will help Canadian fuel industries develop and commercialize new fuel reformulations for advanced vehicle technologies.

Research is being conducted on airborne carbonaceous particles in Canada to determine their concentration, composition, sources, and effects on health. The findings will support federal strategies for reducing mobile sources of particulate matter and also improve Canadians’ understanding of the role of transportation fuels on air quality and their health.

The long-term goal for transportation research and development is zero-emission vehicles, including electric and fuel-cell vehicles. Canada is a world leader in this area. Building on their existing technology and expertise, Canadians are concentrating on developing vehicle components, advanced energy storage systems, hybrid vehicles, advanced materials, and power systems. 

Alternative Transportation Fuels is an Canadian initiative to encourage the production and use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The initiative comprises economic and market studies, emissions and safety assessments, information and technology transfer, and assistance to industry to promote and demonstrate cost-effective applications.

Through such programs as the Transportation Energy Technologies Program, governments in Canada are working with the alternative fuel industry and major vehicle manufacturers to expand the use of such fuels as propane, natural gas, methanol, ethanol, electricity, and hydrogen, and fuel cells. Activities include developing and promoting factory-built alternative transportation fuel vehicles, vehicle conversion kits, and refueling equipment. For example, Canada developed the world's first hydrogen-powered fuel cell transit bus.

The Government of Canada offers financial incentives for the purchase or conversion of natural gas vehicles and natural gas vehicle refueling equipment. Support is also provided to the industry for marketing and awareness activities and for research and development to fill technology gaps.

All major North American car manufacturers now have fuel cell programs. Automakers have indicated they will have limited production fuel-cell cars on the road by 2004. Electric vehicles are also expected to play a role in Canada's transportation energy future. Canadian researchers are developing and testing a range of technologies, including light-weight and longer-lasting batteries and hybrid electric vehicles, which use an electric motor to reduce the demand placed on the primary energy source (usually an internal combustion engine). This work will be supported by a new National Fuel Cell Research and Innovation Initiative.  Canadian initiatives in this and other areas are described in Canada’s First National Climate Change Business Plan, which can be found at http://www.nccp.ca/html/media/FNBP2‑eng.pdf

Financing

In 1998, investment in the Canadian energy sector exceeded $28 billion. Energy projects or companies must compete for financing with other investments in capital markets. Therefore, investing in the energy sector requires adequate financial returns. Governments foster energy sector development to the extent that they establish a stable, transparent, and predictable regulatory and fiscal framework that reduces uncertainty and improves the prospects that adequate financial returns will be realized.

Governments also have a role in supporting the development and market penetration of new technologies for clean energy and energy efficiency.   As indicated in the answer to question 30, the Government of Canada has allocated $1.1 billion over the next five years to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Canada, much of which will be used to promote clean energy and energy efficiency.

Cooperation

Canada believes that successful technology transfer is fostered by strong partnerships among key stakeholders, including developers, owners, suppliers, and buyers of technology, such as private firms, donors, international institutions, non-government organizations, and governments. To avoid duplication and to find technical and commercial synergies, strong links within the international community are needed. Canada achieves international technology transfer through strategic partnerships, training opportunities, joint pilot projects, and the identification of opportunities in emerging markets.

Canada is working toward establishing an enabling environment for R&D and technology transfer by:

·             introducing more effective policies to simulate and finance private investments in cleaner energy processes or sources

·             liberalizing the energy supply market

·             fostering and ensuring conditions that allow international financing

·             promoting infrastructure development

·             eliminating unnecessary regulatory and trade barriers

·             educating and training the local workforce

·             promoting intellectual property rights

·             strengthening local R&D and environmental management regimes.

International cooperation to promote technology transfer is increasingly associated with efforts to help address greenhouse gas emissions and other serious environmental challenges. Canada’s federal budget for 2000 provides $100 million over four years to encourage partnerships with developing countries to help them start reducing their greenhouse gas emissions using Canadian technology and know-how. Canada has contributed $15 million to the World Bank’s Prototype Carbon Fund. This Fund will employ two of the Kyoto Protocol’s market-based mechanisms – the Clean Development Mechanism and Joint Implementation – whereby developed countries invest in cost-effective emissions reduction projects in developing countries and share the reduction credits.

The Canadian International Development Agency’s $100-million Canada Climate Change Development Fund  is committed over the next four years to promoting and developing projects related to climate change in four areas: emissions reductions, adaptation, sequestration, and capacity building. These activities will be carried out in countries designated as official development assistance countries. The fund is managed by CIDA, but projects are identified and reviewed in collaboration with other government departments and agencies, such as Natural Resources Canada, Environment Canada, Industry Canada, and the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade.

Canada collaborates internationally in both multilateral and bilateral energy research and development. Most of the government-led multilateral collaboration in energy R&D takes place through the International Energy Agency (IEA). The IEA’s Collaborative R&D program is conducted through implementing agreements among member countries. Canada participates in 33 of these agreements related to efficiency, renewables, fossil fuels, fusion. Bilateral agreements on R&D include a Memorandum of Understanding between the United States and Canada, which is implemented through implementing agreements on specific technologies (e.g., bioenergy, fuel cells, and fossil fuels), as well as through meetings, workshops, and planning sessions among scientists.

Canada also cooperates with the European Union through the Canada–European Union Agreement for Scientific and Technological Co-operation, which covers a range of science and technology, including energy. Other multilateral cooperation organizations in which Canada is involved, such as the Asia–Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Energy Working Group, and the Hemispheric Energy Initiative (HEI), all work to forge a common understanding of energy policy challenges, to discuss the implications of different energy policies and programs, and to share information on new technologies. While IEA has a membership of developed countries, the HEI and APEC have a more diverse membership, which allows for direct cooperation related to many of the priority areas such as capacity building, technology transfer, and strategies to diversity energy sources and improve the efficiency of energy production and use.

Under the Kyoto Protocol, Canada has agreed to a target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to 6 percent below 1990 levels by 2008–2012. Canada’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory for 1990–1998 shows that Canada’s greenhouse gas emissions in 1998 were 682 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent, 13 percent above 1990 levels (see the graph below). However, the growth in emissions is slowing down. From 1997 to 1998, total greenhouse gas emissions grew by only 1 percent. In the mid-1990s, emissions were growing at about 3 percent per year, while Canada’s economy grew at an average rate of about 2 percent per year. In 1998, the year that emissions slowed, GDP grew 4.4 percent. If business proceeds as usual in Canada, greenhouse gas emissions will continue to climb, reaching about 761 megatonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents by 2010, 26 percent over our Kyoto target. Mitigation measures must take this projected growth into account.

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Tis information was provided by the Government of Canada to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 17 July 2001.

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FORESTS

Decision Making: Coordinating Bodies

The provincial governments are stewards of 71% of Canada's forests, the federal and territorial governments together manage 23%, and 6% belongs to 425,000 private landowners concentrated in Eastern Canada. Forest management in Canada is a matter of provincial jurisdiction with each province and territory having its own set of legislation, policies and regulations. In the last few years, they have undertaken several initiatives to implement the principles of sustainable forest ecosystem management, including the need for full participation of partners and interest groups in the design of strategies and integrated land use plans. The Canadian Council of Forest Ministers (CCFM), consisting of the thirteen federal, provincial and territorial ministers responsible for forests, is the primary mechanism for cooperation in national and international forestry matters. It provides leadership and direction for the stewardship of Canada's forests.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations

No information is available.

Decision Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

Canada's principal mechanism for implementing the forest commitments stemming from the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) is its National Forest Strategy. Sustainable Forests: A Canadian Commitment addresses nine strategic subject areas through close to one hundred actions. An independent mid-term evaluation concluded that Canadians remain strongly committed to the strategy. A final evaluation, again at arm's length, will be completed by May 1997. A successor strategy will be ready by the end of 1997.

Decision Making: Major Groups Involvement

Major groups are consulted and participate in decision-making processes at national, provincial/territorial and local levels. Arrangements vary from voluntary mechanisms stemming from adopted policy to requirements based in legislation.

