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Economic Aspects | Natural Resource Aspects | Institutional Aspects | Social Aspects | Brazil

NATURAL RESOURCE ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN BRAZIL

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AGRICULTURE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

The Ministry of Agriculture and Food Supplies is the main federal body responsible for agricultural matters. Its subsidiary agency, the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA), heads the main research, rural extension and information networks, involving state, academic and other scientific and professional organizations. Instrumental in rural credit policies and operations are the Central Bank and the Bank of Brazil.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Agriculture in Brazil is undergoing a transition from a closed and protected sector to an open market and competitive activity. A thorough review and updating of agricultural policies was proposed in 1996 by the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Supplies, and is presently under way through the establishment of a National Forum on Agriculture.

The multiple use of Water constitutes a fundamental point of Waters’ Law. With relation to agriculture, it is within the sphere of competence of the National Policy of Irrigation and drainage, established in 1998.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

Government departments at federal and state levels, farmers, rural workers, organizations, trading companies, exchange markets and financial institutions, research centers and rural extension agencies are participants in the process of revising the agricultural policy, which comprises about 20 task forces.

There is a growing trend on the part of certain NGOs as well as government and scientific representatives, to consider family farming and organic agriculture as essential elements for a complete restructuring of agricultural and cattle-raising activities aiming at a condition of sustainable development.

Programmes and Projects   

Agro-ecological zoning studies for the Southern and Southeastern regions, coordinated by the Ministry of Agriculture, however, have been effective in increasing security and productivity of rice, beans, corn, soybean, cotton and wheat crops. Financing and insurance charges and interest rates have gone down, and the impact on soil and living resources has diminished in these areas in view of stricter selection of soils for agriculture

Status   

No information is available

Challenges  

Although productivity has increased, inadequate zoning and farming practices and the widespread use of fertilizers and agrochemicals, mechanization and deforestation have nonetheless continued to be responsible for considerable environmental impact on living, land and water resources. In many areas soil erosion has reached levels well above the permissible 10 t/ha per year.

Land tenure remains a critical issue, for various reasons. One is the abnormal concentration of large farming units in relatively few hands. Limits on the expansion of the agricultural frontier, and urban and rural unemployment, caused by layoffs in industry and increased mechanization in agriculture have heightened land reform expectations in the last two years. Action by the so-called Landless Farmers' Movement scaled up in 1995/96 and has prompted the federal government to set up a Ministry for Agrarian Reform with the responsibility for settling 160 thousand families in 1997/98.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information available.

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies  

No information is available

Financing  

No information is available

Cooperation  

Most relevant foreign assistance projects have been promoted by the World Bank, and on a bilateral basis by Germany and Japan. Also active, as regional organizations, are the Inter-American Development Bank and the Inter-American Agrarian Sciences Institute.

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This information is based on Brazil’s submission to the 5th and 8th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: October 1999.

For country reports on Plant Genetic Resources, click here.
To access the FAOSTAT Data Base for information by country, item, element and year, click here:
Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to link to Country and Sub-regional Information on Plant Genetic Resources of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
Click here to go to Web Site of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, which includes information on the Codex Alimentarius and the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme.
Click here to access the Web Site of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).
Click here to access the sixteen international agricultural research centers that are members of the CGIAR.

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ATMOSPHERE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Brazil signed the the Montreal Protocol in 1990 and the London Amendment in 1991. It ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 1994. At the federal level, the Ministries of the Environment, Water Resources and the Amazon, Science and Technology, and Industry, Trade and Tourism, are responsible for protection of the atmosphere, as members of the National Commission on Sustainable Development Policies and National Agenda 21. A "National Communication" is being drafted which deals with an inventory of anthropic emissions by source and removal by sinks, and measures taken to reduce the concentrations of these gases in the atmosphere. It is being prepared by several institutions under the coordination of the Ministry of Science and Technology and will be submitted to the Climate Change Secretariat by June 1999.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

National legislation is comprehensive, relatively advanced, and complemented by State and Municipal regulations. Recent instruments, as well as an ongoing review and update of the licensing system for polluting activities established in 1981, include :

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

NGOs and the private sector have participated in activities related to the prevention of stratospheric ozone depletion and transboundary air pollution.

