Click here to go to the following issues:

Economic Aspects | Natural Resource Aspects | Institutional Aspects | Social Aspects | Canada

ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN CANADA

Click here to go to these sections:

 

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

Decision Making: Coordinating Bodies

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations

No information is available.

Decision Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

A fundamental aspect of Canadian international cooperation is involvement in bilateral and multilateral dialogue with developing countries and international financial institutions to promote the integration of development and environment considerations into their official policies. For example, on forests issues, Canada is promoting a dialogue that could lead to a comprehensive international convention on forests. Canada's International Model Forest Program, managed by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), and the "Montreal process" to develop criteria for and indicators of sustainable management of boreal and temperate forests outside of Europe have complemented this dialogue. The International Model Forest Program has been successful in providing on-the-ground demonstration of sustainable use forestry practices and the long-term benefits that can be derived from the wise management of this resource.

Decision Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

Canada has provided support to developing countries at key negotiations on issues of global importance, largely through its Official Development Assistance (ODA) programme. This has created a link between development programmes on the ground and international policy dialogue. Through ODA, technical cooperation, and support for intergovernmental dialogue, Canada is working with domestic and international partners to promote global development that is sustainable.
The heart of Canada's official development assistance policy is threefold. It involves integrating environmental considerations into the decision-making process, according a higher priority to assisting developing countries to improve their capacity to deal with environmental issues and working closely with Canadian and international partners to help them address the challenge of integrating environmental considerations into their activities. The policy encourages developing countries to work together with the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) to implement comprehensive national programs that promote sustainability.

Status

No information is available.

Challenges

In the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Canada is encouraging discussion of environmental security issues. As pressure on natural resources and the carrying capacity of the natural environment is degraded, particularly in the poorest countries, social instability is inevitable. Such instability impedes progress towards sustainable development and encourages conflict.
Significant challenges remain in the area of international cooperation if global sustainable development is to be achieved. Canada and other donor countries have agreed on a series of targets for the near future, detailed in the DAC's "Shaping the 21st Century," with regard to development and meeting the needs of the poor in a sustainable manner. If these targets are to be met, then Canada must look for innovative ways to mobilize the necessary resources and draw upon the expertise, experience and capabilities of local peoples who are best suited to meet their own needs.

Capacity-Building, Education, Training, and Awareness-Raising

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.

Financing

At the Earth Summit in 1992, the Prime Minister of Canada announced that the mandate of the IDRC would be broadened to emphasize sustainable development issues. As a result, IDRC has provided more than C$400 million in support over the last five years to developing country researchers and policy makers, and their Canadian partners to undertake research and to strengthen capacity in key sectors. These have included food systems on fragile lands, community natural resource management, biodiversity conservation, improved technologies for small enterprises, ecosystem health, and the use of new communication technologies for networking and exchange of information.

Cooperation

Canada played an active role at the 1996 World Food Summit, endorsing its Plan of Action and agreeing to implement its seven commitments. In concrete terms, this means that Canada will cooperate in efforts to halve the number of the world's malnourished people between now and 2025.

Canada continues to be a strong supporter of and contributor to both the Multilateral Fund of the Montreal Protocol based in Montreal, and the Global Environment Facility, two key mechanisms to help developing countries participate in global efforts to address environmental problems.

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Canada to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

Click here for national information on International Environmental Relations.
Click here for the ECE Statistical country profile for Canada.

| Canada | All Countries | Home |

 

TRADE

Decision Making: Coordinating Bodies

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations

Since the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), Canada has reformed its General Preferential Tariff to provide better access to the Canadian market for the least developed countries.

Decision Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

Chapter 2 of Agenda 21 emphasizes the promotion of sustainable development through trade, by formulating policies that link trade and the environment, and by encouraging macro-economic policies that are conducive to environmentally sustainable development. Canada's view is that trade liberalization helps lead to the economic growth that helps to provide resources needed for environmental protection; while a healthy environment helps to provide the natural resources necessary to create long term economic growth stimulated by trade. With this in mind, Canada has worked to promote trade liberalization in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the new World Trade Organization (WTO). Canada has been an active participant in the Committee on Trade and Environment (CTE) of the WTO and also in the deliberations of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) Joint Experts Committee on Trade and Environment.

Decision Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available.

Status

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-Building, Education, Training, and Awareness-Raising

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Canada to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

Click here for national information on International Environmental Relations.
Click here for the ECE Statistical country profile for Canada.

| Canada | All Countries | Home |

 

CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

Decision Making: Coordinating Bodies

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations

There is no current over-arching regulatory framework that deals with sustainable consumption in Canada, however, there is considerable provincial and federal activity which contributes to more sustainable production and consumption.

The use of economic instruments and tax policies to foster more sustainable patterns of consumption and production has received some attention from groups such as the National Round Table on Environment and Economy.

Decision Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

There are no overall national targets for sustainable consumption, however the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment has set targets for related areas (for example, packaging and waste reduction targets set at 50% of 1988 levels by the year 2000). To focus more attention on the challenge of sustainable consumption and production, the federal government will be hosting a national conference on the issue in 1997.

Decision Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

A variety of initiatives have been implemented in Canada to alter consumption patterns and encourage more sustainable production processes. For example, the National Packaging Protocol (NAPP) is a set of policies aimed at minimizing the environmental effects of packaging and reducing the amount of packaging sent for disposal by at least 50% of 1988 levels by the year 2000. The interim target, a 20% reduction established for 1992, was exceeded. A national survey is being conducted to monitor progress toward the 1996 reduction target of 35%. Several provincial governments have also introduced waste minimization programs. For example, in 1994 more than 50% of municipalities in Quebec had access to recycling services.

The Alliance of Canadian Manufacturers and Exporters has developed a manufacturing Environmental Performance Program. It includes a reference guide on improving environmental performance, an environmental coordinator's handbook, an executive forum, and a register of "environmental success stories". The Canadian Standards Association's (CSA) voluntary Environmental Management Program encourages organizations to consider the environment when making business decisions. Guidance documents have been provided on topics such as: life cycle assessment, environmental performance evaluation, risk assessment and management, environmentally responsible procurement, pollution prevention, environmental labeling, and environmental management systems. The Canadian forest industry is working with the CSA to develop a certification program for forest products coming from sustainably managed forests. The Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants is promoting environmental accountability in the corporate sector. In conjunction with the International Institute for Sustainable Development, Winnipeg, the CSA, and the Financial Executives Institute of Canada has prepared a guidance document on Reporting Environmental Performance.

Governments are also improving their own consumption practices and supporting research consistent with sustainable development. Canada's Federal Building Initiative (FBI), managed by Natural Resources Canada, is proving successful in increasing energy efficiency in federal facilities. By establishing a three-way partnership between a utility, a qualified energy management firm, and a federal organization, the program enables energy efficiency upgrades to be financed through the resulting energy savings.

The federal government's Environmental Choice Program is designed to support a continuing effort to improve and/or maintain environmental quality by reducing energy and materials consumption. By evaluating an organization's efforts to minimize the impact of pollution generated by the production, use and disposal of goods and services available to Canadians, the program's distinctive EcoLogo lets consumers know that the products they are purchasing meet high environmental standards.

In addition, the federal government has launched a five year plan to green its motor vehicle fleet. The plan includes measures such as fleet reduction, green driving training, and increased use of alternative fuels. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada is sponsoring research to reduce the production cost of ethanol, investigating technology and process change and the use of alternative low-input crops with fewer life cycle emissions than corn. The federal government is supporting research and field trials that promote the production of bio-diesel, a diesel-like fuel produced from vegetable oils such as canola and soybean, and explore the use of hydrogen, natural gas and propane in vehicles.

Status

Non-governmental organizations continue to play key roles in drawing public attention to consumption issues and in sparking debate over the implications of changing consumption patterns. Progress is being made at all levels of government in the area of green procurement. A number of corporations are examining their own purchasing practices with an aim to reduce energy and material use.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-Building, Education, Training, and Awareness-Raising

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

Canada participates in discussions in the OECD on promoting sustainable consumption and production within the member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Canada to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

Click here for national information on Energy Consumption Indicators.

| Canada | All Countries | Home |

 

FINANCING

Decision Making: Coordinating Bodies

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations

No information is available.

Decision Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

The federal government established the Green Plan in 1991/92 to fund programs designed to protect and improve the environment for six years. A number of programs started under the Green Plan are now part of the continuing programmes of several federal departments. The federal government introduced the Canadian Environmental Industries Strategy and Technology Partnerships Canada program to help encourage the development of Canada's environmental technologies industries.

Each of the federal government's recent budgets has contained measures aimed at integrating the environment and the economy. For example, new tax measures have been introduced to encourage donations of ecologically sensitive land, to improve access to financing for the renewable energy and energy conservation sector and for mine reclamation trust funds. Consultations are underway to examine options to improve the treatment of energy efficiency and heating and cooling from renewable energy sources and to examine possible government policy barriers to recycling activity.

Decision Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

A tradeable permit system for two ozone-depleting substances, methyl bromide and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) has been introduced. The federal and provincial governments are examining the use of economic instruments, along with other policy tools, to address specific environmental problems.

A major review of federal program spending to restructure the role of government and to generate savings for deficit reduction has significantly reduced or eliminated many subsidies, grants and contributions, many of which are in areas relevant to the environment. For example, the federal government has reduced or eliminated many subsidies to the transportation, agriculture, and non-renewable energy sectors and ended direct financial support for energy megaprojects.

Status

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-Building, Education, Training, and Awareness-Raising

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

Key international initiatives include the Global Environmental Facility (GEF), the Montreal Protocol Multilateral Fund (MPMF), and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Environment Fund. The Canadian Government recognizes that a key element of international cooperation in support of global sustainable development is the provision of assistance, including financial resources, to developing countries to help them to meet their commitments under Agenda 21. The flow of financial assistance from the developed to the developing world should supplement the mobilization of domestic financial, technical, and human resources in developing countries. Official Development Assistance has been identified as the main source of external funding to assist developing countries in the implementation of Agenda 21. Canada remains committed to the target of 0.7% of GNP for ODA established at UNCED as a long-term goal, the attainment of which is dependent on a strong Canadian economy. The stated purpose of Canada's ODA is to "support sustainable development in developing countries, in order to reduce poverty and contribute to a more secure, equitable and prosperous world". With this in mind, the Canadian Government will continue to direct most of its ODA to low-income countries. Canadian ODA will concentrate available resources on the following six priorities: basic human needs; woman in development; infrastructure services; human rights, democracy and good governance; private-sector development; and the environment.

The federal government has also provided funds to assist developing countries and environmental non-governmental organizations to participate in key international meetings since the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), including the High Seas Fisheries Conference, the first session of the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD), meetings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Forests and negotiating sessions of the Desertification Convention.

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Canada to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

For information on participating States in the Global Environment Facility, click here:

| Canada | All Countries | Home |

 

TECHNOLOGY

Transfer of Environmentally-Sound Technology

Decision Making: Coordinating Bodies

Canadian assistance in the form of technology transfer and capacity development is routed through a number a channels, notably CIDA and the IDRC. Most of CIDA's development projects incorporate training programs designed to assist clients in maximizing potential project benefits. IDRC undertakes and supports research into particular development issues with a view to assisting developing countries to enhance their capacity to meet the challenges of sustainable development. Much of the work of the IDRC focuses on introducing new and adapting existing technology and know-how into developing countries through cooperatively applied research ventures.
One example is CIDA's Southern Cone Technology Transfer project. It is a five year, $15 million development fund, which targets Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Uruguay. The projects funds the transfer of Canadian know-how to partner institutions in the Southern Cone, and its adaptation to, and use in, their own cultural and developmental environment. It is an attempt to multiply the institutional linkages between Canada and the Southern Cone in support of sustainable development. Another example is the Canada-Brazil Technology Transfer Project. CIDA funds short-term consulting, training, exchanges, and related activities. The $15 million project is also expected to multiply the institutional linkages between Canada and Brazil in support of sustainable development.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations

Governments support research and development in this area through tax incentives, direct grants, and funding of research in institutions across the country. This support has helped Canadians to develop considerable expertise in industrial and municipal wastewater treatment, site clean-up, air emission control, solid waste management, plant safety and health technologies, and remote sensing for land, agricultural, forestry and fisheries management. 

Decision Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

One of the primary goals of Canada's international cooperation with developing countries is to assist them to develop the capacity to identify and meet their own sustainable development objectives. This involves both the transfer of technology and the development of skills and management capacity, including local and indigenous knowledge. Mechanisms for technology transfer must take into consideration the intellectual property rights and terms of transfer/sharing, the appropriateness and adaptability of technologies to be transferred, the availability of financial resources and the capacity of developing countries to absorb new technologies.
Canada's approach to the transfer of technology encourages the consideration of demand-focused arrangements rather than the establishment of administratively cumbersome clearinghouse mechanisms. In addition, Canada also encourages the rationalization of existing transfer mechanisms, and the promotion of mutually beneficial technology sharing arrangements leading to expanded trade and market development for participating countries.