Programmes and Projects

The Canadian Forest Service (CFS) of Natural Resources Canada manages a national forest research programme encompassing ten (10) strategic areas: forest health; climate change; forest biodiversity; forest ecosystem processes; effects of forest practices; landscape management; fire management; pest management methods; tree biotechnology and advanced genetics; and socioeconomic research. To facilitate partnerships and alliances, a national network is being established for each of those subject areas. The networks are also responsible for technology transfer to resource managers and other clients, and maintain close linkages with national and global policy priorities and with the evolution of international agreements and commitments.

Collaborative research agreements for the commercialization of biological herbicides is but one example of intellectual property developed by the CFS that has been transferred successfully to the private sector. CFS fire management activities are now linked to the G-7 initiative Global Emergency Management Information Network (GEMINI) and a fire management system has been developed for the Russian Federation.

Status

There are 417.6 million ha of forest in Canada, 10% of the world's forests. Commercial timber production occurs on only 25 % of this total area, some 119 million ha. Logging is excluded by policy or legislation from another 50 million ha of Canada's timber productive forests. The shift from management of forests for sustained fibre yield to forest ecosystem management has fundamentally changed the way forest issues are examined, how policy is formulated, and how programs are designed and implemented.

Many provincial initiatives typify the shift to ecosystem-based forest management. These include legislated requirements for integrating economic, environmental, and social interests in forest management (for example employment, wildlife habitat, biodiversity, non-timber forest products, and local communities); stricter environmental protection measures; forest protection strategies including silvicultural methods and the use of biological pest control products; decrease in the size of timber harvest areas; changes in timber harvesting methods to promote natural regeneration; increased royalties; adoption of a framework of criteria and indicators; and integrating natural resource inventories.

An aspect of sustainable forest management that continues to evolve is decision-making. Public participation is now legislated in most provinces. At the same time, debate and some conflicts continue regarding the acceptability of some forestry practices, and the need to sustain local communities and overall economic activity. Wood and paper product companies have initiated corporate environmental reporting, adopted voluntary codes of practice, and increased their capacity to monitor their own performance and compliance with regulations. They have invested heavily in pollution reduction, virtually eliminating dioxins and furans from pulp and paper mill effluents. New equipment for high-yield pulp, composite panels, and recycled papers conserve wood fibre. The Canadian Standards Association has established a voluntary certification standard to identify timber produced under sustainable forest management regimes. The Forest Stewardship Council is also promoting a voluntary certification system, linking products to performance throughout product life-cycles.

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) report, Environmental Performance Reviews: Canada, released in November 1995, noted that the renewal of Canada's forests is secure as a result of policies that have been in place for some time; private companies have made substantial progress in reducing pollution; and public participation in decision-making is remarkable. The report also urged the continued development of alternative silviculture methods and the expansion of scientific knowledge of the biodiversity of Canada's forests.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-Building, Education, Training, and Awareness-Raising

No information is available.

Information

Following extensive consultations, the CCFM released a scientifically-based framework of criteria and indicators of sustainable forest management in October 1995. Defining Sustainable Forest Management: A Canadian Approach to Criteria and Indicators identifies 6 criteria and 83 indicators which express the values held by Canadians and their views on forests and their use. Currently, efforts are focused on compiling information and data on the indicators, and developing approaches to fill identified gaps. A first report will be released in January 1997. In addition, the CCFM is developing an action plan to strengthen Canada's future reporting.

Research and Technologies

Research continues to increase our understanding of forest ecosystem functions and the impacts of human activities on them. This is leading to the development of more environmentally benign and cost-effective practices. The nature of this research and the potential spin-offs foster R&D partnerships.

In 1994, the federal House of Commons Standing Committee on Natural Resources recommended that forest research focus on sustainable development, that better information be made available on Canada's forests and their management, and that Canada continue its international efforts to promote sustainable forest management worldwide. The current federal forest research programme fully reflects those recommendations.

Financing

Since 1983, public and private annual expenditures in forest management have averaged Can.$2 billion.

Cooperation

Since Canada committed at UNCED to provide initial funding to expand an international network of model forests, interest in the concept continues to grow. More than 25 countries are considering joining the network which presently comprises 10 sites in Canada, 2 in Mexico, and 1 in the Russian Federation. In addition, three Adaptive Management Areas in the United States are exploring linkages with the model forest program.

Internationally, Canada continues to participate in various exercises related to criteria and indicators for the sustainable management of boreal and temperate forests, particularly those outside Europe. As host of the Liaison Office for the Montreal Process, Canada provides the support and impetus for implementation, at the national level, of the criteria and indicators that the twelve member countries endorsed in early 1995.

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This information was provided by the Government of Canada to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

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FRESHWATER

Decision Making: Coordinating Bodies

There is no single mechanism for co-ordinating federal and provincial government water resource management programs and policies in Canada. Mechanisms exist but are sector-specific (e.g., fisheries, agriculture, environment, and health).

Federal and provincial government representatives meet as part of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) to discuss issues of common or national interest, including some water-related issues. The CCME works to promote co-operation on and co-ordination of interjurisdictional environmental issues such as waste management, air pollution, and toxic chemicals. CCME members propose nationally consistent environmental standards and objectives so as to achieve a high level of environmental quality across the country. The CCME has no authority to implement or enforce legislation. Each jurisdiction decides whether to adopt CCME proposals.

The Interdepartmental Committee on Water co-ordinates federal water programs and policy and deals with the management issues related to waters of federal interest, including interprovincial and international waters. The committee consists of representatives from all federal departments involved in water management. The Committee on Environmental and Occupational Health (CEOH) is the national body responsible for the management of drinking water. Under the auspices of CEOH, the Federal-Provincial Subcommittee on Drinking Water establishes the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality.

In the territories, the federal and territorial governments cooperate in the management of water. In addition, there are boards and management committees involving representatives from the federal and provincial governments that address management and development issues in regions or the particular watershed of interest (e.g., Prairie Provinces Water Board, Fraser Basin Council, Nechako Watershed Council, and Mackenzie River Basin Board).

Co-ordination at the local level is managed through the Canadian municipalities which, have a number of responsibilities respecting water management and development. Municipalities are often charged with implementing the respective provincial water strategies in various ways within their particular level of jurisdiction (e.g., drinking water, storm water, and wastewater practices). In addition, municipalities are involved in water management on a watershed basis with various conservation authorities and community stewardship groups.

There are numerous examples of bodies set up for the co-ordination of water resource management, development and policy at subnational levels, including Ottawa River Regulation Planning Board (Canada, Ontario, and Quebec), Assiniboine River Advisory Board (Manitoba)and Bow River Water Quality Council (Alberta).There are also numerous provincial conservation authorities set up at the river basin level that co-ordinate water resource management. Prairie Provinces Water Board operates under a federal/provincial agreement to deal with interprovincial water issues with Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, such as apportionment and water quality issues.

The Mackenzie River Basin Board was established among the federal government, three western provinces, and two territories to oversee the implementation of the July 1997 Water-Management Agreement with respect to transboundary water issues in the Mackenzie River basin. Its purpose is to establish common principles for the co-operative management of the aquatic ecosystem of the river basin.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations

The Constitution Act (1867) provides for the division of jurisdiction between federal and provincial governments. The provinces have assumed primary responsibility as owners of resources within their boundaries and each has enacted its own legislation governing water management and use within its jurisdiction. The Northwest Territories Waters Act (1992) and the Yukon Waters Act (1992) govern water resource management in Canada's northern territories. Other federal legislation includes the Canada Water Act (1970), the International River Improvements Act (1955), the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (1996), the International Boundary Waters Treaty Act (1911), the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (1988), the Canada Wildlife Act (1994), the Migratory Birds Convention Act (1994), the Fisheries Act (1992), the Navigable Waters Protection Act (1993), and the Canada Shipping Act (1996).

The 1996 Alberta Water Act promotes water conservation, strengthens licensing and restricts interbasin diversion. In British Columbia, the 1995 Water Protection Act prohibits bulk water export and diversion between major watersheds.