A relevant aspect of terrestrial resource management of interest to protecting the atmosphere is to control deforestation, and to implement the National System to Prevent and Combat Forest Fires and Burning. The Ministries of Environment and of Science and Technology and State environmental agencies have continued to cooperate on this matter, despite the limited resources available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

Energy conservation courses are taught at schools, and over 1 million students and 20,000 teachers are to be trained by 1997. A comprehensive program on electric power conservation has been operational for several years, with encouraging results. The target is to postpone the installation of an additional 24 thousand MW by the year 2015, for savings of about US$34 billion in new investment.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

An Inter-American Weather Forecasting and Climate Studies Center was established in Sao Paulo in 1995, aiming at improving the existing national early detection system and capacity to perform observations and assessments. Monitoring concentrations of green house gases has so far had precedence over the identification of threshold levels. Capacity for assessment, observation, research, information and training in the area of transboundary air pollution is rated good. Air quality monitoring grids have been set up in eight metropolitan areas, comprising 30% of the country's population, and in several other cities, but their effectiveness has not been judged adequate.

Financing

Brazil's contribution to the Vienna Convention Trust Fund and the Montreal Protocol was about US$300,000 in 1995, while the Multilateral Fund of the Montreal Protocol has financially assisted projects of over US$13 million.

Cooperation

Brazil is active in the various Commissions of the MERCOSUL (South American Common Market) and in regional agreements regarding transportation and environment. The Jaguarão agreement, signed in 1990 with Uruguay, for instance, provides for exchanges and initiatives on monitoring, training and information on the possibility of transboundary impacts caused by coal-fired power generation in Southern Brazil.

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This information is based on Brazil's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997 and on updates provided by the Government. Last update: 27 April 1998

Click here for information on Brazil and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
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BIODIVERSITY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Brazil signed the Convention on Biological Diversity in June 1992 and ratified it in February 1994. It ratified the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna in August 1975.

The Ministry of Environment, Water Resources and the Amazon is primarily responsible for Biodiversity and Genetic Resources, at the federal level, and is fully involved in national planning and decision-making with regard to natural resource use and development. Relevant legislation enacted since 1992 has established the following:

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

Local participation in the conservation of biological and genetic resources is limited, but increasing, while NGOs, businessmen and scientists are active in supervisory bodies.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

Biodiversity protection is a very high priority in Brazil among Agenda 21 items. Most relevant threats to biodiversity remain habitat destruction, over-harvesting and monoculture, and pollution, while undue introduction of exotic plants and animals is not relevant.

Over 100 private protected areas have been established. There are approximately 500 public protected areas, not including Indian lands, totaling about 4.5% of the country's territory. Seventy percent of those are managed by States and Municipalities.

Surveys of threatened species have been carried out by a few states, but there has been no nation-wide assessment since 1991. Genetic plant resources for agriculture are preserved in 70 public gene banks. There are 75 zoos, 25 botanical gardens and 40 sites for the collection of microorganisms.

There were about 50,000 scientists engaged in biodiversity research, as of the early 90s, as well as 306 courses at the Master degree level, and 158 at the Doctoral level, which have enhanced capacity building in assessment, systematic observation, evaluation and biodiversity protection enforcement.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

Main financial resources have been channeled through federal and state budgets of environmental agencies. Multilateral initiatives include agreements with IBRD, IDB, UNDP and GEF, and bilateral arrangements have involved Germany, USA, Japan and the UK. Noteworthy are the IBRD-financed National Environmental Program, the Pilot Program to Protect Tropical Forests, supported by the G-7, Netherlands and IBRD, and the GEF/IBRD-backed Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity Project.

Cooperation

See under Financing

 

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This information is based on Brazil's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

For access to the Web Site of the Convention on Biological Diversity, click here:
For access to the Web Site of the CITES Convention, click here:
For the Web Site of the CMS Convention, click here:
For the Web Site of the Convention on the Protection of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage, click here:
For the country-by-country, Man in the Biosphere On-Line Query System, click here:
Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to go to the Web Site of UNEP's International Register on Biosafety.
Click here for the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Biosafety WebPages
For flora and fauna in Brazil, click here.
For the Instituto Brasiliero de Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renovaveis, click here.