The application of environmentally sound technologies and alternative energy technologies that will improve the efficiency and environmental performance of traditional manufacturing and resource processing sectors is another area of particular emphasis. Governments' "green industry" initiatives such as the Canadian Environmental Industry Strategy (CEIS) foster Canadian technologies and the environmental industry.

Decision Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

Environment Canada will be launching a Canadian Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The ETV program is aimed at the assessment and validation of a performance claim by an independent third party. The ETV Program will pursue recognition from international organizations such as the International Standards Organization (ISO), United Nations's Economic Commission for Europe's Environmental Committee, and the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation. Environment Canada also provides scientific support to the national environmental laboratory certification program of the Canadian Standards Council and the Canadian Association of Environmental Analytical Laboratories. Laboratory certification program seminars have been delivered in Mexico and Ukraine. Environment Canada's Environmental Technology Centre has developed a laboratory inspection program in Canada consistent with Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) "Principles of Good Laboratory Practices". The Centre also plays key roles in the oil and hazardous Materials Committees of the Association for Standards and Testing Materials (ASTM) by providing the leadership and performance standards for environmental protection technologies.

Efforts are underway to establish an Environmental Technology Clearinghouse under a trilateral initiative between Canada, Mexico, and the USA. The North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation has established this project along with the private sector in the three countries. The Canadian Environmental Training Opportunities Program has been initiated to promote, to the international community, a sampling of the many environmental training courses offered in Canada. The objective of the program is to promote a selection of one or two week full-time courses with emphasis on short courses that have integrated environmental industry support. Private sector initiatives include the development of a vehicle propulsion system using electricity produced by a hydrogen fuel cell. This state-of-the-art technology will help reduce local smog problems and global greenhouse gas emissions.

Status

The Canadian environmental industry consists of some 4,500 firms that employ some 150,000 persons. It generates annual revenues of about $11 billion. One third of these firms are manufacturers and account for annual sales of $6 billion, while two thirds are service providers with annual sales of $5 billion. A number of companies have come together to create the Canadian Environment Industry Association (CEIA), an umbrella organization for nine autonomous provincial/territorial associations.

Challenges

Canada recognizes the increasing importance of transferring technology and expertise to developing countries to improve their capacity to achieve sustainable development. However, the country's efforts in this regard are constrained by a scarcity of resources, and consequently the broad participation of the business, academic, and NGO communities is vital if progress is to continue. Canada is continuing to seek out innovative means to enhance our cooperative relationship with developing countries along non-traditional lines, building linkages at the level of civil society, and allowing for the development of a productive synergy between groups with common interests.

Capacity-Building, Education, Training, and Awareness-Raising

The federal and provincial governments and environmental industry associations, municipal organizations, and private sector companies, have set up three Canadian Environmental Technology Advancement Centres (CETACs). The CETACs provide technical, managerial, and financial services and support to Canadian small and medium sized companies to help develop and commercialize technologies and access sources of financing and international markets.

Information

Canada has developed processes to transfer technology as well as to provide access to technological information. ENV-I-NET, an on-line bulletin board service includes information on environmental technologies and priorities in developing countries to be financed by multilateral international financial organizations. "Canadian Environmental Solutions" is a vendor-oriented multimedia tool that gives Canadian companies an opportunity to use their technologies, products and services to the benefit of developing countries and countries with economies in transition. Environment Canada has developed and is commercializing with private-sector licensees the environmentally friendly Microwave-Assisted Process (MAP TM) for extraction of chemicals at laboratory and industry scales. An on-line bulletin board (SPILLS) that provides technical information to help prevent or prepare for spills of oil and hazardous chemicals is now available. The Green Lane provides updated information on various environmental issues and events on the Internet.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.

Financing

In 1996, Environment Canada, the Toronto Dominion Bank and the federal Western Economic Diversification agency, announced a $40 million Environmental Technologies Loan Program to help environmental companies develop and market new technologies. This pilot program in Western Canada may eventually be extended across Canada and complements the environmental component of Technology Partnerships Canada, which provides 25 to 30% of total project funding to eligible Canadian companies involved in environmental technology development, demonstration, and commercialization through a repayable funding mechanism.

Cooperation

International technology transfer is channeled to other countries through cooperative arrangements between Environment Canada, the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT), Industry Canada, and Canadian companies. Governments support efforts by industries and researchers to meet international needs through agreements with other countries, joint ventures and technology transfer. Efforts in technological cooperation and capacity-building are focused on particular areas of Canadian expertise and measures have included environmental trade missions, bilateral memoranda of understanding, and other institutional links and initiatives involving the Canadian environmental industry. For example, Environment Canada, with support from CIDA/DFAIT and in partnership with Canadian companies, is involved in the transfer of Canadian technologies to Latvia and Ukraine to aid with the cleanup of military and missile sites. Environment Canada is also involved in other technology transfer activities in China, Mexico, Russia, Japan, and South Korea.

Canada has transferred expertise on environmental regulations, policies and technical programs to several developing countries under the International Environmental Management Initiative (IEMI), an integral component of Canadian Environmental Industry Strategy. Projects supported by the IEMI include an environmental auditing program in Thailand, vehicle emission control workshops in Mexico and Pakistan, and a laboratory accreditation program in Ukraine. Similarly, IDRC has an ongoing Sustainable Technologies Program based in Asia that facilitates the development, diffusion and adoption of cleaner production technologies.

Mexico has been a focus of Canadian assistance since the signing of a bilateral agreement on environmental cooperation in 1990. Implementation of training and certification programs for the Mexican water and wastewater treatment plant operators is being pursued as a follow up to recent bilateral programs with Mexico. A central Mexican model with regional implementation is envisaged and training of Mexican trainers is also a goal.

Montreal will host the Americana 97 Trade Show and Conference, a biennial world calibre event focusing on practical solutions to environmental problems. Americana 97 represents an opportunity for research and commercial links between international partners. In 1996, the federal government and the World Bank established a $2 million Canadian Consultants Trust Fund to enhance the participation of Canadian companies in projects and studies of the global environment. The Canadian Consultants Trust Fund was established through an Agreement between the World Bank, Environment Canada, and CIDA. The Fund is directed at Canadian technical expertise to identify, prepare and appraise projects financed by the World Bank under the Global Environmental Facility. In 1994, Environment Canada initiated a bilateral program under the Montreal Protocol, an international agreement by 150 countries to control the production of ozone-depleting substances. The program has helped Brazil, Chile, Venezuela, and India to meet Protocol requirements. It also has opened market opportunities and links to international financial institutions for Canadian companies.

 * * *

This information was provided by the Government of Canada to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

 

Biotechnology

Decision Making: Coordinating Bodies

The federal government has the primary responsibility for protection of the environment for applications that are national in scope, with provinces and municipalities having jurisdiction within their respective regions. Provincial input into environmentally sound management of biotechnology is developed through the Federal-Provincial committee on the safety net under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA).

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations

Policies and regulations are moving towards a pollution prevention model that emphasizes assessment prior to release of a biotechnology product into the environment. The federal government regulates biotechnology products using modifications to existing legislation and regulations to ensure that all products are assessed for environmental effects before they are imported or manufactured or sold in Canada. In 1996, a Standing Committee of the federal Parliament held hearings on the regulation of biotechnology in Canada with input from government, industry, academia, risk assessment experts, environmentalists, and consumers. The Committee made several recommendations to government to ensure that environmentally sound management of biotechnology products, a responsibility shared among a number of federal departments, is effective. The Committee recommended that CEPA function as a safety net for products of biotechnology not regulated under other federal legislation.

In 1993, nine federal government departments agreed to a framework for regulating the products of biotechnology. Among the principles was a commitment to maintain Canada's high standards for the protection of the health of workers, the general public, and the environment; to use existing legislation and avoid duplication; and to develop clear guidelines for evaluating products of biotechnology that are in harmony with national priorities and international standards. In 1996, two federal departments (Agriculture and Environment) published proposed amendments to regulations that would clarify responsibility for and enable environmental risk assessment of the products of agricultural and environmental biotechnology in 1997. These amendments will implement the regulatory components of the federal framework and will ensure that all assessments of biotechnology products in Canada will include whether they are toxic as defined in the CEPA. The text of the amendments is available to the public on the Internet.

Decision Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

The National Biotechnology Strategy was put in place in 1983. The strategy focuses on building research and industrial capabilities in Canada. It is currently being reviewed in order to meet future challenges.
Under the National Biotechnology Strategy, an Advisory Committee was formed to provide advice to the Minister of Industry on applications of the National Biotechnology Strategy Fund, valued at $30 million for the 1995-97 period. The Fund will be used to improve regulations, communications and other issues related to the development and management of biotechnology.

Decision Making: Major Groups Involvement

Canada's activities in all areas of the environmental regulation of biotechnology have involved major environmental, industry and consumer groups, governments and the general public.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available.

Status

A study commissioned by Industry Canada and Environment Canada in 1995 reported that there were 538 biotechnology companies in Canada concentrated in Ontario, Quebec, and British Columbia. Based on 1993 data, 23,260 people were working in Canadian biotechnology. During the 1989 to 1993 period, employment grew at 14% per year. In addition, almost all Canadian universities are conducting some research in biotechnology. Consumer groups (Consumers Association of Canada) and environmental groups (Canadian Environmental Network) are also involved in consultation on biotechnology, including regulatory, ethical, and socioeconomic issues.

In 1993, the total value of Canadian biotechnology sales was $2 billion of which 22% was in recombinant DNA activity. Research and development grew by 41% from 1989 to 1993 reaching $991 million in the last year of that period. Exports totalled $750 million in 1993.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-Building, Education, Training, and Awareness-Raising

Improved public awareness of biotechnology will be important in the future. To help address this, the National Biotechnology Strategy has provisionally approved funding for several projects to identify detailed ethical issues associated with biotechnology. The federal government will spearhead these initiatives and will ensure the involvement of all major groups with an interest in the issue.

Information

A reorganization of seven sectoral biotechnology networks has resulted in the formation of three 'teams' (health, environment, and resources) under the umbrella of a new National Biotechnology Network with over 4000 members. Each team consists of members of government, industry, and academia and functions to encourage communication between industry, academia, government, and the general public regarding both the promotion and regulation of biotechnology products. Communications within the network is fostered by a biannual newsletter and by an annual meeting.

Research and Technologies

The federal government believes that protection of environmental quality related to biotechnology products and processes requires the involvement of all sectors of society. Research on biotechnology applications to improve the environment includes removal of hazardous wastes and pollutants. Research on biotechnology applications related to agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and mining is carried out by various government agencies and universities. The Medical Research Council is encouraging collaboration in areas of environmental and human health in biotechnology through a joint university-industry program. Recent National Biotechnology Strategy allocations support a range of activities, including the following: more efficient extraction and use of non-renewable resources; development of hardier, disease-resistant canola, salmon, and conifer species; enhanced ability to detect pollutants rapidly and more accurately; minimized use of harmful chemical pesticides; assistance in the remediation of surface, subsurface and contaminated aquifers, and the destruction of recalcitrant pollutants.

Specific examples of the application of biotechnology include the improvement of productivity and wood quality of commercial forests, while reducing pressures on Canada's forest land base (by Natural Resources Canada): and a bacterial substance that can be used to clean up soils contaminated by energetic materials such as explosives and propellants (by scientists from the National Defence Research Establishment in Valcartier, Quebec, in partnership with the Biotechnology Research Institute of National Research Council Canada)

Financing

The Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council and the Medical Research Council are two major bodies that fund research at Canadian universities. For example, they supported $78 million of research in 1991-92 in biotechnology. Provincial governments are also actively involved in research and development on applying biotechnology to the environment. For example, the Quebec Biomass Recovery Centre spends $3 million annually through industry and university cooperative agreements, to design and improve biological processes for organic waste treatment.

Cooperation

Canada is an active participant in international bodies such as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). For example, Canada is working, through the OECD to develop a set of principles for harmonized regulation of environmental releases of biotechnology products. A recently created network of Canadian companies, specializing in bio-remediation, has been formed by Environment Canada, Industry Canada, the Environmental Bio-Industries Council of Quebec, and the Industrial Biotechnology Association of Canada. This network is currently pursuing market and technology transfer opportunities in Latin America and the Asia-Pacific region. Other biotechnology-related grants to developing countries through the Canadian International Development Agency will assist in building capacity in developing countries.

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Canada to the fifth and sixth sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: July 1998.

Click here for national information on Environmental Industry & Technology.

Click here for national information on Science & Technology.

Click here to link to biosafety web sites in Canada.

Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.

Click here to go to the Web Site of UNEP's International Register on Biosafety.

| Canada | All Countries | Home |

 

INDUSTRY

Decision Making: Coordinating Bodies

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations

In 1994, the federal government amended its Ocean Dumping Regulations to ban the disposal of radioactive waste and industrial wastes at sea.