Sector-specific legislation and regulatory framework for water management is defined too. For agricultural use The Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration Act (1935) provides the federal government of Canada with the authority to promote water development that will afford greater economic security to the agricultural portions of the prairie provinces. Regulations regarding industrial use of water resources (such as water export, waste management, etc.) are in place at the provincial level. Regulations regarding household use are a provincial/municipal responsibility. Each of Canada's provincial governments has enacted legislation that governs the domestic use of water resources.

In order to prevent pollution of freshwater supplies, the federal government develops regulations under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act to control the release of toxic substances, and under the Fisheries Act to control the release of deleterious substances into water. Also of importance to the prevention of freshwater pollution are policies such as the Federal Water Policy (1987) and the Toxic Substances Management Policy, the Pollution Prevention Strategy, the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) Water Quality Guidelines and the Committee on Environmental and Occupational Health Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality.

Although the provision of safe drinking water in Canada is primarily the responsibility of the provinces, the federal government ensures the safety of drinking water within areas of its jurisdiction. Legislation that would set national health-based performance standards for drinking water materials was recently introduced by the federal government. Bill C-14, the Drinking Water Materials Safety Act, would require that treatment devices, additives, and system components sold or imported into Canada be certified to accepted health-based standards. Certification would be by a third-party organisation accredited by the Standards Council of Canada.

Decision Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

Management of the natural environment in Canada is increasingly being guided by the ecosystem approach. This approach recognises the interrelated nature of water, air, soil, and living things and places equal emphasis on concerns related to the environment, the economy, and society when addressing complex environmental issues. The federal government, in partnership with the provinces, industry, universities, Aboriginal groups, and communities, has implemented programs in the Great Lakes, the St. Lawrence River, the Peace, Athabasca and Slave rivers (Northern River Basins Study), and the Fraser River that use an ecosystem approach. These programs are developing the principles of integrated resource management including, as a major component, integrated land and water management. The principle of integrated land and water management is also key to the water programs and policies of several provinces in Canada, including Nova Scotia's Water Resource Management Strategy, where it will be adopted in several ways, including: best management practices, municipal land use controls, water supply area protection strategies, forestry codes of practice, agriculture guidelines, and community pollution prevention initiatives.

The federal and some provincial governments (for example, Nova Scotia and Saskatchewan) are developing strategies to provide the basis for a more integrated and functional approach to addressing freshwater issues, and for setting policy directions and actions consistent with the changing role of government. Initiatives such as Fraser River, Atlantic Coastal Action Plans, and the Arctic Environmental Strategy show how federal, provincial and territorial governments work together with communities and non-governmental organizations to address ecosystem health and sustainable development, including control and clean up of fresh water pollution. This cooperation is also the basis for an improved understanding of the cumulative effects of industrial and municipal development on aquatic ecosystems, under the recently completed Northern Rivers Basin Study. Governments continue to work directly with these sectors to prevent or reduce pollution: examples include Ontario's Municipal/Industrial Strategy for Abatement, Quebec's Program for the Reduction of Industrial Discharges, and the federal Accelerated Reduction and Elimination of Toxics Program.

Water is priced for cost-recovery or equitable allocation of water. In addition to the general policy, sector-specific policies are also defined. Except in the territories, water pricing is a provincial and municipal responsibility. The Canadian Federal Water Policy (1987) encourages full-cost pricing of all water use. Full-cost includes capital plus operational costs and possibly environmental costs sustained from water use activities. In the territories, non-municipal water user fees are set by the federal government. The territorial or municipal governments set water fees for water use in communities. For domestic water-use on reserves, the federal government usually provides 100 percent of capital and 80 percent of operation and maintenance for First Nations communities.

For industry use several provinces have developed policies to establish rates for charging water users, including industrial users (e.g., Saskatchewan and Nova Scotia). For those provinces that presently do not supply water to industry on a cost-recovery basis, the general trend in water policy indicates a movement toward more realistic pricing to encourage conservation and stewardship of the resource.

Pricing policies for household use are under the control of each municipality. The policies vary from full-cost pricing to policies that recover very little or none of the cost. Currently, 50 percent of residential connections to municipal water supply systems are not metered.

In most provinces policies exist, or are being developed, for water allocation and grants of water rights for different economic uses of surface water and groundwater. In general, these policies do not take into account the special needs of the poor. However, some municipalities have what are known as 'lifeline' rates whereby a minimum amount of water is included with payment of a minimum charge. In addition, the federal government provides shelter allowance payments to eligible social assistance households to help offset user fees that may be charged.

Both the federal and provincial governments dedicate time and resources for researching pollution and its effects, as well as finding means of prevention. The majority of provinces have pollution prevention strategies in place and are also active in their promotion of innovative pollution-preventing environmental technologies. To conserve freshwater, federal water education activities are based on the premise that a public armed with a knowledge and understanding of the issues and the options for resolving them will be motivated and empowered to be a part of the solution. Residential users are targeted with print information on the need to use water wisely and on ways they can do so. Within the federal government, in conjunction with a 'greening government' initiative, all departments have included water efficiency goals as part of their environmental management systems.

Federal and provincial governments are part of the team implementing the CCME National Action Plan to Encourage Municipal Water Use Efficiency. The plan advocates the aggressive pursuit of freshwater conservation and calls for governments (federal and provincial) to demonstrate leadership, adopt consistent policies, promote public education and awareness, undertake research, development, and technology transfer activities, and encourage appropriate municipal actions with regard to water use efficiency.

Decision Making: Major Groups Involvement

Governmental agencies and non-governmental organizations play an important role in the water field in Canada. The Canadian Water Resources Association is an association of water professionals that stimulates public understanding of water issues, including sustainable development, through workshops, consultations and publications. WaterCan, a not-for-profit organization that supports projects for clean water and sanitation in developing countries, has also provided leadership in educating Canadians through its work with municipalities and World Water Day events. The Canadian Water and Wastewater Association brings together Canadian expertise in these areas, and has taken a leadership role in promoting water conservation by coordinating the implementation of the CCME National Action Plan to Encourage Municipal Water Use Efficiency. The Soil and Water Conservation Society promotes the application of an integrated ecosystem approach to water issues. Participation by all major stakeholders and the public has long been an integral part of policy development in Canada.

To aid conservation efforts, the private sector, through the Canadian Plumbing and Heating Association and other nongovernmental organizations, is represented on the team implementing the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment National Action Plan. Private companies may apply to receive 'ecologo' certification for an environmentally friendly product, in this case a water-efficient product (e.g., 6-litre toilet, low-flow showerhead, etc.). There are a few cases in which public-private partnerships (PPP) are playing a role in providing water services. To prevent pollution, the private sector plays a role through its involvement with ecosystem initiative programs, voluntary measures, and its compliance with legislation, regulations, and policies.

Programmes and Projects

For agricultural use the federal government of Canada currently operates and maintains six irrigation projects serving 18 000 hectares of land in southeastern Saskatchewan. In keeping with the policy of having producers pay more of the true cost of water services, significant changes to the water service rates were implemented in the 1980s. By the time the rate structure is fully implemented in the year 2000, the price for water will have increased almost 300 percent (from $11/ha to $31/ha), with the irrigators paying approximately 60 percent of the operation and maintenance costs. While the actual amount charged may seem low, it is important to note that irrigators are guaranteed only 70 percent of their allocation. Similar increases, although perhaps not as large, have been implemented within the provincial irrigation districts in southern Alberta.

Efforts to augment freshwater supplies are limited to urban areas experiencing high population growth and to drier regions of the country. The hydrological studies of the Geological Survey of Canada help to increase knowledge of aquifers and in some cases can determine the rates of groundwater recharge, which is essential to sustainable groundwater management. Some provincial governments, such as Saskatchewan, have programs aimed at procuring and augmenting freshwater supplies.