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DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Brazil signed the International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa in 1994, and it was submitted to Congress for ratification in 1996.

The Ministry of Environment, Water Resources and the Amazon is the main federal institution responsible for the sustainable development of the semi-arid region in Northeastern Brazil. Two agencies under the Ministry, namely the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Resources (IBAMA) and the National Department for Public Works against the Droughts (DNOCS) as well the Superintendency for the Development of the Northeast and Governments of the nine States included in the semi-arid region are also involved in the process. Provisions to combat desertification and drought are included in the basic environmental, water resources and agricultural legislation.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

NGOs, women and youth are full participants at the grass-roots level; at the middle national levels, their contribution is provided on an ad hoc basis.

Programmes and Projects 

Within an area of about 900,000 km2 in Northeastern Brazil, about 10,000 km2 have been identified as desert or of no value, and 223,000 km2 as in danger of desertification, as of 1995. Another 486,000 km2 were in cultivation, and overgrazing, fuelwood collection, improper farming and land use were considered as predominant factors in the process of desertification. The existing network of 622 meteorological and hydrological monitoring stations was assessed as adequate, while the three soil and land degradation-data collection stations were judged insufficient.

After UNCED, a working group was formed to formulate a National Plan to Combat Desertification. It was intended to address among other basic aspects, alternative employment opportunities for the poor and environmental refugee programs. The Aridas Project, sponsored by the Ministry of Planning and the Esquel/Brazil Foundation, drafted a sustainable development strategy for the region. In December 1997, the National Policy to Control Desertification which is a framework document for actions to address this issue, was approved. In addition an information and documentation network REDESERT which brings together several institutions and researchers, was also implemented.

Meanwhile, the following issues have been addressed, along with field work in the region:

Status 

See under Programmes and Projects.

Challenges

There are noticeable shortages in terms of trained personnel for "early warning" extension and research, as well as limitations regarding management, planning and implementation skills. Present staff at central and other levels numbers 63 persons, of which only one third is considered adequate.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

Financial resources required to proceed with the National Plan to Combat Desertification and the Aridas Project are estimated at US$30 million to the year 2000. 

Cooperation

Some post-Rio funding has been provided by multilateral organizations. The FAO, UNEP, the University of Chile and the Esquel/Brazil Foundation have been active in developing Indicators for Desertification in Brazil.

 

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This information is based on Brazil's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997 and on updates provided by the Government.. Last update: 27 April 1998

For access to the Web Site of the Convention to Combat Desertification and Drought, click here:

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ENERGY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

It is hoped that with the advent of the Federal Government's new policies for restructuring the energy sector, which include breaking the generation monopoly and privatizing energy distribution, there will be increased competition in the production and use of new energy sources. Research and development (R&D) now has an essential role to play in the reduction of production costs and in the search of more efficient and environmentally sound systems.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

To date support has been given to the development of projects that aim to consolidate an institutional technological competence for a greater conservation efficiency of the national energetic systems. Priority was given to projects that had a sustainable perspective of the environment, with the objective of providing a clean production and an efficient use of conventional energetic resources (non-renewable) and the development of methodologies more appropriate to the technological systems that use renewable resources. The projects are mainly concentrated in the following areas/sectors: Refrigeration and Combustion, Management of Electric Energy Demand, Energy Accumulators and Hybrid Systems, Energy Conservation, Alternative Energies, Biomass and Artificial Intelligence (neural networks) applied to the operation of Energy Substations. Among others, the most significant results are:

In the area of Renewable Energy Sources, emphasis has been placed on coordinating Science and Technology activities carried out in the country related to the development an use of alternative energy sources. Among the most relevant activities are:

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

 

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This information is based on Brazil's submission to the 6th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1998. Last update: 27 April 1998

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FORESTS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry of Environment, Water Resources and the Amazon is responsible for the forestry sector. It supervises the activities of the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Resources (IBAMA), chairs the National Council on the Environment (CONAMA) and takes part in the President's Chamber for Natural Resources Policies, which coordinates the various aspects related to forests and other issues. Since 1988, Brazil's 27 federative units (States and the Federal District) and over 5000 municipalities share the responsibility for enacting and enforcing complementary legislation within their territories.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

See under Status.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

NGOs and the private sector are represented in CONAMA and may participate in Task Forces of the President's Chamber. Major international and Brazilian NGOs are engaged in forest protection activities, at various levels and aspects, especially in the Atlantic and Amazon regions.

