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Economic Aspects | Natural Resource Aspects | Institutional Aspects | Social Aspects | Brunei Darussalam

NATURAL RESOURCE ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN BRUNEI DARUSSALAM

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AGRICULTURE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

A Pesticide Assessment Committee was established in 1989. Its objectives are to screen the application for licences to import agro-chemicals and to assess the competence of sellers.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

In protecting and promoting human health, emphasis is also given with regards to the use of pesticides.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available

Status   

In Brunei Darussalam, the use of chemicals in the form of fertilizers and pesticides is also increasing in agriculture and silviculture. Excessive use of these chemicals has the potential to cause harm to the rural ecology and human health.

Challenges  

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies  

No information is available

Financing  

No information is available

Cooperation  

No information is available

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Brunei Darussalam to the seventh session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: December 1998.

Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to link to Country and Sub-regional Information on Plant Genetic Resources of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
Click here to go to Web Site of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, which includes information on the Codex Alimentarius and the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme.
Click here to access the Web Site of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).
Click here to access the sixteen international agricultural research centers that are members of the CGIAR.
For country reports on Plant Genetic Resources, click here.
To access the FAOSTAT Data Base for information by country, item, element and year, click here:

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ATMOSPHERE

 

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Brunei Darussalam acceded to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer on 26 July 1990; and the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer on 27 May 1993.
Brunei Darussalam has not signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as of 7 October 1998.

Brunei Darussalarn has yet to establish comprehensive legislation that contains regulations and standards pertaining to protection and control of air quality. Currently, internationally accepted standards WHO standards and those of ASEAN member countries are used as reference. Presently there are eight particulate samplers, and one station monitors the five PSI "criteria pollutants".

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

As of late December 1993, all vehicles as part of the regulation process are to be tested. The testing of gasoline vehicles includes an emission test for carbon dioxide and hydrocarbon at idle, and, for diesel vehicle, a smoke test at free acceleration. Similarly, motorcycles are also tested for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon levels. In an effort to maintain clean air, unleaded gasoline (ULG) was introduced in January 1993. It was reported that the level of usage after the first month was almost 70 percent. Based on the first month usage, the emission of inorganic lead into the environment from vehicles has been reduced approximately 20 tonnes/year.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

In Brunei Darussalarn efforts to strengthen the institutional, technical and legal capacity to prevent and combat forest fires have been undertaken. This includes physical measures such as putting up fire breaks in forest reserves to prevent fire spreading, observation towers for early detection and warning, and fences that prevent people from entering in some fire sensitive areas. The ground and aerial forest fire fighting capacity (in term of equipment) has also been enhanced and improved. Brunei Darussalam has been working closely with its colleagues in Limbang, Miri and Lawas of Malaysia in combating forest fires in areas bordering the shared national boundaries.
Other measures involve putting up sip boards to warn the public of potential causes of forest fires and campaigns to increase public awareness. Such awareness programmes also educate the public on the importance of the forest ecosystem and the need to protect them from being destroyed. Existing legislation as contained in the Forest Act prohibits persons form kindling, keeping or carrying any fire or leaving any fire burning that may endanger the reserved forests.

Open burning at the moment is still a common practice. Open burning, though discouraged, is nonetheless observed during land clearing activities for development for agriculture, as well as at construction and rubbish dumping sites. Presently, open burning is not allowed at government rubbish dump sites and forest reserves.
Haze is commonly experienced in the region during the south-west Monsoon seasons. The recent severe haze episode in 1997 - 1998 which was one of the severe incidences of haze over the past 17 years in the region was understood to have been contributed by smoke from local forest fires as well as forest fires from Kalimantan and Sumatra, Indonesia.
Under new provisions section 277A of the Emergency Order (Penal Code Amendment, 1998), open burning was prohibited during dry seasons and prolonged drought. A stiffer penalty of B$100,000.00 fine was imposed on offences relating to open burning. Where such offences cause pollution to the atmosphere or endanger human life or property the punishment is a fine of an unlimited amount and or imprisonment for a term of up to five years.

Status

Environmental pollution is currently not a major problem in Brunei Darussalam. However, with diversification of the economy and industrial growth coupled with the increasing population, it is bound to become severe in the future with environmental quality coming under increasing stress. Major sources of atmospheric pollution include: (a) vehicle emissions, (b) industrial activities, (c) forest fires, and (d) open burning.

The current drive for industrialisation in efforts to diversify the country's economy carries with it a potential for increased pollution and degradation in environmental quality. At present, air pollution due to industrial activities is minimal. Ad hoc studies have been undertaken which indicate the levels of air pollutants (sulphur dioxide, nitrous oxide, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide) are relatively low. Efforts are being undertaken to reduce the use of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and halon in air-conditioning and fire prevention systems.

Challenges  

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies  

No information is available

Financing  

No information is available

Cooperation

During the recent forest fire and haze event effecting the ASEAN region, Brunei Darussalam, along with its other ASEAN collegues, has played an active role in ensuring the successful implementation of the Regional Haze Action Plan.

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Brunei Darussalam to the seventh session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: December 1998.