Decision Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

In the future, farmers will continue their shift to sustainable management practices and industry will improve its ability to self-regulate through initiatives such as environmental codes of practices and self-assessment guides. 

Industry and governments will continue to promote environmental sustainability and improve the understanding of the links between the sector's activities and their impacts on the environment.

Decision Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available.

Status

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-Building, Education, Training, and Awareness-Raising

No information is available.

Information

The agricultural industry has developed tools for environmental stewardship, such as programmes to reduce environmental impacts and health risks in the agri-chemical industry, publications promoting improved water quality, and videos on best management practices. 

Research and Technologies

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Canada to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

| Canada | All Countries | Home |

 

TRANSPORT

Decision Making: Coordinating Bodies

Decisions on transportation are undertaken by four orders of government in Canada — federal, provincial/territorial, regional, and municipal — in consultation with stakeholders. Local governments, municipalities, and regional governing bodies are responsible for local planning decisions, such as municipal transportation, transit, setting parking fees, and establishing bicycle lanes. 
Aspects of intraprovincial/territorial highways, urban planning and transportation, and vehicle licensing and inspection fall within provincial /territorial jurisdiction.  Most provinces/territories involve their departments of transportation, public works, economic development, and the environment in decision-making related to transportation.  They also have the authority to establish standards for all vehicles and engines, new or in-use, and may set emissions standards and fuel quality standards comparable to or exceeding federal standards.  

The federal government is largely responsible for international issues in transportation, standards for new vehicles (including national emissions standards for new on-road, off-road, and non-road vehicles and national fuel quality standards), the aviation mode, and almost all the marine mode. It is also responsible for national and inter-provincial/territorial aspects of rail, bus, and truck transportation.

Specific federal departments have responsibilities as follows. 
Transport Canada develops and administers policies, regulations, and services aimed at maintaining a transportation system for Canada and Canadians that is safe, efficient, affordable, integrated, and environmentally sustainable. It is committed to working with the transportation industry and its customers to develop pragmatic, collaborative, and cost-effective approaches to improving our quality of life through sustainable transportation systems.
Environment Canada¡¯s mandate is to preserve and enhance the quality of the natural environment, including the atmosphere;  informing Canadians;  and providing the science needed to understand and respond to climate change. Environment Canada is responsible for regulating vehicle emissions and fuel quality standards, including pollutants that are deemed to be toxic to human health (e.g., lead in gasoline). 
Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) conducts research and development, and advances policies and programs, for the stewardship of Canada's natural resources. Protection of the atmosphere is major consideration for NRCan¡¯s Energy Sector and its Forest Service. The Energy Sector coordinates energy policy development and conducts programs in the areas of energy efficiency,renewables and alternatives, hydrocarbons, and nuclear energy. NRCan also coordinates energy technology research and development, operates the Energy Technology Branch, and manages the Program of Energy Research and Development.
Both Transport Canada and Natural Resources Canada are responsible for managing the voluntary motor vehicle fuel consumption program. Natural Resources Canada, Environment Canada, and Transport Canada are involved to varying degrees in education and awareness activities to reduce vehicle fuel use and emissions.
Industry Canada works with industry stakeholders to design ¡°greener¡± vehicles and to reduce the environmental impacts associated with the manufacturing of transportation equipment.
The Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada plays an important role in preventing, detecting, and  responding to marine pollution incidents through a national marine spill preparedness and response system and through the Canada Coast guard¡¯s National Aerial Surveillance Program. 

The National Climate Change Process established 16 Issue Tables/Working Groups involving 450 experts from industry, academia, non-governmental organizations, and government. The Tables reviewed seven key sectors of the economy and eight cross-cutting strategies. An analysis and modeling group integrated the results into a comprehensive preliminary analysis of the implications of options for meeting Canada¡¯s Kyoto target. No other country has adopted such an open, inclusive, and comprehensive process. Among other issues, the National Process identified: 

In 2000, building on the work of the National Process and acknowledging the considerable contributions of the Issue Tables, the Energy and Environment Ministers moved forward a coordinated national approach to climate change that includes the National Implementation Strategy for Climate Change and the First National Climate Change Business Plan, the federal component of which is reflected in the Government of Canada Action Plan 2000 on Climate Change. These documents can be found at the following Web site: http://www.nccp.ca

In the context of developing Canada's new National Implementation Strategy for Climate Change in response to the Kyoto Protocol (announced in October 2000), a Transportation Table was formed through which various orders of government, the transportation industry, and other stakeholders met over a period of 18 months to examine options to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from transportation. The Transportation Table analyzed more than 100 measures to reduce to greenhouse gas emissions within the transportation sector. To learn more about the Table's work please see http://www.tc.gc.ca/envaffairs/english/climatechange/ttable/. This work contributed significantly to the transportation initiatives outlined in the Government of Canada's Action Plan 2000 on Climate Change announced in early October.  The announced measures recognized that, while fuel efficiency is improving, it is not keeping pace with increases in the use of transportation. Measures were aimed at ensuring vehicles are more fuel efficient and increasing the supply and use of lower-emitting fuels.  Action Plan 2000 measures represent a balanced approach which addresses vehicle and fuel technology, behaviour change and infrastructure.   To learn more about the Action Plan please visit http://www.climatechange.gc.ca

It is common for different orders of government in Canada to work together through various bodies to address transportation issues of national importance. For example, the Canadian Council of Motor Transport Administrators (CCMTA) is the official organization in Canada for coordinating all matters dealing with the administration, regulation, and control of motor vehicle transportation and highway safety. CCMTA incorporates members from the federal government and the provincial/territorial governments, as well as associate members from more than 370 transportation-related organizations. The Council¡¯s Standing Committee on Drivers and Vehicles is responsible for all matters relating to motor vehicle registration and control, light vehicle standards and inspections, and driver licensing and control. The Standing Committee on Compliance and Regulatory Affairs is concerned with the compliance activities of programs related to commercial driver and vehicle requirements, transportation of dangerous goods, and motor carrier operations, in order to achieve standardized regulations and compliance programs in all jurisdictions. The Standing Committee on Road Safety Research and  Policies is responsible for coordination of federal, provincial, and territorial road safety efforts, recommendations in support of road safety programs, and development of overall expertise and strategies to prevent road collisions and reduce their consequences.

The federal and provincial/territorial governments cooperate on transportation matters through the Council of Ministers Responsible for Transportation and Highway Safety. This Council cooperates with the corresponding Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment on matters concerning both energy and environment through Joint Ministers¡¯ Meetings. Officials from the federal and provincial/territorial governments cooperate on air issues at the technical level through the National Air Issues Coordinating Committee.

Federal and provincial/territorial Ministries of Transportation also meet annual to discuss common transportation issues.  Climate change for example, has been on the agenda of recent meetings. At the federal level, Transport Canada cooperates with Environment Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Transport Canada, Health Canada, and the Climate Change Secretariat in making decisions protecting the atmosphere.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations

The main federal legislation governing transportation in Canada is the Canada Transportation Act 1996. This Act is currently under review to assess whether it provides Canadians with an efficient, effective, flexible, and affordable transportation system. This review may also include an assessment of the Act's overall environmental impact, including changes in demand within and across the modes and changes in environmental management practices (for land and operations) of the individual transportation entities. Economic regulation is also addressed by the Act. The review panel is considering issues such as the effectiveness of the legislative and regulatory environment to sustain capital expenditures required to enhance productivity and promote innovation; government powers to support sustainable development objectives; and the advisability of measures to preserve urban rail corridors for future mass-transit use.

Generally speaking, air, rail, and marine engines are covered by the Aeronautics Act, the Canada Transportation Act, and the Canada Shipping Act. Authority to regulate pollution (including air emissions) from planes, ships, and railways rests with Transport Canada. Environment Canada has responsibility for motor vehicle emissions. Natural Resources Canada and Transport Canada together manage fuel economy ratings for vehicles.

Other federal laws that address transport and traffic systems in Canada are:  

Aeronautics Act  
Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act  
Bills of Lading Act  
Canada Labour Code  
Canada Marine Act  
Canadian Environmental Assessment Act  
Canadian Environmental Protection Act  
Canadian Transportation Accident Investigation and Safety Board Act  
Carriage by Air Act  
Carriage of Goods by Water Act  
Coasting Trade Act  
Department of Transport Act  
Government Property Traffic Act        
Marine Insurance Act  
Marine Transportation Security Act  
Maritime Code Act  
Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act  
Motor Vehicle Safety Act  
Motor Vehicle Transport, 1987  
National Energy Board Act  
National Transcontinental Railway Act  
Navigable Waters Protection Act Pilotage Act  
Railway Safety Act  
Safe Containers Convention Act  
Shipping Act, Canada  
Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act, 1992

The Canadian Environmental Assessment Act sets out responsibilities and procedures for the environmental assessment of projects involving the federal government. Environmental assessment provides a systematic approach for identifying the environmental effects of proposed projects. By identifying adverse environmental effects before they occur, environmental assessments allow decision-makers to modify plans so that the effects can be minimized or eliminated. For further information on this Act, please visit the following Web site: http://www.ceaa.gc.ca/index_e.htm

The renewed Canadian Environmental Protection Act, which came into force on April 4, 2000, provides a strengthened framework for protecting Canadians from pollution caused by toxic substances and their release into the environment.  Divisions 4 and 5 of Part 7 of CEPA include provisions to control the quality of fuels as well as emissions characteristics of vehicles, engines and equipment. 

CEPA incorporates responsibility for regulating vehicle emissions which were previously contained in the Motor Vehicle Safety Act, administered by Transport Canada.  In addition, there are new authorities that allow off-road engines and equipment such as farm machinery, lawn mowers and other small gasoline engines to be subject to regulated emissions standards. 

Since 1995, federal departments have been required to have a sustainable development strategy to help them broaden their perspective on what they do and how they do it — to take environmental, economic, and social considerations into account more systematically into their policies, programs, and operations. In 1997, 28 federal departments, including Transport Canada, tabled their first sustainable development strategies. The strategies must be renewed every three years. Transport Canada, Natural Resources Canada, and Environment Canada all have aspects of transportation as a substantial part of their mandate.  For more information about their sustainable development strategies please see the following Web sites:  
Transport Canada: http://www.tc.gc.ca/envaffairs/english/sustainability/towards.htm  
Natural Resources Canada: http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/dmo/susdev/sd2k/sd2ktoce.htm  
Environment Canada: http://www.ec.gc.ca/susdev_e.html  

In June 2000, the Government of Canada, the provinces, and the territories adopted new Canada-Wide Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) and Ozone. These standards set ambient air quality concentration targets for ground-level ozone and fine particulate matter for the year 2010. In addition to measures for vehicles and fuels and solvent-containing products, Environment Canada is working with provinces and territories to develop comprehensive emission reduction strategies for a number of major industrial sectors in Canada. Other measures focusing largely on existing commercial and industrial sources are being undertaken by provinces and territories to ensure that the new particulate matter and ozone standards will be met by 2010. For further information, consult the following Web site: http://www.ccme.ca

Other important air quality-related Canada-wide standards were also either adopted or accepted in principle by federal and provincial/territorial ministers in June 2000. These include standards to deal with toxic air contaminants, including mercury, benzene, dioxins, and furans.

On October 13, 2000 delegations of Canada and the United States finalized a draft of the Ozone Annex to the 1999 U.S. - Canada Air Quality Agreement. The commitments in the final draft relate to the control and reduction of emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) which are precursors of ground-level ozone, a major component of smog and unhealthy air over major regions of eastern North America.

For a complete listing of the federal legislation for which Transport Canada is responsible, or shares responsibility, please check the following Web site: http://www.tc.gc.ca/actsregs/special/tcacts-e.html

Emission standards

In 1999, legislative authority to regulate emissions was transferred from the Motor Vehicle Safety Act, administered by Transport Canada, to the Canadian Environmental Protection Act  (CEPA), administered by Environment Canada. Canadian emissions standards for new vehicles generally match those of the U.S. and are among the most stringent in the world.  Canada has fuel quality standards that are comparable in many respects with standards in Europe and the U.S., although there are differences. 

Since August 1997, new federal regulations have required more stringent control of exhaust emissions (HC, CO, NOX and suspended particulate matter, PM), evaporative emissions (mostly HC), and refueling emissions (mostly HC) from 1998 and later-model vehicles. The new regulations include tighter emission control requirements for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, heavy-duty vehicles, and motorcycles that operate on gasoline, diesel fuel, methanol, natural gas, or liquefied petroleum gas. They also require that new light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks be equipped with on-board diagnostic systems to monitor vehicle emission control systems for proper functioning and to alert the driver of any malfunction.  Other federal regulations include the Gasoline Regulations (1990), Diesel Fuel Regulations (1998), Sulphur in Gasoline Regulations (1999), and Benzene in Gasoline Regulations (1999).