Programmes and Projects 

See under Status.

Status 

Native tropical forests around the world covered approximately 19 million km2 in the late eighties, 26% of which were in Brazil. Out of this total, 396,000 km2, or 8%, were in protected areas in Brazil, not including Indian lands which accounted for 11% of the total for the country. Planted forests, mostly of eucalyptus and pinus, represented about 102,000 km2.

Forests are defined, in Brazil, as any biomass with multiple environmental linkages, natural or planted, with variable economic, social and genetic uses for present and future generations. Deforestation of native forests has continued since UNCED, in spite of Government efforts, frequently as a function of the demand for wood products in association with land-clearing for agricultural purposes. Consequently, recent measures have included a moratorium on the exploitation and sale of threatened species, such as mahogany, and have limited the size of farming areas in rural properties in the Amazon region. However, most endangered of all is the Atlantic rainforest which has dwindled to less than 5% of its initial coverage under continuous pressure from human activity along the coastline.

In January 1998, the Brazilian Government, through the Ministry of Environment, Water Resources and the Legal Amazon, announced a set of measure to control deforestation. These include:

A National Program of Native Plant Seeds, is also being implemented. It includes a scheme to diversify forest products in rubber extraction reserves, studies related to the rational exploitation of 14 million hectares of forested public land and equipping three specialized laboratories for testing and research.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

The most relevant example of international cooperation is the Pilot Program for the Protection of Tropical Forests in Brazil, with the support of the G-7 countries and the Netherlands, the European Union, and IBRD, supplemented by bilateral arrangements with Germany, United Kingdom, Japan and others. The Amazon Cooperation Treaty, from the 1960s, brings together the eight countries of the Amazon region on a broad range of subjects.

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This information is based on Brazil's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997, and on updates provided by the Government.. Last update: 27 April 1998

For the Instituto Brasiliero de Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renovaveis, click here.

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FRESHWATER

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The government body at the national level responsible for coordinating water resource management and development is the Water Resources Secretariat in the Ministry of Environment, Water Resources and the Legal Amazon (MMA). Its mandate includes: the implementation of the National Water Resources Policy; the promotion of joint management in the sustainable use of water resources; serving as Executive Secretariat of the National Water Resources Council; and planning, coordinating, supervising and controlling actions related to water resources; formulating, implementing and assessing the national policy on hydroagricultural use and its instruments; and the coordination of the Water Resources Information System.

Sanitation policy (which includes water supply and treatment, sewage collection and treatment, collection and final disposal of solid wastes and urban drainage) is under the responsibility of the Urban Policy Secretariat of the Ministry of Planning and Budget - SEPURB/MPO.

There are also governmental bodies for coordination of water resource management, development and policy in all 26 States and in the Federal District, which manage water under state jurisdiction. At the local level: the so-called Municipal Consortia define actions, coordinate and promote efforts with a view to improving the conditions of the basin, particularly concerning the quality, quantity and availability of the waters.. At the river basin level, 43 Basin Committees have been established to date, 39 of these at state level and 4 in basins of rivers under Federal jurisdiction. Around 50% are found in the South East. These Committees make decisions on conflicts of use of water resources, approve the Steering Plans for Water Resources of the River Basins and follow-up their implementation.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The general legislation and regulatory framework for water management includes the following:

The legislation which covers the use of water by agriculture includes:

That for the use of water by industry:

For use by households: The Federal Constitution defines, under its Article 21, that it is the responsibility of the Federal Government to "establish guidelines for urban development, including housing, basic sanitation and urban transportation" and, under its Article 23, that it is the responsibility of Federal, State and Local Governments to "protect the environment and combat pollution in all its forms" and to "promote programs to build housing and improve housing conditions and basic sanitation".