Click here for national information from the Web site of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
For the Montreal Secretariat, click here:

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BIODIVERSITY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Brunei Darussalam has not signed the Convention on Biological Diversity as of 15 January 1999. Brunei Darussalam acceded to the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES) on 4 May 1990. It has also signed the ASEAN Agreement on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Brunei Darussalam's Fifth National Development Plan introduced the forest conservation and protection policy that has designated the national forest as Conservation forest, Protection forest and Production forest. This policy has taken into consideration the need to conserve and protect the tropical flora and fauna biodiversity of the Brunei Forests. It also takes into consideration the need to protect water catchment areas and promote replanting of wasteland.
Under the Seventh National Development Plan (1996-2000), several projects have been approved for implementation. These include a Wildlife Resource Inventory of Brunei Darussalam Forest and Tropical Forest Biodiversity Development.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available

Status   

Brunei Darussalarm's forests are among the richest and most diverse in the world, with over 5,000 species of plants, of which more than 2,000 are trees. The forestry sector holds great untapped wealth with its immense biodiversity.
In line with the country's strong commitment to its conservation policy, logging in the natural forests had been reduced by 50 percent since January 1990 from 200,000 cubic metres (Cum) previously. This was inevitable given the small size of the forest resource and the need to protect the environment and conserve species biodiversity.

Challenges  

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies  

No information is available

Financing  

No information is available

Cooperation  

No information is available


* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Brunei Darussalam to the seventh session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: December 1998

Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to go to the Web Site of UNEP’s International Register on Biosafety.
Click here to link to biosafety web sites in the European Union.
For access to the Web Site of the Convention on Biological Diversity, click here:
For access to the Web Site of the CITES Convention, click here:
For the Web Site of the CMS Convention, click here:
For the Web Site of the Convention on the Protection of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage, click here:
For the country-by-country, Man in the Biosphere On-Line Query System, click here:

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DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available

Status

No information is available

Challenges  

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies  

No information is available

Financing  

No information is available

Cooperation  

Brunei Darussalam has not signed the International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Drought and/or Desertification Particularly in Africa as of 12 April 1998.

* * *

For access to the Web Site of the Convention to Combat Desertification and Drought, click here:

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ENERGY

No information on this topic is provided to the Commission on Sustainable Development.

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FORESTS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Patrolling of the forests and stricter enforcement of the national Forest Law and Regulations are being intensified with the objective of curbing illegal logging and controlling other forest offences. Existing legislation as contained in the Forest Act prohibits persons form kindling, keeping or carrying any fire or leaving any fire burning that may endanger the reserved forests.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Brunei Darussalam's Fifth National Development Plan introduced the forest conservation and protection policy that has designated the national forest as Conservation forest, Protection forest and Production forest. This policy has taken into consideration the need to conserve and protect the tropical flora and fauna biodiversity of the Brunei Forests. It also takes into consideration the need to protect water catchment areas and promote replanting of wasteland.
Under the Seventh National Development Plan (1996 - 2000), several projects have been approved for implementations. These include the Wildlife Resource Inventory of Brunei Darussalam Forest and the Tropical Forest Biodiversity Development Project.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available

Status   

Forests are a source of timber, firewood and other goods. They also play an important role in soil and water conservation, maintaining a healthy atmosphere and biological diversity of plants and animals. Forests are renewable and, when managed in a way that is compatible with environmental conservation, can produce goods and services to assist in development.
Brunei Darussalarm's forests are among the richest and most diverse in the world, with over 5,000 species of plants, of which more than 2,000 are trees. The forestry sector holds great untapped wealth with its immense biodiversity. Forests still cover roughly 469,046 hectares or 80 percent of the total land surface of Brunei Darussalam. More than 55 percent of the land area is occupied by virgin tropical rainforests, in mostly pristine state.
In line with the country's strong commitment to its conservation policy, logging in the natural forests had been reduced by 50 percent since January 1990 from 200,000 cubic metres (Cum) previously. This was inevitable given the small size of the forest resource and need to protect the environment and conserve species biodiversity.
On the rehabilitation side, poor and degraded lands have been identified and substantial funds have been allocated for their regreening and eventual reforestation. This is in order to control soil erosion besides enhancing the natural beauty of the environment.

Challenges  

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

Extension aimed at the general public and students has managed to increase awareness and appreciation of the forest and natural environment. It has also helped to conserve the resource.
Efforts to strengthen the institutional, technical and legal capacity to prevent and combat forest fires have been undertaken. This includes physical measures such as putting up fire breaks in forest reserves to prevent fire spreading, observation towers for early detection and warning, and fences that prevent people from entering in some fire sensitive areas. The ground and aerial forest fire fighting capacity (in term of equipment) has also been enhanced and improved. Brunei Darussalam has been working closely with its colleagues in Limbang, Miri and Lawas of Malaysia in combating forest fires in areas bordering the shared national boundaries.
Other measures involve putting up sip boards to warn the public of potential causes of forest fires and campaigns to increase public awareness. Such awareness programmes also educate the public on the importance of the forest ecosystem and the need to protect them from being destroyed.