In Canada, flood disaster preparedness is coordinated mainly by the provincial emergency measures organizations and community officials. The national policy and program development is provided by Emergency Preparedness Canada, including the administration of the Disaster Financial Assistance Arrangements Program, which is used to compensate the victims of significant flood disasters and assist in the re-building of the infrastructure. Provinces work with the federal government in the collection of hydrometric data, which are then used by the municipalities to prepare flood risk mapping and land use controls. Severe weather forecasting is provided by the federal government. The forecasting allows emergency officials the lead time for such measures as sandbagging, evacuation of residents, etc. Most of the major floodplain areas in Canada have been mapped to at least the 100-year level under the federal/provincial Flood Damage Reduction Program. In addition, flood control structures, such as dikes, dams, and floodways, have been built to mitigate flood damages. The Geological Survey of Canada measures and records land subsidence due to floods in its hazards-related work.The most severe effects of droughts are felt in the areas of low runoff, particularly in the prairie provinces in western Canada where irrigation is a common farming practice. The federal and provincial governments, in coordination with Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration, develop policies for mitigating the effects of droughts. There are also crop insurance programs to assist farmers in the event of major crop losses, as well as drought indexes and forecasting for information and planning purposes during extremely dry periods. In the case of municipalities, most have conservation measures ready to be implemented should water supplies become low.

The federal Drinking Water Safety Programme for Natives provides for joint indigenous-government initiatives to increase monitoring of water treatment systems, to train water treatment operators and to evaluate and advise indigenous communities on the design and operation of water treatment systems. The federal government has committed additional funds to accelerate work on First Nations community water and sewage systems.

Status

Canada has approximately 9% of the world's renewable water resources. However, while about 60% of Canada's freshwater drains north, 90% of the Canadian population lives in the south, where pollution and escalating demand are increasing pressure on freshwater resources. Canada has made significant progress in cleaning up and preventing pollution, and in moving towards integrated management and ecosystem approaches in protecting freshwater resources, but considerable work remains. Specific challenges include the reduction of water use, which remains among the highest per capita in the world, reducing the amount of untreated industrial and municipal wastewater entering the environment, and continuing efforts to curb the release and deposition of contaminants in surface and groundwater.

1 000 000 m3 of wastewater is treated per day. Recycling of wastewater is in experimental/demonstration phase in domestic and commercial applications.

The percentage of urban sewage treated follows:

No treatment; 17.9 percent of urban population
Primary treatment 20.5 percent of urban population
Waste stabilization ponds (normally counted as secondary level) 6.7 percent of urban population
Secondary treatment 20.5 percent of urban population
Tertiary treatment 34.4 percent of urban population

The target is to provide 100 percent of the population with potable water and with 100 percent sanitation coverage. Currently, over 90 percent have access to potable drinking water, 85 percent are served by sewage collection and some 80 percent is covered by some level of wastewater treatment. Before usage approximately 81.5 percent of drinking water receives some form of treatment. To increase this percentage, disinfection is proposed for those supplies that are not potable.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-Building, Education, Training, and Awareness-Raising

Canada's provincial governments are actively promoting various water conservation programs aimed at raising public awareness of conservation and pollution prevention issues. For example, the Province of Newfoundland recently completed its work on Canada's Newfoundland Agreement Respecting Water Resource Management. This agreement included several technical water resource studies and the preparation of several brochures and guidelines to increase public awareness.

Information

Canadian environmental water quality guidelines are developed in co-operation with the provinces and promulgated as national guidelines by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. These guidelines provide the most current scientific information concerning the effects of priority parameters such as pesticides, metals, and persistent organic pollutants on water uses in Canada. They are used in many ways to assist in the protection and enhancement of water resources in Canada as yardsticks to assess water quality issues and concerns; to establish water quality objectives at specified sites; to provide targets for control and remediation programs; and to provide information for state-of-the-environment reporting. Canadian water quality guidelines provide nonregulatory, recommended targets for environmental decision making and contribute toward ensuring that nationally consistent levels of environmental quality are prescribed and maintained across the country. The Guidelines for Canadian Recreational Water Quality deal with health hazards and aesthetic and nuisance conditions associated with the recreational use of natural bodies of water.

The federal and provincial governments, as well as other authorities, regularly collect information on Canada's water resources, including information on levels, flows, and quality, in order to meet demand, protect health and well-being, and provide a basis for sound economic development. This information is collected by the Geological Survey of Canada's Hydrogeology Program, which provides information on key Canadian aquifers and their groundwater resources and in the agricultural sector, the Prairie Provinces Water Board, which collects water use data on agriculture every five years and maintains a database on it; for the household sector the federal government conducts a municipal water use and pricing survey twice every five years and has done so since 1983.

Results are housed in a database, and reports are issued regularly describing these data and analysing water prices across the country. Most provincial governments have regular monitoring programs in place to assess drinking water quality within their jurisdictions, including water well records. In addition to the information collected by the First Nations in operating community water systems, the federal government carries out routine surveys and monitoring of the quality of drinking water within First Nations communities.

In the industrial sector the federal government of Canada surveys 7000 of the largest industrial plants (industrial mineral extraction, manufacturing, and power generation). These surveys cover water intake, water usage, and water discharge, costs of water treatment and recirculation. Reports are issued regularly on this subject. Research has shown that average water costs at a plant can be used as a proxy for water price.

Print information is currently distributed on request and through various federal government Web sites. Numerous organizations and agencies, including the Canadian Water and Wastewater Association and the Canadian Water Resources Association, and many provincial and municipal agencies link to these sites in order to give their audiences easy access to information. Information on water use is also distributed to the public through summary reports, in various professional papers, and on diskettes covering various subjects. The information is available electronically.

Information on freshwater resources management and development is also available on the Internet. Organized by issue, Environment Canada's freshwater Web site is designed to educate Canadians about the importance of freshwater. Topics include groundwater, lakes, rivers, water conservation, water quality, policy and legislation, interjurisdicational and international water issues, and water and culture. Links to other Canadian water-related Web sites are also provided.

The effective management of environmental issues demands an ecosystem approach to monitoring, research, and decision-making. Canada is developing a generic hydro-informatics system (HYFO), that attempts to integrate field data, numerical modelling, spatial analysis, and decision support.

Research and Technologies

For achieving targets, the technological improvements of water treatment and purification are necessary, including increased "effective" treatment capacity of existing urban infrastructure through (i) on-site recycling; (ii) satellite or decentralized "small systems" to divert flow from and relieve pressure on existing large centralized systems; and (iii) process (non-structural) optimization of existing facilities. Improvements for water purification would be done through (i) process optimization; (ii) on-line particle counting/monitoring to control and optimize coagulation/flocculation/filtration processes; and (iii) control of disinfection by-products.

Canada also promotes the development and sharing of innovative water technologies internationally. A recent example is the water information system developed by Canadians and adapted by Mexico's national water agency for use in its water monitoring and interpretation programs. Other examples include various build-operate-transfer projects undertaken by Canada's Wastewater Technology Centre.

Financing

Using water efficiently will save money and energy as well as reducing the need for new or expanded water and wastewater systems. Water and sewer projects accounted for $2.1 billion of the total $6 billion spent under the Canada Works National Infrastructure Program over the last 3 years. Innovative approaches have been developed to support freshwater objectives. For example, Nova Scotia has developed a successful fee credit program by which water withdrawal approval fees can be directed back to support community watershed management groups and water-related research.

For the municipal sector, complete water supply services plus secondary waste treatment in all municipalities is estimated to cost from $50 to $75 billion. This includes the cost of upgrading, renovation, expansion, and associated operating costs. The estimate is based on two recently completed federal government reports as well as a study done by the National Roundtable on the Environment and the Economy. The estimated value for the municipal water utility systems is about $110 billion. There are no estimates available on the costs of industrial pollution control or for the agricultural sector. The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) is involved in international aid and does not keep statistics on private flows if they are not done through CIDA's aid channel.

During the last 10-year period (1987B1997), the total disbursement of water-related activities for all Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) branches was $767 million, giving an average of $76.7 million per year.The bilateral branches disbursed the majority of CIDA funds, distributing $639 million (83 percent). The partnership branch disbursed $128 million (17 percent) during the same period. Africa received $355 million (46 percent of the total disbursement), followed by Asia with $256 million (33 percent), the Americas with $149 million (20 percent), and Eastern and Central Europe with about $7 million (0.8%). Multilateral aid was about $7 million (0.9%). The total CIDA yearly support to water-related projects represents an average of 9% of CIDA's budget for the years 1993B1996.

The following table shows the disbursements on a yearly basis.