At the federal legislative level, a bill that deals with guidelines for granting authority and for defining the inter-relationship among Federal, State and Local Governments with respect to public sanitation services is being discussed.

Within the Federal Government, the Ministry of Environment recently formulated the National Desertification Plan whose objective is to propose actions to prevent degradation, to combat and control desertification as well as the effects of drought in the affected States. The country has for decades adopted policies to create jobs and water reserves in affected regions,especially in Northeast region and S o Francisco River basin.

The Water Law January 8, 1977) establishes the principle of decentralized and participatory management, with the discussion on the best management practices with local users. The law provides for the participation of users in the National Water Resources Council and in the Basin Committees. In the latter, participation of users accounts for fifty percent.

The National Irrigation and Drainage Policy provides for public projects for farming families with areas of 4-10 ha, occupying up to fifty percent of the total project area. There are programs for capacity-building and technology transfer for these new farming families.

With respect to the Sanitation Sector, social organizations had an active participation in the process of drafting the National Sanitation Policy. Moreover, the prioritization and selection of projects for financing under the Pro-Saneamento Program is carried out in a decentralized manner by Councils existing in the 27 States and made up of representatives of State and Local Governments and organized civil society from housing and sanitation sectors

With regard to pricing policies, Law No. 9,433/97, in its Article 5, paragraph IV and in Articles 19 and 22, provides for charging for water use as one of the instruments of the National Water Resources Policy. A law with pricing provisions has been adopted in 14 States and in the Federal District. At the Federal level, it is undergoing the review process. The structure of the tariffs for water and sewage services, both household and industrial, as well as for public irrigation, is made up in such a way as to cover the full costs of exploitation, maintenance, operation, depreciation and remuneration. However, due to management inefficiency and economic and financial difficulties, some services incur deficits. The sanitation and irrigation policies currently being implemented will enable the systems to become feasible. Wherever this is impossible, because of the low income of local population, fiscal subsidies are allowed by Federal, State and Local governments.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

For agricultural use the National Irrigation and Drainage Program, currently under execution, uses the strategy of applying cost recovery for all users, including the public sector, promoting the increase of the efficiency of water conveyance, distribution and application in irrigated cultures. Irrigation projects are expected to expand the irrigated area by about 25%, with the same amount of water being currently used. Public irrigation projects (around 6% of the total area, that is, 150,000 ha) completely recover investment costs according to Law No. 6662. The private sector, responsible for circa 94% of the irrigated area in the country (2,600,000 ha) will have to pay for the use of water, as established by Law No. 9433, dated 08/01/97, which is being regulated. The present irrigation policy stimulates the efficient use of water; reduction of losses; and activities that avoid the degradation of water resources. It also presents guidelines for the use of drainage systems to prevent salinization and saturation of soils. Entities that implement public irrigation projects buy large areas and through studies, transform these areas into systems that meet the needs of small and medium sized companies; and into smaller areas that meet the needs of farmers' families. The private sector continues to extend its participation in irrigated areas, stimulated by governmental projects and programs that promote systems of electrical support, hydraulic infrastructure, institutional capacity building and strengthening in regions with irrigation potential.

With respect to production of hydroelectric energy, the ongoing privatization program is transforming a sector mainly made up of public companies into a sector where the participation of private companies will be predominant. At this time, the hydroelectric sector is required to pay for the use of impounded water for hydropower generation. Other industrial user sectors already pay for water with tariffs that cover the costs of investment and exploitation of water supply systems, but they frequently do not cover the costs of sanitary sewerage systems.

In the Sanitation and Water Supply Sector, the responsibility for defining service tariffs is exclusively that of the States in the case of common interest services, and of Counties, in all other situations.The tariff is made up of the following costs: exploitation, operation, maintenance, depreciation and remuneration. Thus, when the provisions of Law No. 9433, dated 08/01/97, are established, an amount corresponding to the costs of capture and consumption of gross water and disposal of effluents will be included. The participation of the private sector in providing sanitation services is still very limited in Brazil. However, one of the main strategies of the National Sanitation Policy, which intends to make water and sewerage services universal, is intervention to improve the level of efficiency of service providers and coordination of public and private efforts in order to promote the reorganization and modernization of the sector.