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies  

No information is available

Financing  

No information is available

Cooperation  

No information is available

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Brunei Darussalam to the seventh session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: December 1998.

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FRESHWATER

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The Water Services Department, Public Works, is directly responsible for the supply of potable water and management of fresh water resources. It manages several water treatment plants with a total capacity of more than 195 million litres per day and has a modernlaboratory to make sure that the quality of treated water meets safe drinking standard.
A Water Resources Management Working Group was established by the National Committee on Environment in 1994 with the following objectives:

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available

Status

Safe drinking water is available at the turn of the tap and is presently enjoyed by more than 90 percent of the population. Total water usage for the period under review reached 66,157 million litres, recording an increase of 66,157million litres.

Challenges  

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies  

No information is available

Financing  

No information is available

Cooperation  

No information is available

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Brunei Darussalam to the seventh session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: December 1998.

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LAND MANAGEMENT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Under new provisions section 277A of the Emergency Order (Penal Code Amendment, 1998), open burning was prohibited during dry seasons and prolonged drought. A stiffer penalty of B$100,000.00 fine was imposed on offences relating to open burning. Where such offences cause pollution to the atmosphere or endanger human life or property the punishment is a fine of an unlimited amount and or imprisonment for a term of up to five years.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available

Status

Open burning at the moment is still a common practice. Open burning, though discouraged, is nonetheless observed during land clearing activities for development for agriculture as well as at construction and rubbish dumping sites. Presently, open burning is not allowed at government rubbish dump sites and forest reserves.

Challenges  

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies  

No information is available

Financing  

No information is available

Cooperation  

No information is available

* * *

 

This information was provided by the Government of Brunei Darussalam to the seventh session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: December 1998.

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MOUNTAINS

No information is available.

 

* * *

 

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OCEANS AND COASTAL AREAS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Brunei Darussalam ratified the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on 5 November 1996. It has also signed the Convention on the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78).

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

A Coastal Zone Management Plan for Brunei Darussalam has been prepared under the ASEAN - US Coastal Resources Management Project. Implementation of the plan is currently under review.
One of the strategies included in the National Environment Strategy of Brunei Darussalam is the Strategy on Protection of Coastal and Marine Environmental Resources. This strategy comprises the following programmes:

  1. Strengthen Coastal Water Quality Management Programme;
  2. Operationalise the National Oil Spill Contingency Plan;
  3. Examine IMO conventions for their possible ratification;
  4. Strengthen mangroves management;
  5. Strengthen coral / artificial reef management;
  6. Designate marine wildlife sanctuaries;
  7. Prevent coastal erosion;
  8. Identify and implement other appropriate recommendation contained in coastal zone management plan.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available

Status

In Negara Brunei Derussalam, about 85 percent of the population lives in the coastal area where almost all the social, cultural and economic activities are concentrated.

Challenges  

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies  

No information is available

Financing  

No information is available

Cooperation  

No information is available

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Brunei Darussalam to the seventh session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: December 1998.

To access the Web Site of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, click here:

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TOXIC CHEMICALS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The Poisons Act governs the use of pesticides in Brunei Darussalam. It regulates the import and sale of poisons to prevent its misuse. The Ministry of Hea1th's Director of Medical Services has legal responsibility in implementing the act. Licenses issued by the Department of Medical Services are required for the importation or sale of any substances included in the poison list.
In addition, a Pesticide Assessment Committee was established in 1989 which aims to screen application for licences to import agro-chemicals and to assess the competence of sellers.

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

In protecting and promoting human health, emphasis is also given to the use of pesticides.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available

Status

In Brunei Darussalam, the use of chemicals in the form of fertilizers and pesticides is also increasing in agriculture and silviculture. Excessive use of these chemicals have the potential to cause harm to the rural ecology and human health.

Challenges  

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies  

No information is available

Financing  

No information is available

Cooperation  

No information is available

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Brunei Darussalam to the seventh session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: December 1998.

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WASTE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

SOLID WASTE AND SANITATION

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Solid waste management has been identified as a significant problem that requires priority action. Negara Brunei Darussalam is currently preparing a long term waste management strategy that will cater to the needs of all identified waste steam including:

In the management of solid waste, efforts are being made to better coordinate the management of solid wastes, improve the system of collection and coverage of refuse collection as well as increase the number of public facilities for refuse disposal. Land filling is the main method of disposing solid wastes, but the use of incinerators will have to be considered when feasible. Related to the problem of solid wastes, the Sixth National Development Plan has identified a study to look at the problems of waste arising from the use of plastic materials and ways to remedy them.
Projects that are underway under the Seventh National Development Plan which address some of the problems of solid waste include the creation of new landfill areas and improvement of a solid waste disposal system.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available

Status   

No information is available

Challenges  

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies  

No information is available

Financing  

No information is available

Cooperation  

No information is available

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Brunei Darussalam to the seventh session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: December 1998.

 

HAZARDOUS WASTES

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status

No information is available.  

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

Brunei Darussalam has not signed the Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal as of 2 July 1998.

 

For direct link to the Web Site of the Basel Convention, click here:

 

RADIOACTIVE WASTES

No information on this topic is provided to the Commission on Sustainable Development.


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