 
Year Disbursements
in millions
1987-88 $75.1
1988-89 66.2
1989-90 82.7
1990-91 85.9
1991-92 91.7
1992-93 80.5
1993-94 79.9
1994-95 76.3
1995-96 66.3

Cooperation

The Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909 between Canada and the United States sets out the principles and procedures under which waters along the border are to be managed. The Treaty established the International Joint Commission (IJC), consisting of six members, three from each country. The IJC authorizes the uses, diversions, or obstruction of boundary waters and transboundary streams. It serves the Parties in helping to prevent and resolve disputes between countries in an independent and impartial manner, and in providing a mechanism for co-operation and co-ordination in managing shared waterways and investigating issues of mutual concern.

The federal and provincial governments use multistakeholder consultations and public hearings to resolve conflicts as much as possible before decisions are made. Consultations are also used in dispute resolutions. Mechanisms, such as the Prairie Provinces Water Board and the MacKenzie River Board, are effective in promoting cooperative approaches to water management and preventing conflicts.

Canada contributes to capacity building and the strengthening of institutional and human resource development in developing countries. Examples include involvement in a water

management network under La Francophonie and as the collaborating center for the UN's Global Water Quality Monitoring Programme (GEMS/WATER) in Burlington, Ontario. These initiatives foster information exchange among water managers and have provided training in integrated river basin management, efficient water monitoring techniques, and environmental information systems in Africa, Latin America, and the Mekong River region.

In 1996, the United Nations University, with the government of Canada, established the International Network on Water, Environment and Health (INWEH) with its headquarters at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario. INWEH is a problem solving network of universities, colleges, research institutes, governments, non-government agencies, and the private sector that addresses critical water and health issues in developing countries by providing training and education to enable such countries to practice sustainable development. There are federal/provincial water quality and quantity agreements as well as Canada-United States agreements (e.g., the Air Quality Agreement, the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, and the Boundary Waters Treaty [1909]).

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This information was provided by the Government of Canada to the fifth and sixth sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: April 1998.

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LAND MANAGEMENT

Decision Making: Coordinating Bodies

Federal and provincial/territorial governments all have roles in land use and management. Except for federally controlled lands, the provincial governments have constitutional authority over land use law and policies. Much of that power is delegated to municipalities, which set local land use rules and priorities, although provincial governments may coordinate land use activities among municipalities. The provinces and territories also manage their own lands.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations

No information is available.

Decision Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

Five provinces have developed provincial land use policies and implementation strategies: British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, and Quebec. In the Northwest Territories and Yukon, regional land use planning processes are being put in place through the implementation of land claims agreements with Aboriginal people.

Many integrated resource and land management planning efforts that are under way at the provincial level include strategies for wildlife, parks and protected areas, and forestry. For example, Ontario and Alberta have structured approaches to resource land planning. British Columbia's Commission on Resources and Environment (CORE) is another excellent example of developing a more open process to examine multiple land resource issues and goals.

In 1992, British Columbia set up the independent CORE to advise government on the development of a broad provincial land use strategy. To this end, CORE developed a provincial Land Use Charter that sets out principles of sustainability to guide natural resource planning and management. This charter was adopted in principle by the provincial government in 1993. The planning and management of land resources is evolving to reflect the economic value of land to owners and users, and the impact of land use on other people and the environment.

Decision Making: Major Groups Involvement

With Aboriginal people gaining effective control of larger areas of land, they are using different approaches to resource management. They draw on their traditional ecological knowledge, non-Aboriginal knowledge, and information technology. For example, the Traditional Dene Environmental Knowledge Pilot Project in Hay River, Northwest Territories, has been a major contributor to methods of documenting knowledge (including non-Aboriginal science), community participation, training, and partnering with other institutions. Many Aboriginal governments are developing and using geographic information systems to plan and manage lands and resources. These systems are particularly helpful as tools to integrate traditional and spiritual values into land use decisions.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available.

Status

No information is available.

Challenges

Problems and issues associated with traditional approaches to land use planning include the need for more provincial and often international direction that does not interfere with local autonomy; settlement and resource land use planning; relationships among provincial, regional and local land use planning and program implementation; and coordination and integration of existing programs and policies. When combined, these problems and issues point to the need for a strategic and integrated approach to land use planning.

One major challenge to the sustainable management of land resources is the management of urbanization, especially its effects on agricultural and other biologically productive land. As cities grow, land use conflicts will become more acute if they are dealt with through traditional approaches and ways of valuing land.

Capacity-Building, Education, Training, and Awareness-Raising

No information is available.

Information

Federal and provincial governments are using an ecosystem framework to provide a road map to more detailed information in various resource databases. The ecological framework will help in the assessment of current land use and resource management practices across Canada. For example, there are currently ten large-scale environmental studies, funded by Environment Canada's Eco-Research Program, focusing on a cross-disciplinary approach to ecosystem management and providing a series of sustainable development models on which to develop, test, and recommend management options.

Data requirements for land resource/use planning are growing as are the abilities to analyze, integrate, and communicate such information. In contrast, many of the major land resource and land use gathering programs which supported these efforts no longer exist.

Research and Technologies

Technological capacity related to land use planning is improving through initiatives such as the RADARSAT satellite and tracking system. Since completion in 1995, it has been used for such resource and environmental management as monitoring crop conditions, conducting mineral exploration, and detecting forest fires. Two command stations have been built, one in Montreal and one in Saskatoon.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

As a result of recommendations arising from the North American Workshop on Environmental Information hosted by Mexico in October 1993, Environment Canada took the lead in a working group to develop an ecological framework for sustainable resource use and management. This includes documentation of ecosystem approaches applied or tested in Canada, the United States, and Mexico; application of common criteria for ecosystem classification and harmonization; development of a North American ecological map and description; and a state of the environment profile using a protected areas theme.

International development agencies such as the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) support the efforts of developing countries to address land use issues. For example, they are conducting research to find better ways to address pressures on land resulting from local population growth.

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This information was provided by the Government of Canada to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

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MOUNTAINS

Decision Making: Coordinating Bodies

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations

No information is available.

Decision Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

There is a growing reliance on integrated land use and resource management planning. These practices help ensure that development in Canada's mountain ecosystems is environmentally sustainable. Watershed planning is one such mechanism, traditionally used at the community level and now increasingly used at a regional level.

Parks encourage cooperative regional land use planning and management, and environmental monitoring. The broader ecosystem approach to the management of protected areas is evident in the management of several of Canada's mountain national parks. Waterton Lakes National Park, for example, is the core of one of Canada's six biosphere reserves. Designated under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme, each biosphere reserve - which includes a core protected area, a buffer zone, and a cooperative zone where people live and work - is intended to serve as a demonstration area integrating the conservation of biodiversity with sustainable development.

In British Columbia, land and resources management plans (LRMP) are being developed as a means of resolving land and resources-based conflicts in all regions of the province, including mountain ecosystems. LRMPs have been developed through a multi-stakeholder process for several mountain regions, such as the east and west Kootenays. These plans take into consideration all aspects of sustainable development: commercial resource use; protected areas; development strategies; and certainty in land use designation. When stakeholders have agreed to an LRMP, it is forwarded to government for approval and implementation.

Decision Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

Canadian Heritage Parks Service, is a partner with the Canadian Forest Service, of Natural Resources Canada in four of ten model forests, such as the Foothills Model Forest outside Jasper National Park. Through this cooperative programme, the Parks Service is working to support the maintenance of sustainable regional landscapes that require preservation efforts, as well as activities beyond park boundaries.

Status

Canada does not face population pressures in its mountain regions. Nonetheless, economic activities in mountain regions have come under increased scrutiny, particularly forestry and mining. In some regions resort development, eco-tourism, and related support activities are high growth sectors. In addition, transportation and utility corridors utilize mountain passes that are often critical wildlife habitat.