From the point of view of the National Sanitation Policy, the basic objective is to make water supply and sewerage available to everyone, be it by expanding the supply, or be it by management of the demand, thus promoting conditions for the economic development of the country. Its intervention strategy encourages and conditions the efficiency of the sector, as part of the economy. The States and Counties are encouraged to establish specific goals to meet the needs of the poor, particularly in the cases of participation by the private sector, even seeking to define a principle of essential consumption. The National Sanitation Policy proposes the allotment of resources to subsidize the implementation of systems in the poorer Counties, as a means of providing services.

In order to prevent pollution of freshwater supplies, several programmes have been implemented by the States. Under direct implementation of the Federal Government, the following may be highlighted:

The PQA (Projeto Qualidade das aguas e Controle da Polui‡ o H¡drica) - Project for Water Quality and Control of Water Pollution aims to provide technical and financial support to the preparation of investment programs for the environmental sanitation of hydrographic water basins that have an elevated level of pollution, specially in areas of high urban density and intense productive dynamics. It is an innovative initiative, marked by simultaneous efforts, seeking solutions that consider: i) physical interventions, designed with a multidisciplinary and systemic perspective, capable of promoting the recovery and protection of environmental quality, and as a consequence, improving the living conditions of the populations that live in metropolitan regions or important urban agglomerations, according to equations of least cost and greatest environmental benefit; and ii) institutional arrangements, capable of providing sustained management of hydrographic water basins, including the development of economic environmental and natural resources management instruments.

PROGEST (Programa de Apoio … Gest o dos Sistemas de Coleta e Disposi‡ o de Res¡duos S¢lidos) Program to Support the Management of Systems for Collecting and Disposing of Solid Wastes. This program aims to support the establishment of a nationwide policy for the urban solid wastes sector, geared towards the solution of collection and final disposal problems. Its actions benefit, among others, those counties situated in the areas of source protection, thus contributing to prevention of environmental pollution and, therefore, indirectly, aiding in the conservation of water bodies and in the increase of quality and quantity of water supply.

PRO-SANEAMENTO (Pro-Sanitation)- the objective of this program is to increase coverage of the following services: water supply, sanitary sewerage, urban drainage and urban solid wastes, as well as improving service efficiency. Within this program, the Sanitary Sewerage section is intended to increase the appropriate coverage and/or treatment and final disposal of effluents. The Solid Wastes section is intended to finance projects to increase the coverage of appropriate treatment and final disposal of urban solid wastes. Furthermore, within this program, there is an added incentive in the Sanitary Sewerage section, where the rate of interest is lower than that in other sections of the program.

PROGRAMA DE POTABILIDADE DA ÁGUA - Water Drinkability Program. The Ministry of Health has as one of its responsibilities the application of Directive No. 36, that aims to assess and monitor the drinkability of water of the public water supply systems in the country.

There are also several programmes implemented by the States. Under direct implementation by the Federal Government, five programs may be highlighted:

The PROGRAMA DE CONSERVAÇÄ O E REVITALIZAÇÄ O DOS RECURSOS H DRICOS (Program for the Conservation and Revitalization of Water Resources) aims to contribute to the control of pollution of water resources and, consequently, improve the availability of water, in terms of quantity and quality, in several basins in Brazil. It is being implemented by the Water Resources Secretariat/MMA. The main objective of this program is to provide revitalization and conservation of water resources as a whole. This is to be done within the perspective of the hydrological cycle, through the management of the physical and biotic environments, having the hydrographic basin, primarily for capture, as a unit for planning and work.

The PMSS - Projeto de Modernizaçã o do Setor Saneamento (Project to Modernize the Sanitation Sector)- is an instrument of the National Sanitation Policy aimed at reordering, improved efficiency and efficacy of sanitation services, by adopting a strategy that consists mainly in inducing the efficiency of public operators, and establishing and inducing the participation of private operators and businesses. These reordering actions would be basically represented by the technical assistance of the Federal Government, aiming at the creation of regulatory frameworks, management models and the improvement of the efficiency in provision of services. The regulatory frameworks will establish quality standards for water supply as well as for the quality of effluents discharged in the receiving bodies. The investment component acts through direct actions for rehabilitation, optimization and expansion of collection and treatment of sanitary sewage.