 Motor vehicle fuel consumption standards

The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Program (MVFCP) was initiated in the late 1970s to encourage motor vehicle manufacturers to meet voluntary annual company average fuel consumption (CAFC) targets for new automobiles sold in Canada.  The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act was passed by Parliament in 1981, but the Act was not proclaimed, as Canadian vehicle manufacturers offered to meet the requirements on a voluntary basis. The manufacturers have met most of the program objectives at a significantly reduced cost to both government and industry compared to a mandatory approach.

Current voluntary CAFC goals are identical to the legislated corporate average fuel economy (CAFÉ) standards of the United States. The Canadian goal for the new passenger car fleet is 8.6 litres per 100 kilometres, a more stringent target than that of 11.8 L/(100 km) in 1980. A goal for the new light-duty truck fleet did not exist until 1990, when the goal was set at 11.8 L/(100 km), improving to 11.4L/(100 km) by 1995.

In late 1995 and early 1996, NRCan signed a Memoranda of Understanding (MOU) with domestic and international vehicle manufacturers that renews and expands the Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Program. This MOU provides a framework for a working relationship with industry (the Government Industry Motor Vehicle Energy Committee) to find new opportunities for improving both new vehicle and on‑road vehicle fuel efficiency, and to promote fuel efficiency to vehicle users and new buyers. Under this initiative, Natural Resources Canada is responsible for the analysis and policy development related to new motor vehicle fuel consumption standards, as well as the consumer information and awareness. Transport Canada administers the program, monitoring compliance and collecting annual data on the fuel efficiency of new vehicles.

In 2001, the federal government will launch negotiations with the automobile industry and the United States to achieve new vehicle fuel efficiency targets by 2010. The objective is to phase in a significant voluntary improvement in fuel efficiency across Canada and the United States starting in 2004. This effort will be supported by a consumer education campaign to increase understanding of the importance of purchasing clean and efficient vehicles, as well as good driving habits and maintenance practices.

Transportation safety and safety codes

Transport Canada provides safety information, regulations, and national standards as well as monitoring, testing and an array of other programs related to the safety of Canada's transportation.  
Canada's Transportation Safety Board is an independent agency created by the Canadian Transportation Investigation and Safety Board Act. Its role is to advance safety in the marine, pipeline, rail, and aviation modes of transportation by:  

conducting independent investigations, including, when necessary, public inquiries, into selected transportation occurrences in order to make findings as to their causes and contributing factors  
identifying safety deficiencies as evidenced by transportation occurrences  
making recommendations designed to eliminate or reduce any such safety deficiencies  
reporting publicly on its investigations and on the findings in relation thereto.

 Key safety issues for the federal government relate to:

duty times of crews operating and maintaining Canadian transportation services  
improvements in on-board data recorders or ¡°black boxes¡±  
incidents involving small fishing vessels (related to vessel and crew certification requirements, operating practices, vessel stability, crew survival equipment and training, and fire suppression)  
passenger safety on vessels (related to regulatory oversight, training and qualification of crews, operational procedures/practices, and survival and life-saving equipment)  
collisions on main rail track (related to errors in switches position, movements not in accordance with the limits of their authority, and runaway rolling stock)  
unauthorized use of railway rights of way (trespassing)  
management in commuter, air taxi, and charter operations  
collisions involving aircraft (related to flaws in the "see-and-avoid" concept at uncontrolled airports, anomalies in implementation of Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance Systems (TCAS), and shortcomings in the automation of Air Traffic Services).

The National Safety Code, the national template for regulating truck and bus safety, is being further strengthened by recent and proposed changes, such as:  

a new North American cargo-securement standard aimed at reducing the incidence of shifting or falling loads  
proposed revisions to the basic elements of the commercial vehicle drivers hours of service regime.  
amendments to the Motor Vehicle Transport Act that include safety fitness provisions.

 Safety and maintenance standards        

Transport Canada¡¯s Safety Directorate establishes national safety standards for the design and construction of motor vehicles. The mandate of the directorate is to reduce the number of deaths, injuries, damage to property and the environment, health impairment, and energy consumption resulting from the use of motor vehicles in Canada.  

Safety and maintenance standards for vehicles are established by the Motor Vehicle Safety Act, the Motor Vehicle Restraint Systems and Booster Cushions Safety Regulations, the Motor Vehicle Safety Regulations, the Motor Vehicle Tire Safety Regulations, test methods, and technical standards (which relate to hydraulic and electric brake systems; lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment; air brake systems; school bus pedestrian safety devices; passenger car brake systems, door lock and door retention components, and low-speed vehicles). For more information on these provisions, please visit the following Web site: http://www.tc.gc.ca/roadsafety

Tax measures

The use of economic instruments to achieve environmental goals has remained fairly limited in Canada. Product charges/taxes and deposit refund systems tend to be the most frequently used instruments and have been used by all levels of government in Canada. For example, Canadian consumers pay several taxes on fuels to run their vehicles and equipment: federal, provincial/territorial, and municipal excise taxes, the federal goods and services tax, and in some instances, provincial sales tax. Alternative fuels, such as ethanol produced from renewable sources, propane, compressed natural gas, and methanol, are exempted from the federal excise tax.  For blended fuels, the tax exemption applies only to the proportion of the exempt fuel in the product.   
Actions that promote the increased use of environment-friendly transportation are implemented by all orders of government as befits their mandate.

At the federal level, for example:  
The EnerGuide for Vehicles program and the Fuel Consumption Guide provide new vehicle buyers with information on energy consumption and costs so that they can compare different vehicles and purchase the most fuel efficient one to suit their needs.

In 2001, the federal government will initiate an aggressive campaign to influence consumer new vehicle purchase choice towards more fuel efficient, and possibly ¡°lower emission¡± vehicles, in support of industry efforts to achieve new fuel efficiency target improvements. The new program would be mandatory and include a more aggressive approach and ¡°directive¡± tools such as ¡°green car¡± labeling (including both fuel economy and air pollutants), a ¡°best in class¡± rating system, information on cost savings and transportation alternatives such as transit, and advertising initiatives with industry, environmental, and consumer groups.

The federal government¡¯s new Natural Gas for Vehicles Program at the Office of Energy Efficiency is funded through the $7-million Market Development Incentive Payments fund. A contribution of $2,000 is payable to owners of factory‑built natural gas vehicles purchased between 1 February 1999 and 31 January 2002. The largest portion of the fund, up to $5 million, will be devoted to this component. A contribution of $500 per conversion, payable to the owner of the vehicle, is available to convert vehicles to natural gas operation. To be eligible for the contribution, the vehicle must be registered in a region serviced by natural gas supplied from Alberta, in good mechanical condition, and within a range of model years. The conversion kits that are used must be warranted by the kit supplier for emissions performance. This program, which will fund up to 1,000 conversions, is being administered by local natural gas companies.

As an example at the provincial level, in 1989 Ontario introduced a feebate-type vehicle fee schedule, known as the Ontario Tax for Fuel Conservation. The schedule, shown in the following table, uses the rated highway fuel economy to assess the feebate.  

Ontario Tax for Fuel Conservation

 

 

Rated Highway Fuel Consumption  L/100 km

 

Passenger Vehicles

$ (Rebate)/Tax

 

Sport Utility Vehicle

$ Tax

Less than 6.0

($100)

$0

 

6.0–7.9

 

$75

 

$0

 

8.0–8.9

 

$75

 

$75

 

9.0–9.4

 

$250

 

$200

 

9.5–12.0

 

$1,200

 

$400

 

12.1–15.0

 

$2,400

 

$800

 

15.1–18.0

 

$4,400

 

$1,600

 

Over 18

 

$7,000

 

$3,200

This schedule has implied the following: 90 percent of the vehicles sold fall into the 6.0– 8.9 l/100 km class and pay the $75 fee. The $75 fee is less than one-half of 1 percent of the cost of a typical $20,000 car and is not considered a sufficient disincentive to move to a lower fuel consumption class, after considering vehicle utility. Only one class, less than 6.0 l/100 km, provides a rebate. All other classes pay a fee. The schedule does not apply to light trucks and vans

Decision Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

Within Canada, transportation is not the exclusive responsibility of one government or organization. Our transportation system is the product of decisions made by governmental actors such as municipalities, regional governments, provinces/territories, and federal departments. It also reflects the needs and demands of industry and citizens. Transport Canada is committed to:

providing a safe and secure national transportation system, demonstrated by:

- a simplified, modern, and effective regulatory regime  
- effective and harmonized legislation, regulations, and standards in all transportation modes  
- transportation industry awareness of, and compliance with, regulations and standards  
- public awareness about safety  
- accident fatality statistics and trends, and accident rate comparisons in the aviation, marine, rail, and road modes, including the transportation of dangerous goods.

creating a competitive, efficient, and effective national transportation system, demonstrated by:

- the removal of institutional and legislative barriers to transportation operations  
- shifting costs from taxpayers to users  
- equitable fee structures based on current cost of service delivery  
- devolution and commercialization of most remaining operations  
- effective operation of remote airports and public ports  
- client satisfaction survey results  
- commercial and financial viability and levels of competition in transportation services.

stewardship and environmental awareness, demonstrated by:

- an environmental management system for Transport Canada operations  
- an effective sustainable development strategy  
- effective administration of port leases, navigation sites, and the St. Lawrence Seaway management agreement.

Expansion of transport infrastructure

Freight rail: Railways are making substantial investment in their intermodal infrastructure to divert some highway truck traffic to rail.

Passenger rail: The Minister of Transport is committed to revitalizing intercity passenger rail (VIA Rail). In April 2000, he announced that the federal government would provide $400 million in new capital funding over the next five years to VIA Rail. These funds are to be targeted to renewal of the system fleet, modernization of signaling on VIA-owned track, strategic improvements in the Quebec–Windsor Corridor, station refurbishment, and environmental waste management improvements. This program includes the purchase of 21 new locomotives that are less polluting than the old ones and 100 new passenger cars to expand the capacity of VIA, as there are many occasions when its trains are sold out.

Vehicle fuel efficiency

As described under Question 5 (reducing vehicle emissions), the existing voluntary Motor Vehicle Fuel Efficiency initiative encourages manufacturers to meet targets for annual company average fuel consumption for new automobiles sold in Canada. Targets have remained unchanged since 1985 for cars and since 1995 for light-duty trucks, and trends towards purchase of vans and sport utility vehicles have increased. The federal government has explored a number of options over the last few years to enhance its existing initiative. In October 2000, the government of Canada announced its intentions to launch negotiations with industry and the United States to establish a new vehicle fuel efficiency target by year 2010. This action will be supported by a consumer education campaign to encourage the purchase and use of more-fuel-efficient vehicles.

Reduction of vehicle emissions

In September 1999, Canada's Parliament approved the revised Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA). The renewed legislation provides a strengthened framework for protecting Canadians from pollution caused by toxic substances.   It also includes new provisions that broaden the federal government¡¯s ability to set national emissions standards for new on-road, off-road and non-road vehicles and engines, as well as the authority to set national fuel quality standards.  Environment Canada  is also considering the need for future Canadian standards for petroleum-based fuels (gasoline, diesel fuel, and light and heavy fuel oils).    

Environment Canada is currently preparing a 10-year agenda of planned measures and future activities in support of reducing pollution from vehicles, engines, and fuels, along with the time frames anticipated for their implementation.

Development of alternative transport modes

Several Canadian research programs are actively investigating alternative fuels and vehicles. The Alternative Transportation Fuels Market Development Initiative promotes propane, natural gas, methanol, ethanol, electricity, and hydrogen as automotive fuels. The Transportation Energy Technologies Program has programs for alternative fuels and advanced propulsion systems, advanced energy storage systems, emissions control technologies, vehicle transportation systems efficiency, and fueling infrastructure.

Upgrading of vehicle fleet

FleetWise (federal fleet operations) gives federal fleet managers the information and tools needed to improve the operational efficiency of fleets, reduce greenhouse gas emissions from fleet operations, and accelerate the use of alternative transportation fuels. 

FleetSmart (commercial and fleet operations) provides fleet managers in the private sector with information, workshops, technical demonstrations, and training programs on fuel-efficient practices for fleet vehicles.

Decision Making: Major Groups Involvement

Increasingly, Canadians participate in the decision making related to the sustainable use or development of land and natural resources. The Government of Canada is committed to recognizing priorities established by communities to improve quality of life, create opportunities, and remove barriers to sustainability.

The majority of planning decisions affecting specific communities are made by local urban planners and councilors in consultation with stakeholders. However, some provincial governments have laws that influence municipal decision making. For example, several provincial governments have a law that prevents a municipal authority from generating new revenue other than property taxes (e.g., revenue from local fuel taxes) to improve transportation infrastructure.

Environment Canada and Natural Resources Canada are working in partnership with provinces, territories, and municipalities to improve local access to clean air and clean water and to reduce the threat of climate change in urban and rural centers by providing $25 million to create the Green Municipal Enabling Fund and $100 million to create the Green Municipal Investment Fund. These funds will provide grants, loans, and loan guarantees for projects that increase the energy and environmental efficiency and cost-effectiveness of public transportation facilities and services, among other projects.