Mountain areas are well represented in Canada's national parks system, and in the park systems of British Columbia, Alberta, and Yukon. In November 1992, Canadian parks, environment, wildlife, and forestry ministers endorsed a historic commitment to complete a network of protected areas representative of Canada's land-based natural regions by the year 2000. Federally, that commitment entails representing each of 39 natural regions in the national parks system. Ten of these regions are predominately mountainous. Of these, eight are represented by fourteen national parks (two regions are represented by two national parks and another by five). Of the two mountainous natural regions unrepresented in the national parks system, one is represented in the provincial parks system and a study is assessing the feasibility of a candidate national park in the other. Seven of Canada's mountain national parks have been judged significant enough globally to be designated as World Heritage Sites under the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

Legislation requires the federal government to report on the state of its national parks. To give a full picture of the state of ecosystems, a survey was conducted in 1992 to identify those internal and external stresses having an ecological impact on the national parks. 

Challenges

In the mountain parks, forestry visitor/tourism facilities, utility corridors, and to a lesser extent, urbanization and hydro-electric development were commonly identified as having an impact on park ecology. This, in many instances, simply confirms the integration of the park and its surrounding ecosystem, and the need to plan for and manage all protected areas within a broad regional context.

Capacity-Building, Education, Training, and Awareness-Raising

No information is available.

Information

With the growing emphasis on ecosystem management, the Parks Service and other partners are developing and applying methods for assessing ecological integrity using monitoring, trend analysis, and cumulative impact assessment tools. Test studies are currently being conducted in seven national parks, including two mountain parks.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

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This information was provided by the Government of Canada to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

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OCEANS AND COASTAL AREAS

Decision Making: Coordinating Bodies

In Canada, the federal government has authority over oceans and their resources. Provincial and territorial governments have jurisdiction over shorelines, some marine areas, and many land-based activities. Aboriginal people are gaining greater control over specific resource management concerns in some regions.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations

Canadian governments have begun to pursue ocean-related policies that reflect an ecosystem based approach, incorporating principles of sustainable development and integrated management. The federal Parliament recently passed the new Canada Oceans Act (COA) which received Royal Assent in December 1996. The COA represents a pivotal step in establishing Canadian oceans jurisdiction and consolidating federal management of oceans. The COA responds to many of the measures outlined in Agenda 21. The Act confirms Canada's jurisdiction over its maritime zones (its Territorial Sea, the Contiguous Zone, and the Exclusive Economic Zone), and their resources consistent with UNCLOS, and the responsibility to manage them sustainably. In addition, the federal government has taken legislative and policy steps to address marine pollution in the Fisheries Act, the Toxic Substances Management Policy, and the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA). The federal government intends to amend CEPA to help further guide reduction of contamination from land-based sources of pollution.

Decision Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

The conservation and sustainable utilization of fishery resources remains a primary focus of oceans-related activity for Canada. Stock conservation problems, allocation conflicts between user groups, international transboundary disputes, excessive harvesting capacity and fiscal restraint have combined to encourage the federal government to pursue a strategy to advance industry restructuring and to introduce changes to fisheries policies and management practices domestically and internationally. The objective of these changes is an economically and environmentally sustainable fishing sector. Canada is guided in this undertaking by the following principles: conservation comes first; aboriginal rights must be respected; industry capacity must be balanced with the sustainable carrying capacity of the resource; and, government and industry must move towards operating in partnership with one another. In addition, provincial and territorial governments are working cooperatively with the federal government to improve policies to strengthen fisheries management.

The development of an Oceans Management Strategy (OMS) is the key to the COA. Based on the principles of sustainable development, the integrated management of activities in estuaries, coastal and marine waters, and the precautionary approach, the OMS will set the stage for many oceans activities. Addressing objectives within Chapter 17 of Agenda 21, the OMS is based on the premise that oceans activities management must be based on a collaborative effort among stakeholders. The OMS allows for the development of flexible strategies on oceans activities management that can be implemented regionally by stakeholders. The OMS also calls for the creation of marine protected areas.

The Arctic Ocean is a particularly sensitive environment. It has been the focus of many Canadian environmental initiatives. Prominent among them is the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy and the recent creation of the Arctic Council where Canada is actively collaborating with Arctic nations. An Arctic Regional Program of Action under the auspices of the Strategy has expanded scientific research on contaminants, the use of traditional knowledge concerning marine living resources, the monitoring of water quality, the cleanup of hazardous wastes in Canada's North, and the promotion of sustainable development.

Aboriginal people are gaining greater control over specific management issues in some regions, particularly in northern Canada. For example, fisheries and marine co-management processes are part of comprehensive land-claim agreements in the Northwest Territories. Under these agreements, Inuit have rights of involvement in the decision-making process related to marine conservation and the harvesting of marine mammals in and beyond their claim settlement areas. The federal government launched the seven-year Aboriginal Fisheries Strategy in 1992. Under this strategy, the federal government enters into agreements with Aboriginal organizations to integrate Aboriginal people into the sustainable management of the fishery, provide economic benefits, and establish and provide allocations of fish.

Decision Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

Canada intends to develop a National Program of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment From Land-Based Activities by 1998. This National Program of Action will be developed and implemented as a partnership between federal and provincial/territorial governments, in consultation with other relevant stakeholders including environmental groups, aboriginal organizations, industry, academia, and private sector organizations. It will focus on regional implementation in the Atlantic Ocean, the St. Lawrence River / Gulf of St. Lawrence, the Pacific and Arctic Oceans under the umbrella of a National Programme of Action.

Land-based sources of pollution are another focus of international activity. In November 1995, Canada, along with the world community, endorsed the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-Based Activities. The Global Programme of Action calls on countries to develop regional and national programmes of action to prevent, reduce and control land-based activities that contribute to the degradation of the marine environment. The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), and the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade all provide assistance to partner countries and regional organizations in oceans management, development, and research.

Status

Canada is a coastal state with vital sovereign interests in three bordering oceans. Canada has the world's largest coastline (almost 250,000 km) and second largest continental shelf (6.5 million km2.). Its 200-mile Exclusive Fishing Zone, declared in 1977, represents 27% of Canada's territory. Approximately 6.5 million Canadians (23%) live in coastal communities. Many major cities are coastal ports or are located on the St. Lawrence/Great Lakes system, one of the world's longest and most heavily used waterways.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-Building, Education, Training, and Awareness-Raising

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

Science and exchange of information on the oceans and its living resources remains a priority. International cooperation and research must continue in order to understand oceans better and to secure their future sustainability.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) has been signed by Canada. In 1994, Canada acceded to the International Convention on Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation, which focuses on pollution of the sea by oil. As a result, Canada is revising its joint marine contingency plan with the United States for responding to spills in shared boundary waters. Canada is also playing an active role in the revision of the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Waste and other Matter.

Internationally, the Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 Relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks (the UN Fish Agreement (UNFA)) was adopted by consensus in August 1995 at the United Nations Conference on Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks. Canada participated actively in its elaboration as the leader of a group of coastal states and was among the first countries to sign the Agreement in December 1995.

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This information was provided by the Government of Canada to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

Click here for Strategy for Oceans Management and Development
Click here for national information on the Atlantic Coastal Action Programme.
Click here for national information on Marine Resource Indicators.
To access the Web Site of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, click here:

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TOXIC CHEMICALS

Decision Making: Coordinating Bodies

The environment is a shared responsibility within the federal government, and between the federal and provincial governments. Individual federal departments are responsible for ensuring protection of the environment within their particular mandate. Through the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, the federal and provincial governments are working together to develop a Canada-wide accord designed to lead to more consistent environmental protection across the country.

As part of a major reform of the pesticide regulatory system, the federal government created the Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA), a centralized agency responsible for pesticide registration. Reforms include greater emphasis on alternative pest management strategies. This area of work is also supported by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada which is engaged in research efforts focused on integrated pest management approaches. PMRA is developing a national database on pesticide use.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations

Canadian governments have taken legislative and regulatory action to prevent or control the use or release of toxic chemicals and their impacts on the environment. The federal government is revising the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) and the Pest Control Products Act to enhance current mandates to manage toxic substances in all stages of their life cycle. As part of the "cradle to grave" management approach to toxic substances, CEPA ensures that no new substance is introduced into the Canadian marketplace before an assessment of its "toxicity" has been completed. Approximately 450 new substances are notified in Canada each year. Since the introduction of the program in July 1994, 9 new substances have been subject to restrictions imposed on their manufacture or importation and one substance has been banned from entering Canada. Under CEPA, the federal government has completed environmental and health risk assessments of 44 existing substances. For 25 substances considered toxic under CEPA, regulations have been implemented or management options are being developed. An additional 25 substances have been identified for priority assessment.