The PASS - Programa de Açã o Social em Saneamento (Social Action Program for Sanitation) is directed towards the implementation of projects in water supply and sanitary sewerage; collection and disposal of solid wastes in the poorest areas in large cities and small and medium sized counties, in order to improve the population's health and living conditions. Through actions in sanitary sewerage and collection and disposal of solid wastes, the program acts directly in the control of water pollution and, indirectly, in the conservation of water bodies.

The PROSEGE - Programa de Açã o Social em Saneamento (Social Action Program for Sanitation) was conceived and structured to generate double benefits to the most vulnerable segments of the population of large and medium sized urban centers of the country. At the same time that it enabled temporary solutions for critical unemployment problems, especially in construction, executing projects to implement/expand the sanitary sewerage system, it increased the coverage of sanitation services, ensuing favorable effects on the health and living conditions of the targeted population. The program was developed in order to provide improved living conditions for lower income populations, by investment in basic sanitation, preferably in projects with assured environmental, technical, financial and socioeconomic feasibility.

The PROSANEAR Program provides for integrated actions in sanitation, involving, among others, implementation and improvement of following services: water supply, sanitary sewerage, separation of solid wastes and microdrainage in degraded urban areas occupied by lower income populations, in cities with more than 50,000 inhabitants. Pollution prevention, and consequent conservation and increase in water supply in the sources of the region, is one of the effects of the program, as an appropriate disposal is made for both sewage and solid wastes.

The regional strategic plan for Latin America and the Caribbean to improve drinking water, coordinated by PAHO and WHO, through technical cooperation, aims to develop strategies for the protection, conservation, quality and drinkability of water to improve the environment and human health.

The National Water Resources Policy has among its main objectives, assuring current and future generations the required availability of water, with quality standards appropriate to its respective uses. Thus, many of the actions undertaken by the Water Resources Secretariat and other government agencies are directed to increasing gross water supply in the water bodies in appropriate quantities and quality. Among the principal measures adopted by the Federal Government are the following: (P>The PRO GUA - Programa de Desenvolvimento de Recursos H¡dricos para o Semi- rido Brasileiro ( Program to Develop Water Resources for the Brazilian Semi-Arid Region) - has among its goals, the implementation of new projects that, besides ensuring increased water availability, promote both improvement of the quality of life of the local population and the protection of the environment.

The Projeto gua Boa (Good Water Project) seeks to increase the availability of drinking water, especially for the communities of the Brazilian Semi-Arid Region. It intends to desalinate brackish waters from deep wells using the inverse osmosis process.

The Programa Nacional de Combate ao Desperd¡cio de gua (National Program to Combat Water Waste), has as its main objective to promote the wise use of water for public supply, to benefit public health, environmental sanitation, and efficiency of services. The program's strategy consists in identifying and implementing measures that revert the identified wasteful situation, based on actions and technological, regulatory, economic and institutional instruments, aiming at an effective saving of water.

The major constraints faced by the Government in reaching its objectives in the area of integrated management of water resources include: - the short period of existence of the sector itself, institutionalized by Law No. 9433/97; - insufficient financial resources; - fragile existing institutional framework; - lack of specialization and capacity building of human resources; - deficiencies in controlling the use of natural resources.

In the case of sanitation, the greatest challenges faced are the restrictions of public debt, reducing the capacity of investment of the Public Sector; and the non-existence of regional regulatory frameworks that stimulate the efficiency and participation of the private sector. Other factors are the size and qualification of the deficit, the payment capacity of the Public Sector, the improvement required in the production of projects and managerial capacity.

One of the general guidelines of the National Water Resources Policy is the integration of water resources management with environmental management, which is reflected in the Plans and Programs that the Water Resources Secretariat is developing.

The National Water Resources Policy foresees not only the drafting of steering plans for water resources, by State and by River Basins, many of which have already been or are being developed, but also the formulation of a National Water Resources Plan. This National Plan, which will formulate the guidelines for integrating water management with management of land use and occupation, is undergoing development at the Water Resources Secretariat.