Municipal governments have been involved in greenhouse gas reduction for more than a decade. More than 60 Canadian communities have joined the Partners for Climate Protection Program, a joint program of the Federation of Canadian Municipalities and the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives, committing themselves to reducing greenhouse gas emissions in their own operations and communities. These municipalities are developing local action plans to guide their actions, including those related to transportation. Municipalities are actively involved in the national climate change process through their work on the Municipalities Table and as active participants on other tables as well. For further information, please visit the following Web site: http://www.fcm.ca

Canada recognizes the need to incorporate the views of all stakeholders in energy issues, including project proponents, beneficiaries, and affected groups, including the nine groups identified in Agenda 21. Canada has steadily improved the openness, accessibility, and responsiveness of its governance processes and invested substantially over the past decade to promote decision making compatible with sustainable development in government and industries, and among individual citizens and consumers. Public participation is encouraged at all levels of decision making, from legislative committees to regulatory and judicial hearings and environmental assessment processes.

Women, youth, indigenous people, NGOs, local authorities (e.g., the Federation of Canadian Municipalities), and business and industry have all been represented on the Canadian delegation to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

Companies involved in transportation production and distribution are represented by various organizations, such as Petrolium Producers, companies involved in automotive use, marine and public transit, freight and consumers groups, to name a few. These organizations engage in dialogue from time to time with the federal and provincial/territorial governments on issues pertinent to their members. The governments and these organizations maintain a good working relationship with each other.

Programmes and Projects

Promoting traffic efficiency

Transport Canada has been a leader in intelligent transportation systems (ITS) research and development for several years. Some of the first ITS development occurred in Canada, including the world¡¯s first computer-controlled traffic signal system in Toronto. By bringing together system users, vehicles, and infrastructure into one integrated system, ITS enables information exchange for better management and use of available resources. For example, these systems help to smooth the flow of traffic and improve mobility on congested corridors, while making them safer. They improve intermodal transfers and speed the processing of travelers and goods across international borders. As a result, these systems are increasing productivity by improving the efficiency and reliability of transport operations for users, service providers and system operators. In the fall of 2000, the Minister of Transport announced that the federal government was committing approximately $3 million to 19 cost-shared projects under Transport Canada¡¯s Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Deployment and Integration Plan. For more information on ITS please see: http://www.its-sti.gc.ca

Improving efficiency in fuel consumption and reduction of emissions

Alternative Transportation Fuels is an initiative to encourage the production and use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The initiative comprises economic and market studies, emissions and safety assessments, information and technology transfer, and assistance to industry to promote and demonstrate cost-effective applications.

Natural Gas for Vehicles Incentives, described in more detail under Question 6, have been renewed until 1 February 2002 (in Alberta and all provinces east). This program will provide a contribution of $2,000 for each factory-built natural gas vehicle, a contribution of $500 for road vehicles converted to natural gas, a contribution to foster new refueling outlets, cost-shared marketing and awareness activities, and co-funded research and development.

The Auto$mart Program provides Canadian motorists with helpful tips on buying, driving, and maintaining their vehicles to reduce fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The program promotes energy-efficient practices through publications, events, and joint projects, as well as a Student Driver Kit available to driver trainers across Canada.

The EnerGuide for Vehicles program provides new-vehicle buyers with information on energy consumption and costs to compare different vehicle and purchases the most fuel-efficient one that meets their needs. Program tools include the EnerGuide Label that appears on all new cars, vans, and light-duty trucks sold in Canada, the Fuel Consumption Guide, which provides a complete listing of fuel consumption information for all new vehicles, and the EnerGuide for Vehicles Awards, which recognize the most fuel-efficient vehicles in different categories.

Reductions in emissions

Most of the programs cited in this questionnaire have emission reductions as one of their aims. In particular, please refer to Questions 6, 8, and 20, as well as to other parts of this question.

 Federal and provincial governments have put a large number of measures in place to reduce vehicle emissions. The most recent measures include vehicle inspection and maintenance programs in two provinces, vapour pressure limits for gasoline in most provinces, implementation of new national vehicle emission standards for 1998 and subsequent model years, and federal regulations to reduce the sulphur content in diesel fuel and the levels of sulphur and benzene in gasoline.

In 1997, the federal government put into place regulations to limit the benzene content of gasoline to less than 1 per cent by volume and to restrict the amount of sulphur in diesel fuel for on‑road vehicles to a maximum of 0.05 per cent by weight. The federal government has also announced its intention to further reduce sulphur in diesel to 15 parts per mil lion (ppm) by 2006 in line with similar requirements for diesel sold in the United States. It will also limit the average level of sulphur in Canadian gasoline to 30 parts per million (ppm) in 2005, with a phase‑in of 150 ppm in 2002. The reductions are especially important in Ontario, which has the highest sulphur levels in gasoline in Canada.

Canadian emissions standards for new vehicles generally match those of the U.S. and are among the most stringent in the world.  Canada has fuel quality standards that are comparable in many respects with standards in Europe and the U.S.,although there are differences. In April 2000 Environment Canada began nation-wide consultations concerning future vehicle emission and fuel standards in Canada. A discussion paper, ¡°Future Canadian Emission Standards for Vehicles and Engines and Standards for Reformulation of Petroleum-based Fuels,¡± was distributed to stakeholders prior to the Cleaner Vehicles and Fuels Workshop held in Toronto in May 2000. Submissions received during the consultation process have now been reviewed, and Environment Canada will proceed in 2001 to publish a Notice Of Intent to set the agenda for vehicles, engines, and petroleum fuels for the next decade. 

In June 2000, the Government of Canada, the provinces, and the territories adopted new Canada-Wide Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) and Ozone and adopted or accepted principle standards to deal with toxic air contaminants, including mercury, benzene, dioxins, and furans, as described under Question 4.

In October 2000, delegations of Canada and the United States finalized a draft of the Ozone Annex to the 1999 U.S.– Canada Air Quality Agreement, with the assistance of health, environmental, industry, and labour representatives. The Annex defines the region in each country to which the agreement applies. In Canada, this region includes within central and southern Ontario and southern Quebec, representing more than 50 percent of Canada¡¯s population. In the United States, the region includes 18 states and the District of Columbia, representing about 40 percent of the country¡¯s population. Commitments under the agreement relate to the control and reduction of emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOX) and volatile organic compounds (VOC), which are precursors of ground-level ozone, a major component of smog and unhealthy air over major regions in Eastern North America.

Fuel use

Transportation-related emissions result not only from fuel combustion when the automobile is in operation, but also from evaporation of the fuel itself before it is burned in the vehicle engine. As a complementary measure, the federal government recently adopted new regulations to limit the dispensing flow rate of gasoline and gasoline blends to a maximum of 38 litres per minute. This initiative is designed to ensure that the new vehicle refueling emission control systems operate properly under in-use conditions and that corresponding emission reductions will be achieved.

Reducing traffic-related accidents and damages

Transport Canada is empowered under the Motor Vehicle Safety Act to establish national safety standards for the design and construction of motor vehicles.  The mandate of Transport Canada¡¯s Safety Directorate is to reduce the number of deaths, injuries, damage to property and the environment, health impairment and energy consumption resulting from the use of motor vehicles in Canada.

Road Safety Vision 2001 is a national effort aimed at making Canada¡¯s roads the safest in the world. Implemented in 1996, Vision 2001 is supported by all levels of government, as well as by key private and public sector stakeholders, including the Canadian Council of Motor Transport Administrators and all ministers of transport. The initiative comprises a broad range of initiatives that focus on road users, road networks and vehicles. Specifically, it aims to:

raise public awareness of road safety issues

improve communication, cooperation and collaboration among road safety agencies

toughen enforcement measures

improve national road safety data collection and quality.

Since the inception of this program, 5 percent fewer road users have been killed in Canada, and 8 percent fewer have been injured in traffic crashes. Successes of the program include:  

Further work under the vision includes the National Occupant Restraint Program 2001, aiming to increase the use of seat belts to 95 percent by 2001, and the Strategy to Reduce Impaired Driving 2001, aiming to reduce alcohol-related deaths and serious injuries by 20 percent by 2001. These and other initiatives will contribute to Canada¡¯s efforts to improve their road safety standing among OECD countries.

Transport Canada, in cooperation with the Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police and other agencies, has created an on-line Traffic Safety Best Practices Data Base, housed on Transport Canada¡¯s Road Safety Web Page: http://www.tc.gc.ca/roadsafety.

In partnership with selected provincial governments, public insurance companies, and police agencies, Transport Canada is conducting a feasibility study of a computer- and communications-based system called the System for Technological Applications in Road Safety (STARS). This system has many potential uses, including automated, on-site collection of all traffic collision data; access to licence, registration, and insurance files; ticketing and on-site collection of fines using bank credit cards; and scheduling court appearances.

Sustainable transportation indicators

Transport Canada is working in close cooperation with the Centre for Sustainable Transportation (CST), Environment Canada and other federal departments, and other organizations (i.e. National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy and the Transportation Association of Canada) to develop in the order of 10 indicators by 2003/2004 that assist in making decisions and monitoring progress towards sustainable transportation.

Organizations

There are many organizations involved in transportation issues. Some of the key organizations, along with their Web sites, are:

Canadian Energy Research Institute at http://ceri.ca

Canadian Urban Transit Association at http://www.cutaactu.on.ca/what.htm

Transportation Association of Canada at http://www.tac-atc.ca

Canadian Institute for Planners at http://www.cip-icu.ca

Federation of Canadian Municipalities at http://www.fcm.ca

National Research Council Canada at http://www.nrc.ca

Centre for Sustainable Transportation at http://www.web.net/~cstctd

Intelligent Transportation System Society for Canada at http://www.itsa.org

Canadian Vehicle Manufacturers Association at http://www.cvma.ca

Association of International Automobile Manufacturers of Canada at http://www.aiam.org

Canadian Trucking Alliance at http://www.albertatrucking.com/Affiliations.htm

Private Motor Truck Council of Canada at http://www.pmtc.ca

Light Rail Transit Association at http://www.lrta.org  

Advanced Transit Association at http://www.advancedtransit.org

Air Transport Association of Canada at http://www.atac.ca

Electric Vehicle Association of Canada at http://www.evac.ca

Provincial undertakings

Projects are also undertaken by provincial governments to improve transportation in their jurisdictions. For example, the British Columbia government has committed to expanding and improving the SkyTrain transit line serving the Vancouver region, providing a low-emission alternative to motor vehicles. They also created TransLink, the Greater Vancouver Transportation Authority, to improve transportation management in this region and to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

 Status

The vast majority of communities in Canada enjoy good access to all modes of transportation. However, some remote communities do not have access to road networks, waterways, and airways. Generally, the physical infrastructure exists to support an efficient transportation system. To increase its efficiency, further work is required on cooperation between modes, relief of congestion, and interjurisdictional issues.

With the enactment of the Canada Transportation Act in 1996, the federal government did its part to ensure the preservation of rail service wherever it can be continued on a commercial basis. The Act was in large measure motivated by a desire to preserve as much rail infrastructure as possible, particularly by encouraging the creation of shortline railways without federal investment or subsidization. The new rail line discontinuance procedure has fostered the creation of shortline rail operations on rail lines with low traffic density that otherwise would have been abandoned under the National Transportation Act 1987. In addition to commercial sales, the process has allowed provinces and communities to intervene in the public interest to acquire uneconomic rail lines important to local economies as an alternative to road and highway investment. Because railways own their infrastructure and require sufficient returns from operations, they try to maximize the utilization of their assets. Therefore, Canada¡¯s two main carriers (Canadian National and Canadian Pacific) are concentrating traffic over core routes to achieve high traffic densities and lower unit costs. Generally, short line and regional railways serve the smaller markets.

Waterways of Canada are open for the circulation of domestic and foreign vessels. It is generally acknowledged that the impact on the environment of transporting cargo by ship is less than that for any other mode.

The following figure shows fuel consumption by the transportation sector by fuel types from 1980 to 1998.

 

Table 5-6

Transportation Energy Use by Fuel

(Per cent)

Fuel

1980

1990

1993

1996

1998

Gasoline

63.7

 56.5

55.4

51.8

51.4

Diesel

18.9

23.7

22.7

24.5

25.2

Jet Fuel

7.7

7.9

6.9

8.3

8.3

Light and Heavy Fuel Oil

5.2

3.0

2.7

2.4

3.0

Natural Gas

4.0

6.9

10.0

10.9

10.2

Liquefied Natural Gas

0.1

1.3

1.6

1.5

1.1

Primary Electricity

0.4

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.8

Total

100

100

100

100

100

 

Source: Based on data from Statistics Canada¡¯s Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, #57-003

In 1998, this fuel consumption was broken down by mode in the following way:

Greenhouse gas emissions

In 1998 the transportation sector accounted for about 28.5 percent of secondary energy use in Canada and 34.8 percent of total greenhouse gas emissions, making it the single largest source of greenhouse gases in Canada.