Decision Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

Canada announced the Chlorinated Substances Action Plan in 1994. The Plan focuses on eliminating or significantly reducing toxic chlorinated substances using both regulatory and non-regulatory tools. Over 1000 chlorinated substances have been targeted under the program.

In 1995, the federal government adopted the Toxic Substances Management Policy. The Policy emphasizes the need to strengthen preventive and precautionary approaches to managing toxic substances. The first management objective is the virtual elimination from the environment of persistent and bio-accumulative toxic substances that result from human activity (Track 1 substances). The second objective is the management of other toxic substances of concern throughout their life cycle to prevent or minimize release to the environment (Track 2 substances). Provincial governments are also developing comprehensive approaches to the management of toxic substances.

Examples of federal/provincial cooperation to eliminate or substantially reduce deleterious and toxic substances include the Fraser River Action Plan, St Lawrence Vision 2000, and the Canada-Ontario Agreement respecting the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem.

Decision Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

As the primary source and consumer of toxic chemicals, the private sector is taking proactive action. Examples include guidelines and codes of practice developed by the Canadian Chemical Producers Association under its Responsible Care Programme. Canada's chemical industry has initiated the National Emission Reduction Master Plan, a voluntary approach to monitoring, collecting and reporting release information. The Major Industrial Accidents Council of Canada is developing guidelines and tools to improve chemical emergency prevention, preparedness and response. Under the Accelerated Reduction-Elimination of Toxics (ARET) challenge, launched in 1994, industry and government are working together to reduce or eliminate releases of the most toxic substances into the Canadian environment. To date participating companies have reduced their emission levels by 49% from base year (1988) levels. Through formal environmental agreements and memoranda of understanding, industry and other stakeholders are working in partnership with governments to achieve environmental protection goals through voluntary actions focusing on reducing toxic releases. Examples include agreements with the automotive and automotive parts manufacturing, printing and graphics, and dry cleaning sectors. Industry, environmental NGOs, and the provinces are working with the federal government to develop long term strategies in the area of pest management.

Status

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-Building, Education, Training, and Awareness-Raising

No information is available.

Information

Canada's National Pollutant Release Inventory requires companies meeting certain criteria to collect information on the releases of specified substances into air, water, and land. Reports for 1993 and 1994 have been published. Detailed emission data for individual companies are available on Environment Canada's Web Site, Green Lane.

Research and Technologies

Canada strengthened its ability to assess the impacts of disease and toxic substances on wildlife by establishing the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre in 1992 and by maintaining support for wildlife toxicology research by federal agencies. In 1996, the federal government banned the use of lead shot for migratory game bird hunting in National Wildlife Areas (NWAs) and is now working toward a national ban. Also in this year the use of small lead fishing weights was banned in NWAs and National Parks.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

With respect to toxic substances, Canada has met its commitments under the Montreal Protocol on 0zone Depleting Substances.

In February, 1997, Canada will host the second meeting of the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety in Ottawa. Canada also plays a leadership role in the development of an international agreement on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Canada is an active participant in the current negotiations for a legally-binding instrument to implement the Prior Informed Consent Procedure to trade in certain banned and severely restricted chemicals. Other international activities include the Sound Management of Chemicals Working Group under the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation, the Technical Working Group on Pesticides under the North American Free Trade Agreement, and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Chemicals Program and Pesticide Forum.

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This information was provided by the Government of Canada to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

Click here for national information on the Toxic Substances Management Policy.
Click here for national information on Toxic Contaminant Indicators.

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WASTE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Solid Waste and Sanitation

Decision Making: Coordinating Bodies

In Canada, the responsibility for waste management is shared among the three levels of government. Waste collection and disposal operations come under municipal jurisdiction, whereas the provinces are responsible for the approval of disposal and treatment facilities. Waste management issues only become a matter of federal-provincial responsibility when federal lands or resources are affected, interprovincial or international transport is involved, or federal assistance is provided.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations

In 1990, the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) endorsed the National Packaging Protocol to reduce packaging waste by 50% by the year 2000 compared to 1988. The Protocol includes interim targets of 20% reduction by 1992, 35% by 1996, and 50% by 2000. Canada met its 1992 target of 20% reduction of waste packaging going for disposal. Preparation is under way to conduct the 1996 target year survey. Work is underway on the development of a national packaging stewardship model. The model will address national needs while recognizing regional differences.

Decision Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

Provincial and territorial governments have endorsed a national pollution prevention strategy and are pursuing numerous individual initiatives to meet waste reduction goals. Most provinces have adopted stewardship approaches to materials such as household hazardous wastes and beverages as part of their waste reduction strategy for increasing waste diversion.

Decision Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

Canada is developing a national approach for dealing with municipal wastewater to address concerns on a variety of contaminants including ammonia, chlorine, heavy metals, and other toxics. One of the current trends is a move toward chlorine-free effluents through dechlorination or alternative forms of disinfection. Provincial and territorial governments promote innovative initiatives and approaches to deal with municipal sewage treatment issues. Most jurisdictions have discharge quality criteria and are stressing municipal responsibility and the user-pay principle.

A range of provincial initiatives are helping build capacity at local, provincial, and regional levels. Environment Canada has widely distributed a comprehensive document on Solid Waste Management in Canada. This report promotes leading-edge technologies and the concept of integrated waste management to reduce the amount of solid waste for disposal. Governments are committed to integrated waste management strategies based on the 4Rs: reduction at source, reuse, recycling, and energy recovery.

Businesses and their representative organizations continue to pursue a variety of initiatives. Markets for secondary materials, particularly paper fibre, continue to grow. The Paper and Paperboard Packaging Environmental Council published and widely circulated a report on activity based costing as a means of tracking the costs of waste diversion programs. Canada has almost doubled its consumption of recovered paper since 1992. Currently, 63 mills consume recycled fibre in their processes. The Federation of Canadian Municipalities is supporting a series of national workshops on economic instruments such as "user pay" as a means of increasing the reduction of waste at source.

Status

Governments in Canada are committed to reducing the amount of solid waste sent for disposal to 50% of the 1988 level by 2000. This commitment has been a focal point of efforts by governments, communities, business, and environmental interest groups. The CCME waste tracking system indicated a 13% decrease in per capita disposal rate in 1992 as compared to 1988. Other data revealed an estimated diversion rate of 17% for residential and light industrial/commercial and institutional (ICI) wastes in 1992. A 1996 survey is being carried out to update the information. Latest data indicates that approximately 1,200 Canadian communities offer curbside recycling collection.

Since 1988, more than 1 million home composting units have been distributed to Canadian households to divert organics from landfills. The number of centralized composting facilities had more than doubled by 1995 as compared to 1991. A reported 23% of Canadian households composted in 1994 through home composting, or by having their organics collected by municipal governments or others for composting. However, only 10% of the total organic waste stream is currently composted. The CCME, as well as some provinces, have also produced Guidelines for Compost Quality.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-Building, Education, Training, and Awareness-Raising

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

Environment Canada participates on the landfill gas, anaerobic digestion and integrated waste management task groups of the International Energy Agency, and contributes to the waste minimization efforts within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

This information was provided by the Government of Canada to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

Click here for national information on Solid waste.

 

Hazardous Waste

Decision Making: Coordinating Bodies

Although the industry-led Hazardous Waste Minimization Committee, established in 1992, addressed many hazardous waste issues, it failed in its goal to put in place a national waste minimization strategy. Therefore, Environment Canada is evaluating various options for pursuing hazardous waste minimization, including economic instruments, regulatory measures, and partnership agreements.

Since 1993, the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) and its Hazardous Waste Task Group has undertaken work in the areas of harmonization of waste legislation, policies, and management programs on a national basis.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations

The federal government is updating the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA). A bill to renew CEPA was introduced in the House of Commons in December 1996. It proposes additional authority on issues such as: banning exports and imports to and from any country when required under international agreements; controlling transboundary movements of non-hazardous wastes for final disposal; better ensuring the environmentally sound management of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes; and requiring plans for reducing or phasing out of the exported hazardous waste destined for final disposal. Some provinces are currently reviewing their regulations and policies concerning the generation of hazardous wastes and their management, in order to prevent pollution arising from inappropriate disposal.