Energy efficiency improvements in both freight and passenger transportation limited growth in transportation energy use to 16.2 percent between 1990 and 1998. Without these improvements, transportation energy would have increased by 21.7 percent due to growth in vehicle activity and an increase in the amount of freight shipped by truck, which is more energy-intensive than other modes of transport. Greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector increased by 16.2 percent from 1990 to 1998, consistent with the increase in energy use.

If current trends continue, greenhouse gas emissions from transportation are expected to exceed 1990 levels by 32 per cent by 2010.  To achieve Canada's targeted six per cent reduction from 1990 levels, emissions from transportation would have to be reduced by about 54 megatonnes, or 28 per cent, from the forecasted level of 193 megatonnes in 2010.

Road transport accounts for more than 80 percent of energy use for passenger transportation and more than 75 percent of energy use for freight transportation. Road transport accounts for roughly 70 per cent of greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector, with 44 per cent of this total coming from cars and light-duty trucks and 27 per cent from commercial vehicles (primarily heavy-duty trucks). The next largest single source is off-road use, which includes industrial equipment (agriculture, forestry, mining and construction), recreational vehicles, boats, and lawn and garden equipment.

The three sources of emissions expected to grow most rapidly between 1990 and 2020 are aviation by Canadian carriers (forecasted to increase by 99 per cent), off-road uses (diesel by 66 per cent and gasoline by 57 per cent) and on-road diesel (74 per cent). The largest source of transportation emissions, on-road gasoline, is expected to increase by 44 per cent between 1990 and 2020.

The following figure breaks down the sources of greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector for 1997.

  [Insert Figure 5-2, p. 30 in Transport Canada's 1999 Annual Report] 

The mitigation targets established in the Kyoto Protocol do not cover emissions from international air and marine activities. Under the protocol, Parties agreed that the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) will address greenhouse gas emissions from international aviation and that the International Marine Organization (IMO) will address international shipping emissions. Transport Canada is a member of both and is participating on an ICAO working group that is identifying the most efficient market-based options to reduce international emissions within civil aviation.

The Government of Canada Action Plan 2000 on Climate Change, sets out a package of initiatives to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in key sectors. The Plan includes a number of measures to develop and deploy emerging renewable and alternative energy sources to meet the demand for energy while decreasing emissions. The renewable and alternative energy industries have been extensively involved in the two-year consultation process. Action Plan 2000 captures many of the best ideas resulting from this process.

Clean Air

The use of vehicles, engines and petroleum fuels contributes significantly to air pollution in Canada and consequently has major impacts  on the environment and on the health of Canadians. Emissions from vehicles and engines are primarily a function of vehicle/engine technology and the properties of the fuels. Since the performance of vehicle emission control systems can be impaired without the right fuels, fuel standards and vehicle/engine emission standards must be considered as an integrated system in developing policies and programs to reduce emissions.  In recent years because of more sophisticated equipment being installed in new vehicles, fuels have become more of an issue in the challenge to reduce vehicle emissions.  In some cases, vehicle technology to achieve lower vehicle emission standards requires cleaner fuels.

Pollutants that contribute to problems with air quality in Canada include nitrogen oxides (NO X), carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO2), particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compounds (VOC). In 1995, it was established that 57 per cent of NOX emissions, 67 per cent of CO, five per cent of SO2, 20 per cent of PM, and 28 per cent of VOCs in Canada were attributable to transportation. In urban areas, the vehicle contribution to air pollution is higher. When some emissions them combine, they produce smog or acid rain. Transport Canada has participated in the development of Canada-wide standards to deal with priority pollutants that contribute to smog. In the fall of 1999, the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) accepted, in principle, the recommended Canada-wide Standards for Particulate Matter and Ozone. These standards set numerical air quality targets to protect the environment, to reduce the risk to human health, and to demonstrate the commitment and importance of federal, provincial and territorial co-operation to take action.

Emissions of fine particulates come directly from the exhaust of engines, and also result from secondary formation of aerosols from SOx, NOx and VOC emissions.  In urban areas vehicles are a major contributor (greater than 20 percent) to emissions of fine particulates. Research is being conducted on airborne carbonaceous particles in Canada to determine their concentration, composition, sources, and effects on health. The findings will support federal strategies for reducing mobile sources of particulate matter and also improve Canadians¡¯ understanding of the role of transportation fuels on air quality and their health.

The table below presents the contribution of the sources of interest as a percentage of national inventories. The contributions of vehicles and light fuel oil combustion (primarily in residential furnaces) are much larger in urban areas.  It should also be noted that heavy fuel oils are almost entirely combusted in central and eastern Canada, areas that are sensitive to acidic deposition.

Percent Contribution to Total Canadian Emissions in 1995

 

 

 

Direct

PM2.5

 

SO2

 

NOx

 

VOCs

 

CO

 

CO2

equiv.

 

On-Road Vehicles

 

9

 

2

 

35

 

22

 

54

 

21

 

Off-Road Engines

 

5

 

1

 

10

 

3

 

11

 

3

 

Rail

 

4

 

n/a

 

5

 

n/a

 

n/a

 

1

 

Light Fuel Oil Combustion

 

n/a

 

1

 

n/a

 

n/a

 

n/a

 

n/a

 

Heavy Fuel Oil Combustion

 

n/a

 

12

 

n/a

 

n/a

 

n/a

 

n/a

 Notes: Open sources are excluded. Contributions to total PM2.5 are larger. ¡°n/a¡± means not available.

Initiatives to reduce emissions from vehicles, engines, and fuels can have significant positive effects on smog, acid rain, hazardous air pollutants and may also contribute towards reductions in greenhouse gases. In 1999, Environment Canada announced new regulations under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, phasing in a limit of 30 parts-per-million of sulphur content in gasoline by January 1, 2005, a reduction of more than 90 per cent. 

The latest emissions data for the transportation sector can be found under ¡°1995 Criteria Air Contaminant Emissions for Canada¡± at the Environment Canada Internet Web site, Green Lane:  http://www.ec.gc.ca/pdb

Challenges

A challenge faced by all orders of government, which impacts all sectors of society, is maintaining existing transportation infrastructure so that it is safe and efficient.

Providing transportation infrastructure and services to remote areas, particularly in the Canadian North, remains a challenge for governments.

Establishing intermodal facilities for passenger services also remains a challenge, particularly within established urban areas.

Establishing intermodal facilities for freight services also remains a challenge, particularly within established urban areas.

Rail service has declined in many regions across Canada.

Relative to other areas, the most urgent needs for an improved transportation system are in Canada¡¯s remote regions and in major cities such as Vancouver, Toronto, and Montreal.

Relative to other groups, and those without access to motor vehicles on public transit (children, the disabled, senior citizens, and low income families) need improved access to affordable transportation.

Motor vehicle transportation has the largest impact on the environment. Major cities in Canada are becoming increasingly congested as the rate of car ownership grows and urban populations rise.

Passenger travel accounts for the bulk of transportation greenhouse gas emissions. It also presents a challenge in changing the travel, commuting, and living habits of Canadians.  Measures to meet this challenge are largely voluntary and aimed at increasing public awareness and changing travel behaviour, primarily in urban areas. Telecommuting, car sharing, enhanced driver education, and changing the tax treatment of employer-provided transit benefits would, together, form an effective strategy for employers to implement voluntary trip-reduction programs in their organizations. Promising measures combine strong incentives for alternatives, such as public transit and bicycling, while discouraging car use through charges on parking, starting with the three largest urban centres in Canada (Vancouver, Toronto, and Montreal). Further reductions would require more aggressive pricing mechanisms for roads and parking, large costs for the purchase of more efficient planes and ferries, or measures to restrict travel.

Changes in the way Canada builds, maintains, and uses roads and highways could also play a role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from transportation. The most promising measures in this regard focus on enforcing existing speed limits and on using intelligent transportation systems and synchronized traffic signals to improve traffic flow. The promising measures add two additional intelligent transportation systems, more frequent resurfacing of the national highway system, and high-occupancy vehicle lanes to help travelers avoid congested areas. There is concern, however, that intelligent transportation systems could, by improving traffic congestion, induce more traffic and thereby increase emissions. Further and more difficult reductions involve road-pricing systems, changing pavements from asphalt to concrete, and reducing speed limits to 90 kilometres per hour.

Adopting vehicles and fuels that are less carbon-intensive is critical to reducing greenhouse gas emissions from transportation. However, measures to improve vehicle technologies and increase the use of alternative fuels are complex and can raise significant economic issues. Promising measures include setting a harmonized target with the United States to achieve a 25 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from new cars and light trucks by 2010. Expanding the use of alternative fuels would also promote reductions, and could include expanding production of ethanol, natural gas, and propane; mandating the use of alternative fuels in government fleets; and promoting the use of these fuels in buses and heavy-duty trucks. Further and more difficult measures include purchase incentives for fuel-efficient cars and ¡°feebates¡± (which would levy surtaxes on higher-fuel-consuming vehicles and provide a rebate for lower-fuel-consuming vehicles).

The most promising freight measures are cost-effective voluntary efforts, such as following codes of practice and improving training and operating practices for truck drivers. Promising measures for trucking include load matching to reduce empty or partial trips; the use of new technologies, such as improved lubricants; scrappage programs to remove older, inefficient trucks from the road; reducing speed limits to 90 kilometres per hour; and allowing longer trucks in three provinces where they are currently not permitted. Using more efficient rail cars and engines would improve the environmental performance of rail freight. Further and more difficult options include the use of alternative fuels and fuel cells for railways, and additional higher-cost truck technology measures.

The geography of Canada poses unique challenges to the development, maintenance, and overall efficiency of its transportation system. Distances between communities are often great, and settlement patterns are often dispersed. It is often not economically feasible for enterprises to provide commuter or transit services in these areas.  Canada's seasonal cold weather possesses its own set of difficulties for providing efficient transportation.

Canada¡¯s Constitution has resulted in the devolution of authority for transportation matters to four levels of government. This arrangement requires close coordination among jurisdictions. Canada also shares a border with United States across which much transportation activity occurs. This situation has required the establishment of international bodies and forums.

The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) is the major intergovernmental forum in Canada for discussion and joint action on environmental issues of national and international concern. The CCME comprises environment ministers from the federal, provincial, and territorial governments, who meet twice a year to discuss national environmental priorities. In 1998 the CCME committed to a new approach to environmental management in Canada when all jurisdictions (except Quebec) signed the Canada-Wide Accord on Environmental Harmonization, under which many sub-agreements are being struck on a wide range of important environmental management issues. For example, the Canada-Wide Environmental Standards Sub-Agreement sets out principles for governments to jointly agree on priorities, to develop standards, and to prepare complementary work plans to achieve those standards, based on the unique responsibilities and legislation of each government. The guiding principles in this Accord were further reinforced in February 1999 when all provincial/territorial governments (except Quebec) and the federal government signed the Framework to Improve the Social Union for Canadians. Environment Canada¡¯s work to facilitate cooperation on the environment among provincial/territorial governments is guided by principles articulated in the Accord.

With the exception of public transit systems and the inter-city rail passenger provider, most transport companies are privately-owned companies. The government would have a difficult time forcing diversions of traffic to more energy-efficient modes, i.e. from truck to rail and from car to rail and bus.

Canada's widely dispersed and rapidly increasing population, our geography and climate, and our export-oriented, resource-dependent economy create challenges to progress on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. Further, energy exports alone account for a substantial amount of Canada's growth in emissions of greenhouse gases since 1990. Because nuclear and hydro provide a substantial portion of our electricity generation, there is less scope for reductions than in some other countries.

Retailers, manufacturers, and shippers can suffer economically if the transportation system is inefficient.

Those living in remote communities are negatively affected when they do not have access to transportation choices other than the personal automobile.

Smog, largely created by vehicle emissions, is linked to a variety of adverse health impacts, especially among children and the elderly. Scientists have found that the number of hospitalizations for respiratory ailments increases with increasing levels of air pollution. A recent study in 11 Canadian cities concluded that air pollution contributed to the premature deaths of at least 5,000 Canadians per year. A similar number of Canadians were hospitalized, while even greater numbers suffered other effects.

Capacity-Building, Education, Training, and Awareness-Raising

Governments, environmental groups, industry associations, and academic institutions are involved in education and outreach activities aimed at promoting a better understanding of the environmental impacts of transportation and of potential solutions. Some activities are community based, whereas others have much larger audiences, such as the general public, car drivers, boaters, etc.  A description of some key initiatives follows.

The $150-million Climate Change Action Fund (CCAF) was established by the federal government to help Canada meet its commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. More than 100 projects are designed to inform the public about climate change and encourage them to take action, one-quarter of them related to transportation. Further information on this fund can be obtained at the following Web site: http://climatechange.gc.ca/english/html/fund/index.html

Transport Canada launched the $1-million Moving On Sustainable Transportation (MOST) program in 1999 to encourage organizations to implement projects that:

Further information on this program can be found at: http://www.tc.gc.ca/envaffairs/MOST/Main_e.htm

In an effort to increase the public¡¯s awareness of the negative impacts of tampering with vehicle emissions systems and to gain an insight into the status of emission control devices in Canada¡¯s in-use light duty vehicles, Environment Canada initiated a vehicle emissions inspection program in 1986. Since then, Environment Canada¡¯s Transportation Systems Branch has been organizing these voluntary vehicle emissions clinics in conjunction with various regional organizations in both the public and private sector. Emissions clinics were conducted from 12 May to 14 October 1999, in 16 different locations throughout Canada. A total of 3,549 vehicles visited the clinics, of which 3,298 were tested for HC and CO emissions, providing a substantial base for this year¡¯s analysis.  Every vehicle that failed a BC Air Care® idle limits test was inspected for tampering. A Voluntary Vehicle Emissions Survey form was offered to every person who went through the clinic. More than 3300 people filled out this form, which provides information about the demographics of the population that attended clinics, their attitudes towards the environment, and their vehicle use and maintenance practices.

Clean Air Day Canada has been proclaimed by the Government of Canada to increase public awareness and action on two key environmental priorities, clean air and climate change. It is very much a grassroots, locally-based event relying on strong partnerships with all sectors of society, founded on concrete actions in communities across Canada. Throughout the country people respond to the challenge of "Community Action on Clean Air and Climate Change" with a huge variety of events and activities. This year¡¯s focus on "Sustainable Transportation" highlighted initiatives by environmental and health organizations, transit companies, and private sector businesses in over 60 communities all across Canada.

Many of the provinces operate clean driving programs. For example, under Ontario's Clean Drive Program, emissions testing and repair has become a mandatory requirement for vehicle registration and transfer of ownership. In its first year, the program achieved fuels savings equal to more than 120,00 fill-ups for a mid-size car, resulting in an estimated 6.7 percent reduction in the emission of smog-causing pollutants.

Environment Canada and Transport Canada worked closely with the Canadian Urban Transit Association, Bombardier, and other private sector partners to deliver a major nation-wide sustainable transportation campaign that ran in 61 Canadian cities. The campaign focused on letting the public know about alternatives to single-occupant vehicles and highlighted the role of public transit in creating cleaner and healthier communities.

Environment Canada helps communities recognize the activities, projects, and general efforts that help improve the environment. Environmental citizenship certificates are available for individuals or groups deserving recognition for their demonstrated commitment to improving the environment. For further information, please visit the following Web site: http://www.ec.gc.ca/ecoaction/hero

Some programs under the Climate Change Action Fund focus on shared transport. For example, the Canada Commuter Challenge operates in six urban centres, encouraging Canadians to leave their cars at home when they head for work. Programs like British Columbia's Commuter Connections promote ride sharing to reduce fuel consumption and emissions. Commuter Connections, supported by Canada's Climate Change Action Fund, is involved in providing rideshare programs for some 60,000 commuters in the province's most heavily populated areas. A similar program, called Climate Connection, is proposed for 20 post-secondary educational institutions. The program is expected to result in 2,000 four-person carpools, raised awareness among students of the economic and environmental costs of single-occupant vehicles, a reduction of atmospheric pollution by more than 28,000 tonnes per year, and environmental benefits valued at $28 million annually.

Transport Canada focuses on the development of practical safety programs and effective regulations, and on ensuring that these regulations and standards are followed. In particular, it regulates and coordinates safety-related matters in several areas: aeronautics and airports; air and marine navigation; marine shipping facilities; commercial shipping; new motor vehicle standards; railways; bridges and canals connecting provinces with each other or with the U.S.; and transportation of dangerous goods.

With respect to motor vehicle safety, Canada ranks 9th among 29 OECD countries. In addition to the public traffic safety programs described under Question 9, Transport Canada also offers safety information on their road safety Web page (http://www.tc.gc.ca/roadsafety) on such subjects as air bag safety, ant-lock brake systems, bus safety, child safety, recalls, safe snowmobiling, drinking and driving, and winter tire safety tips.

Canada's Auto$mart program offers a Student Driver Kit to driver trainers across the country, promoting energy-efficient driving practices.

Programs such as the Secondary School Trip Reduction Program under the Climate Change Action Fund seek to reduce the number of automobile trips to school through carpooling, improving bicycle facilities, and increasing the awareness of transportation and environment issues among students and school staff.     

The Active and Safe Routes to School Program, also under the Climate Change Action Fund, promotes environmentally sound decision making related to school transportation. The program includes a media campaign to increase awareness of school transportation issues, an action kit distributed to every school in Canada, resources to help planners improve school transportation routes, and resources to help teachers integrate the program with existing curricula.

Many post-secondary institutions offer courses in civil engineering and urban planning related to transportation. For example, the University of New Brunswick Transportation Group in the Civil Engineering Department offers programs of study specializing in transportation at the diploma, undergraduate, and graduate levels.

Many industry associations offer courses and seminars to their members to keep them abreast of new technological developments, as well as new environmental and safety regulations.

Information

T-FACTS is an electronic library of transportation-related dossiers containing export/import related information, statistics and forecasts, data maps and GIS illustrations, presentations, research reports, and other information pertaining to all modes of transport. To find out more about this library, please visit the following Web site: http://www.tc.gc.ca/pol/en/t-facts_e/T-FACTS_menu/.htm  

The Pollution Data Branch (PDB) of Environment Canada is responsible for analyzing, disseminating, developing, and improving inventories of p ollutant information in partnership with others. They also strive to continually improve the public's access to information. They maintain such databases as air contaminant emissions for Canada, found at Environment Canada's Web site, the Green Lane, at http://www.ec.gc.ca/pdb

Traffic conditions on highways are posted on electronic billboards in some Canadian cities.  These are established by the provinces or territories.  Some provinces/territories also post road condition information on their Web sites and/or offer telephone information services.

The Pollution Data Branch of Environment Canada maintains an inventory of pollutants released into the environment, including air emissions by the transportation sector.  These include PART, PM10, PM2.5, VOC, SOX, NOX, and CO.  Please refer to the following Web site for the latest information: http://www.ec.gc.ca/pdb/cac/cacdoc/1995e/canada95.htm

Research and Technologies

Through such programs as the Transportation Energy Technologies Program, governments in Canada are working with the alternative fuel industry and major vehicle manufacturers to expand the use of such fuels as propane, natural gas, methanol, ethanol, electricity, and hydrogen, and fuel cells. Activities include developing and promoting factory-built alternative transportation fuel vehicles, vehicle conversion kits, and refueling equipment. For example, Canada developed the world's first hydrogen-powered fuel cell transit bus.

Alternative Transportation Fuels is an initiative to encourage the production and use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The initiative comprises economic and market studies, emissions and safety assessments, information and technology transfer, and assistance to industry to promote and demonstrate cost-effective applications.

The Government of Canada offers financial incentives for the purchase or conversion of natural gas vehicles and natural gas vehicle refueling equipment. Support is also provided to the industry for marketing and awareness activities and for research and development to fill technology gaps.

All major North American car manufacturers now have fuel cell programs. Automakers have indicated they will have limited production fuel-cell cars on the road by 2004. Electric vehicles are also expected to play a role in Canada's transportation energy future. Canadian researchers are developing and testing a range of technologies, including light-weight and longer-lasting batteries and hybrid electric vehicles, which use an electric motor to reduce the demand placed on the primary energy source (usually an internal combustion engine).

Transportation research is undertaken by a variety of government, non-government, and university groups. For example:

 the Centre for Surface Transportation Technology (CSTT) is a member of the National Research Council of Canada's Office of Technology Centres. CSTT's services and facilities are targeted primarily at the rail and road transport industries and have the capacity to handle both modeling and testing of full-scale rail and road vehicles. Their technological research and services are described at the following Web site: http://www.cstt.nrc.ca

the University of Manitoba carries out research in transportation engineering. Current research focuses on Transportation Engineering for Intelligent Vehicle–Highway Systems.

 

Financing

Over the past several years, total government net expenditures each year on transportation have been consistently in the $16–17 billion range (see table below). Federal and provincial/territorial levels show no apparent pattern, but local government expenditures are increasing, rising each year since 1994 by an average 2.5 percent per year. Between 1994–1995 and 1998–1999, federal spending on transportation was halved and gross expenses by Transport Canada were reduced by 52 percent.

Gross and Net Expenditures on Transportation by Governments,  ($ Millions), Details of Table 3-1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 1994/95

 1995/96

 1996/97

 1997/98

 1998/99

 1999/2000 F

Transport Canada

2,977

3,448

2,472

2,428

1,415

1,178

   Operating Expenses (1), (2)

1,714

2,347

1,153

567

555

552

   Capital

505

297

273

106

79

79

   Grants & Contributions (2)

757

804

1,046

1,756

782

547

   Revenues (3)

1,021

1,211

1,353

987

658

353

   Net Expenses

1,956

2,237

1,119

1,442

758

824

Other Federal Departments/Agencies

1,254

1,239

1,011

992

877

771

   Operating and Capital Expenses

288

784

797

794

736

748

   Grants & Contributions

966

 455

214

198

141

23

Revenues

4

15

31

40

42

51

Net Expenses

1,250

1,224

980

951

835

720

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Net Federal Expenses

3,206

3,461

2,099

2,393

1,592

1,544

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Provincial/Territorial  Expenditures

 

 

 

 

 

 

   O & M

            2,910

            2,910

            2,751

            2,744

            3,127

 n.a

   Capital

            2,579

            2,814

            2,658

            2,598

            2,587

 n.a

   Transfer Payments

            2,411

            2,364

            2,029

            2,168

            2,388

 n.a

   Gross Expenditures

            7,901

            8,087

            7,438

            7,510

            8,102

 n.a

   Federal Transfers

               286

               347

               350

               635

               221

 n.a

   Expenditures Net of Transfers

            7,616

            7,741

            7,088

            6,875

            7,881

 n.a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Local Expenditures (4)

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Roads

6,334

6,712

6,437

6,301

6,384

 n.a

   Transit

1,535

1,579

1,563

1,448

1,736

 n.a

   Other

102

123

119

158

229

 n.a

   Gross Expenditures

7,971

8,415

8,119

7,907

8,349

 n.a

    Federal Transfers

85

169

120

121

66

 n.a

    Provincial Transfers (5)

1,905

1,902

1,613

1,445

1,705

 n.a

   Expenditures Net of Transfers

5,981

6,344

6,386

6,341

6,577

 n.a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Net -All Levels of Government

          16,802

          17,546

          15,573

          15,610

          16,050

 n.a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figures may vary from the Report, as final adjustments have been made.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Sources: Main Estimates/Public Accounts of the Government of Canada; Transport Canada, Finance Directorate; 

 the Canadian Transportation Agency; internal reports from several agencies and federal departments

 provincial/territorial departments of transportation; Statistics Canada, Public Institutions Division, unpublished data 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 1   Includes in 1995/96 $999.8 million to reduce the value of the CN debt to the Public Accounts of Canada

 2   Transfers to Crown Corporations other than to Champlain and Jacques Cartier Bridges were added as grant and contributions

 3   Includes some revenues credited to Consolidated Revenue Fund

 

 

 

 4   Calendar year basis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 5   Estimated transfers as reported by provincial governments

 

 

 

 

 F   Forecast as of January 31, 2000, for full year.

 

 

 

 

 

Federal and provincial/territorial expenditures by transportation mode are shown in the following table.

Transport Expenditures & Revenues by Mode and Levels of Government, Details of Table 3.6 (Million $)

 

  1996/1997 

  1997/1998

  1998/1999

 1999/2000F

Federal Operation, Maintenance, Capital and Subsidies (1)

 

 

Air

              1,456

                1,115

                 597

                     368

Marine

                 822

                   810

                 691

                     747

Rail

                 288

                   276

                 256

                     226

Road

                 711

                1,013

                 525

                     400

Other

                 205

                   205

                 222

                     208

Sub-Total

              3,483

                3,420

              2,292

                  1,948

Provinces/Territories (2)

 

 

 

 

Air

                   83

                     76

                   74

 n.a

Marine

                   86

                     95

                 121

 n.a

Rail

                   11

                       2

                     2

 n.a

Road

              5,475

                5,253

              5,794

 n.a

Transit

              1,275

                1,286

              1,699

 n.a

Other

                 158

                   163

                 191

 n.a

Sub-Total

              7,088

                6,875

              7,881

  n.a

Local (2)

 

 

 

 

Road

              5,553

                5,405

              5,669

 n.a

Transit

                 714

                   778

                 679

 n.a

Other

                 119

                   158

                 229

 n.a

Sub-Total

              6,386

                6,341

              6,577

 n.a

Total Expenses: All Government Levels

 

 

 

Air

              1,539

                1,191

                 671

 n.a

Marine

                 908

                   906

                  812

 n.a

Rail

                 299

                   278

                 257

 n.a

Road

            11,740

              11,671

            11,989

 n.a

Transit

              1,989

                2,064

              2,378

 n.a

Other

                 482

                   527

                 642

 n.a

Sub-Total

            16,956

              16,637

            16,750

 n.a

Federal Transportation Revenues (3)

 

 

 

 

Air

           1,284.7

                938.0

              600.2

                  310.0

Marine

                72.5

                  68.0

                72.6

                    79.1

Rail

                   -  

                  12.1

                12.2

                      8.0

Road

                  0.3

                    0.3

                  0.3

                      1.0

Other

                26.5

                    8.4

                14.3

                      6.3

Total

           1,383.9

             1,026.8

              699.7

                  404.4

Net Transportation Expenses

 

 

 

 

Air

                 255

                   253

                   71

 n.a

Marine

                 835

                   838

                 740

 n.a

Rail

                 299

                   266

                 245

  n.a

Road

            11,739

              11,671

            11,989

 n.a

Transit

              1,989

                2,064

              2,378

 n.a

Other

                 456

                   518

                 628

 n.a

Total

            15,573

              15,610

            16,050

 n.a

 

 

 

 

 

Figures may vary from the Report, as final adjustments have been made.