In 1994, the federal government amended its Ocean Dumping Regulations to ban the disposal of radioactive waste and industrial wastes at sea. Future amendments to the Regulations will include the environmental assessment procedures and standards outlined in the Waste Assessment Framework of the London Convention 1972 and its 1996 Protocol.

Decision Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

As the process of siting new disposal facilities has become increasingly difficult, provincial governments are now placing more emphasis on reducing the quantity of wastes requiring final disposal. For example, the governments of Ontario and British Columbia have policies to implement programs on reduction at source, reuse and recycling. As a result, these governments have reduced their efforts to establish new centralized facilities, and are looking for the private sector to implement such initiatives. New private sector residual disposal capacity is expected to come on line in Ontario during 1997, to augment existing incinerator, treatment and landfill options already in place. Similarly, the Manitoba Hazardous Waste Management Corporation's initial planning and site selection work resulted in the approval of a centralized site. However, plans for the development of a complete facility were substantially scaled down. The government of Quebec will remove barriers to the recovery of wastes in its new regulations concerning dangerous substances, and will promote the reduction at source, reuse, recycling and recovery of such materials.

Decision Making: Major Groups Involvement

One of the key elements of the Canadian federal regulatory process is the mechanism of multi-stakeholder consultation, by which governmental and non-governmental organizations, interested parties and businesses are permitted to comment on proposed policies and legislation at the draft stages.

Programmes and Projects

Under the former National Contaminated Sites Remediation Program, governments initiated or completed remediation at over 40 high-risk contaminated sites. More than 50 technologies were also demonstrated under the Development and Demonstration of Site Remediation Technologies component. Furthermore, some 325 federal government sites were assessed, and 18 were remediated under the Federal Sites Component of the program. This program ended as scheduled at the end of March, 1995. The provinces also have various programs to identify and restore contaminated sites.

In 1994, the Ministers of the CCME committed their departments to work towards a harmonized national definition of hazardous waste, taking into account Canada's international obligations. A completion date of March 1997 is expected to be met. The CCME Contaminated Sites Advisory Group has recently developed a national guideline for the management of contaminated sites in Canada. The report provides general guidance and links the various CCME technical documents and scientific tools available within this process.

Status

The Canadian market for hazardous waste management services is estimated at $2 billion annually, and employs 4,000 to 5,000 people providing services in consulting, chemical analysis and operation of hazardous waste management facilities.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-Building, Education, Training, and Awareness-Raising

Some provincial governments have played a leading role in the development of capacity for managing hazardous waste treatment. The Alberta Special Waste Management Corporation was successful in securing one of the first fully integrated hazardous waste management facilities in North America which completed an expansion in 1993. The centre treats those hazardous wastes that remain after waste minimization and that cannot be handled by conventional methods. In 1995, Alberta opened its borders to receive hazardous waste destined for final disposal from other Canadian provinces. In 1996, the facility was divested to its private sector partner. This gives Canada hazardous waste management capacity in both the east and the west.

Information

In 1995, Canada completed a national inventory of generation rates of hazardous wastes. The inventory is to be used as a tool to set waste minimization targets.

Research and Technologies

Canada has developed a new computer system to support its efforts to track and control international movements of hazardous wastes. The system became operational in July, 1996 and provides enhanced validation and cross-checking of data. It will be available on-line to enforcement officials across the country by January 1997.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was signed; and ratified by Canada in 1992. The latest information was provided to the Basel Convention Secretariat in 1995.

Following the second meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Basel Convention, the federal government increased coordination among its departments to develop intelligence to detect and monitor illegal traffic of hazardous wastes. Upon Canada's ratification of the Basel Convention in 1992, Environment Canada and Customs inspectors were provided with the training necessary to monitor transboundary movements and prevent any illegal traffic of hazardous wastes involving Canadian companies. They will receive refresher training starting in late 1996.

Canada provides bilateral assistance through its Canadian International Development Agency and participates in many bilateral activities related to capacity building. Canada has Memoranda of Understanding on environmental cooperation with several countries and has undertaken various activities related to hazardous waste management. Under the Basel Convention, Canada has been involved in the preparatory work towards the establishment of regional centres for training and technology transfer in the Latin American and Caribbean region.

Internationally, Canada is party to the Basel Convention, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Council Decision on Trade in Recyclable Materials, and the Canada-USA Agreement dealing with Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes.

In November 1996, the Canada-USA Agreement on the Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes was renewed for five years. A policy of sharing facilities, based on the proximity principle, is incorporated into the Agreement. This policy is consistent with the environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes. In January 1993, representatives from the four western provinces of Canada, the western U.S. states, Canada's Department of the Environment, and the United States Environmental Protection Agency met to review existing policies regarding the flow of hazardous waste in western Canada and the western United States. They achieved a better understanding of the flow and capacities of hazardous waste to determine the needs for further infrastructure development. It is an example of an effort to find regional solutions for waste management.

Under the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation, priority substances are being considered for regional action that, will take into account all aspects of their lifecycle, including waste management. For example, a regional action plan for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is undergoing final approval.

This information was provided by the Government of Canada to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

Click here for national information on the Toxic Substances Management Policy.
Click here for national information on Toxic Contaiminant Indicators.
For direct link to the Web Site of the Basel Convention, click here:

 

Radioactive Waste

Decision Making: Coordinating Bodies

As a country that mines and uses radioactive substances, Canada has long had mechanisms to control radioactive wastes. The country has also pursued initiatives to respond to technical issues and public concerns. All aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle are regulated by the federal Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). 

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations

An updated federal Nuclear Safety and Control Act has been proposed under which all stages of the development and construction of nuclear facilities would continue to be controlled and subjected to increased environmental scrutiny and evaluation. In addition, the new Act would require operators to provide financial securities for the costs of decommissioning and decontamination, and provide the funds necessary to ensure satisfactory clean-up and remediation of closed operational facilities. This initiative will modernize the control of the nuclear industry and will help to ensure the long-term protection of the environment around uranium mines.

Permits and licences are required for a broad range of operations and facilities covering the areas of uranium mining and refining, fuel manufacture, nuclear generation of power, the production of radioisotopes, and the management of wastes related to these operations.

Producers of low-level radioactive wastes must develop their own storage and disposal facilities.

Decision Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

No information is available.

Decision Making: Major Groups Involvement

Industry and governments are the major groups involved with the safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes.

Programmes and Projects

Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, a corporation owned by the federal government, is implementing a demonstration unit of near-surface disposal facility for its own wastes and those received from small-volume producers who cannot develop their own facilities. 

A federal Task Force was established in 1987 to work with willing communities to establish a disposal facility for historic low level wastes in the Province of Ontario, and negotiations with an Ontario community have been initiated by the federal government.

Status

Canada has one of the largest uranium mining industries in the world. In the area of uranium mines and mill tailings, past and present research conducted by the industry and the federal government provides a sound basis for evaluating potential environmental impacts. The AECB has established regulatory criteria for the decommissioning of these waste sites.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-Building, Education, Training, and Awareness-Raising

No information is available.

Information

In 1989, the federal Minister of the Environment appointed an independent panel to conduct an environmental assessment and review of the concept of disposing of nuclear waste in the granitic rock of the Canadian Shield. This extensive review has incorporated participation by the public, non-governmental groups, and governmental bodies in the assessment of this concept. A report by the panel is anticipated in 1997.

Research and Technologies

Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is recognized as a world leader in the research and development of nuclear energy technologies and participates worldwide in conferences and other technology transfer sessions. In addition, several provincial power utilities possess similar levels of expertise in the application of nuclear power generation technologies and participate actively in world wide technology transfer.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

Canada actively participates in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the International Commission on Radiological Protection, and the International Maritime Organization (via the London Convention) through the participation of its scientists, industry, and government representatives, and/or by means of financial assistance. Canada provides assistance to developing countries through bilateral cooperation and participation in IAEA programs.

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This information was provided by the Government of Canada to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.


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