 

 

 

 

 

 

(1) See Table 3.3 and 3.4

 

 

 

 

(2) See Table 3.2

 

 

 

 

(3) See Table 3.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Forecast as of January 31, 2000, for full year.

 

 

 

Industry¡¯s investment in transportation in Canada is shown in the following table.

Appendix 2-2 Transportation Investment by Industry and Government 1997

(Current [ed. Millions of?] dollars)

Types of Transportation Investment

Transportation Industries

Other Industries

Government

 Total

Percentage of Total Investment

Warehouses and Freight Terminals

80

346

0

426

1.5

Grain Elevators and Terminals

80

0

0

80

0.3

Maintenance Garages, Equipment Storage, Workshops

99

395

164

658

2.3

Railway Shops Engine Houses

18

0

0

18

0.1

Aircraft Hangars

1

0

94

95

0.3

Passenger Terminals

343

0

13

356

1.2

1. Transportation-Related Building Construction

621

741

271

1,633

5.6

Marine engineering

173

17

264

454

1.6

Highways, roads, streets

77

231

4,219

4,527

15.5

Airport Runways

107

0

37

144

0.5

Railway track

571

6

5

582

2.0

Bridges

198

14

267

479

1.6

Tunnels

22

1

0

23

 0.1

Other Transportation

2

3

0

5

0.0

2. Transportation-Related Engineering Construction

1,150

272

4,792

6,214

21.3

Industrial Containers

0

85

0

85

0.3

Automobiles

16

14,224

109

14,349

49.3

Buses

396

33

42

471

1.6

Trucks, Vans, Truck tractors and trailers

676

3,015

137

3,828

13.1

ATVs

0

238

2

240

0.8

Locomotives, Rail rolling stock (including subways)

788

65

0

853

 2.9

Ships and boats

191

216

34

441

1.5

Aircraft and Helicopters

334

620

6

960

3.3

Other Transportation Equipment

1

43

1

45

0.2

3. Transportation Equipment

2,402

18,539

331

21,272

73.1

Total Transportation-Related Investment (1 + 2 + 3)

4,173

19,552

5,394

29,119

100.0

Source: Statistics Canada, Capital Expenditures by Type of Asset, 1997, cat 61-223

Personal expenditures on transportation are shown in the following table.

Appendix 2-1 Personal Expenditures on Transportation 1998
(1992 Millions of dollars)

Personal Expenditures on Transportation

1998 Value

Percentage of Total

New automobiles

10,748

15.3

Used motor vehicles (net)

6,364

9.1

New trucks and vans

10,287

14.6

Bicycles and motorcycles

2,022

2.9

Boats, aircraft, and accessories

810

1.2

Transportation Equipment Purchases

30,231

43.0

Motor fuels and lubricants

14,447

20.6

Motor vehicle parts and accessories

4,810

6.8

Motor vehicle maintenance and repairs

4,951

7.0

Driving licences, lessons and tests

2,190

3.1

Motor vehicle renting

540

0.8

Auto insurance

2,875

4.1

Transportation Equipment Operating Expenses

 29,813

42.4

Bridge and highway tolls

116

0.2

Parking

609

0.9

Road Infrastructure Use Charges

725

1.0

Urban transit

1,360

1.9

Railway transportation

129

0.2

Interurban bus

449

0.6

Air transportation

5,885

8.4

Water transportation

149

0.2

Taxis

443

0.6

Moving and storage

518

0.7

Commissions paid to tour operators

599

0.9

Commercial Transportation

9,532

13.6

Total Personal Expenditures on Transportation

70,301

100.0

Source: Statistics Canada, unpublished data, Income and Expenditure Accounts Division

Transport Canada¡¯s Safety and Security business line develops national legislation, regulations, and standards, and carries out monitoring, testing, inspection, enforcement, education, and research and development activities to promote safety and security in all transportation modes. It also develops emergency preparedness plans, ensures the security of persons working in restricted areas of airports and delivers aircraft services to government and to other transportation bodies.

Since 1971 on-road vehicle emissions had been regulated under Transport Canada's Motor Vehicle Safety Act.  Recent amendments have transferred the legislative authority to Environment Canada's Canadian Environmental Protection Act (Division 5).  As a result, Environment Canada intends to continue monitoring compliance of on-road vehicles with national emission standards in a similar manner to Transport Canada (i.e. by means of independent testing and certification audits).  The Department also intends to monitor compliance of off-road and non-road vehicles, engines and equipment with applicable emissions standards.

In this context, Environment Canada will develop and implement a comprehensive federal program designed to administer vehicle and engines control programs put forward under CEPA. This includes interpretation and guidance for industry, collection and analysis of sensitive industry data, industry and product audits, registration and monitoring of defect and recall programs, and confirmatory testing.  Through an emissions testing program, government will confirm that cars & trucks, off-road and non-road vehicles, engines and equipment meet their prescribed emissions certification standards.

Transport projects or companies must compete for financing with other investments in capital markets. Therefore, investing in the transport sector requires adequate financial returns. Governments foster transport sector development to the extent that they establish a stable, transparent, and predictable regulatory and fiscal framework that reduces uncertainty and improves the prospects that adequate financial returns will be realized.

Governments also have a role in supporting the development and market penetration of new transport technologies that use clean energy and are more energy efficient.   As noted earlier, the Government of Canada has allocated $1.1 billion over the next five years to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Canada, some of which will be used to promote of new transport technologies that use clean energy and are more energy efficient.

Cooperation

Transport Canada is involved in extensive regional and international cooperation and coordination under such bodies as:

-          the International Maritime Organization (multiples committees)

-          the International Civil Aviation Organization

-          International Joint Committee

-          the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Transportation Working Group

-          the Summit of the Americas Western Hemisphere Transport Initiative (of which Canada is chair)

-          the  Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

-          the European Conference of Ministers of Transportation

-          the Organization of American States¡¯ Ports Commission

-          transportation-related committees under the North American Free Trade Agreement, including the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation

-          the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe.

  Canada normally supports the efforts of these organizations and cooperates with other like-minded countries. Participation in specific agreements on sustainable development has yet to happen in any of the marine organizations.

 Transport Canada works with foreign government agencies and organizations on several international safety initiatives. Canada also endorses the objectives of the World-Wide Fuel Charter for Gasoline and Diesel Fuels.  The charter is an "effort to develop common, world-wide recommendations for ¡®quality fuels¡¯, taking into consideration customer requirements and vehicle emission technologies, which will in turn benefit our customers and all other affected parties.¡±  Global fuels standards are vital if the developing world, where car ownership is increasing at an enormous rate, is to benefit from the newest vehicle technologies. This objective is in line with the United Nations Agreement Concerning the Establishing of Global Technical Regulations for Vehicles, Engines and Components.

The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) is the primary agency for delivering Canada's Official Development Assistance program and the technical cooperation program with economies in transition. CIDA's two-fold mandate is to support sustainable development in developing countries in order to reduce poverty and to contribute to a more secure, equitable and prosperous world, and to support democratic development and economic liberalization in Central and Eastern Europe by building mutually beneficial partnerships. To implement these programs, CIDA works with partners in the private and public sectors in Canada and in the target countries as well as with international organizations and agencies. Environmental protection and infrastructure services are among the six priority areas addressed by CIDA. Consequently, CIDA has numerous projects addressing environment, energy, and transport issues. CIDA is also responsible for managing the new $100 million fund to support technology transfer to address climate change issues.

 * * *

This information was provided by the Government of Canada to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 12 July 2001.

For further information on this subject, please visit Transport Canada's Web site at:  http://www.tc.gc.ca   
For further information on energy related to the atmosphere, please see Canada¡¯s response to Guidelines for National Reporting to CSD IX on Energy and Energy-Related Aspects of Atmosphere and Transport (Agenda 21, Chapter 9), Part III.  
For further information on atmosphere, please see Canada¡¯s response to Guidelines for National Reporting to CSD IX on Atmosphere (Agenda 21, Chapter 9), Part V  
The Canadian Web sites listed below offer information on Canadian programs and initiatives related to atmosphere and climate change. Most of them also provide links to other related sites.  
National atmosphere and climate change Web sites:  
Government of Canada Climate Change Site:  http://www.climatechange.gc.ca  
National Climate Change Secretariat: 
http://www.nccp.ca  
Canadian International Development Agency: http://www.acdi-cida.gc.ca  
Environment Canada¡¯s Green Lane:  http://www.ec.gc.ca  
Atmospheric Environment Service:
http://www1.tor.ec.gc/index.html  
Environmental Protection Service:  http://www.ec.gc.ca/pdb
 
Canadian Centre for Climate Modeling and Analysis:
http://www.cccma.bc.ec.gc.ca/eng_index.html  
Climate Trends and Variations Bulletin:
http://www.tor.ec.gc.ca/ccrm/bulletin  
EcoAction 2000:
http://www.ec.gc.ca/ecoaction  
Science Assessment of Climate Change:
http://www.tor.ec.gc.ca/apac  
The Canada Country Study:
http://www.ec.gc.ca/climate.ccs  
Natural Resources Canada:
http://www.nrcan.gc.ca  
Canadian Forest Service:
http://www.nofc.forestry.ca/climate  
Energy Technology Branch:
http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/es/etb  
Office of Energy Efficiency:
http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca  
Office of Energy Research and Development:
http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/es/new/oerd.htm  
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada:
http://www.agr.ca/envire.html  
Healthy Air:
http://www.agr.ca/research/Healthy_Air/toc.html  
Fisheries and Oceans Canada:  
The Ocean¡¯s Role in Climate Change: http://csas.meds.dfo.ca/aosb/Oceans/Welcome.htm  
Clean Development Mechanism and Joint Implementation Office:
htt p://dfait-maeci.gc.ca/cdm-ji  
Health Canada:
http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/english/climate.htm  
Industry Canada – Technology Partnerships Canada:
http://tpc.ic.gc.ca  
Transport Canada:
http://www.tc.gc.ca/envaffairs/english/climatechange.htm  
National Roundtable on the Environment and the Economy:
http://www.nrtee-trnee.ca  
Voluntary Challenge and Registry Inc.:
http://www.vcr-mvr.ca  
provincial/territorial/municipal Web sites:  
Alberta: http://www.climatechange.gov.ab.ca  
British Columbia:
http://www.elp.gov.bc.ca/epd/epdpa/ar  
Manitoba:
http://www.gov.mb.ca/environ/index.html  
New Brunswick:
http://www.gov.nb.ca/environm  
Newfoundland and Labrador:
http://www.gov.nf.ca/env/Labour/OHS/default.asp  
Northwest Territories:
http://www.gov.nt.ca  
Nova Scotia:
http://www.gov.ns.ca  
Nunavut:
http://www.inac.gc.ca/nunavut/index.html  
Ontario:
http://www.ene.gov.on.ca  
Prince Edward Island:
http://www.gov.pe.ca/te/index.asp  
Quebec:
http://www.mrn.gouv.qc.ca  
Saskatchewan:
http://www.gov.sk.ca  
Yukon:
http://www.gov.yk.ca  
Federation of Canadian Municipalities:
http://www.fcm.ca  
International Council of Local Environmental Initiatives:
http://www.iclei.org/iclei.htm

Other Canadian sites:

Canadian Institute for Climate Studies: http:/www.cics.uvic.ca  
Canadian Climate Research Network:
http://www.cics.uvic.ca/climate/crn/crn.htm  
Click here for national information on Transportation.
Click here for national information onTransport Indicators.
Click here for national information on Environmental Implications of the Automobile.

| Canada | All Countries | Home |

 

SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

No information is available.



| Natural Resource Aspects | Institutional Aspects | Social Aspects |

| Canada | All Countries | Home |