Also under preparation are the terms of reference for several irrigation development subprograms (for the cerrados, plains, green belts, semi-arid) which will be carried out in areas that do not engender environmental risks.

The Project Water Quality and Control of Water Pollution - PQA, is an important interface between the recovery and protection of the quality of the supply sources and the occupation and use of the land, through actions geared towards urban infrastructure, notably in shantytowns, resettling of populations in risk areas, recomposition of vegetable cover, establishment of parks and environmental protection areas, among others.

Brazil, policies for flood prevention and flood warning, as well as to combat droughts, are today mainly implemented by States and Counties.

The Ministry of Mines and Energy, through the National Electric Energy Agency (ANEEL), operates a hydrometric network (about 4000 stations) mainly to regulate hydropower generation and also provide data for new undertakings. Data from this network is also used by the civil defense for disaster preparedness (floods and droughts).

Conflicts of jurisdiction or other matters are resolved through Federal Law No. 9433 (January 8, 1997), which established the Civil Water Resources Organizations (Art. 47 and 48), the River Basin Committees (Art. 37 to 40), the Water Agencies (Art. 41 to 44), the National Water Resources Council and the Executive Secretariat of the National Water Resources Council (Art. 45 and 46).

Information collection at the national level is carried out by the following:

At the state level:

In the agricultural sector:

At the level of the household sector:

For the industrial sector:

Some of the information is available on the INTERNET. Most of the publications of public bodies are freely available, being provided upon request and regularly sent to sector agents. Among the main organizations publishing data are: IBGE (Statistical Yearbook); MAA (bulletins from the Agricultural Policy Secretariat); MMA (Water Resources Secretariat reports); ANEEL, INPE, INMET, EMBRAPA, SRH/MMA, SEPURB/MPO and MS.

Most of the information is available electronically. Generally the information is available in electronic files, in word processing and spreadsheet documents. 

The limits and conditions of water quality to be observed for gross water include physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters, and are contained in CONAMA Resolution No. 20/1986.

The Public Water Supply Service and the appropriate State Authority regularly carry out control and monitoring of water quality, with the objective of achieving and maintaining the Drinkability Standard defined in Ministry of Health Directive No. 36, dated January 19, 1990, which uses as reference the standards established by the World Health Organization.

The Drinkability Standard is the set of maximum permissible values of the physical-chemical characteristics of water intended for human consumption. This Ministry of Health Directive defines the physical-chemical and bacteriological parameters for monitoring water quality. The competent State Sanitary Authorities of the States may, considering local conditions, establish more restrictive parameters, as well as waiving certain specific analyses, once the non-existence of the chemical components in question has been ascertained through historic data and sanitary assessments.

Currently, the main deficit of the Sanitation and Water Supply Sector is in the area of sanitary sewerage, more specifically in treatment of sanitary sewage. The main objective of the National Sanitation Policy is to universalize water access and sanitary sewerage with at least 80% of treatment by the year 2010.

The current capacity for sewage treatment is 2,524,700 m /day, representing approximately 15% of the sewage produced daily in the country, taking into account the 27 State Basic Sanitation Companies and the 27 County Water and Sewerage Services for populations greater than 100,000 that are part of the SNIS/95 (15 County Water and Sewerage Services and 1300 County Water and Sewerage Services for populations smaller than 100,000 are not part of the SNIS/95).

There are no data on recycling of waste water in Brazil.

In Brazil, according to the National Research of Domestic Sampling - PNAD/96, 48.9% of the sewage produced is collected in public systems, 32% of which is treated, that is, 15.6% of the sewage produced in Brazil is treated.

The principal goal of the National Sanitation Policy - PNS is to make water supply universal, that is 100% of coverage by the year 2010. Sanitation Coverage (as a percent): For the year 2010, the goal of the PNS is to make collection services available to all, with treatment of at least 80% of the sanitary sewage collected in public systems.

The technological needs to achieve those goals include:

a) Recycling and reuse of waste waters
b) Sewage treatment

The development of technologies for recycling and reuse of waste waters, both household and industrial, is essential to reduce the contamination, specially industrial, and waste, thus preserving water resources.

In the Sanitation Sector there will always be a need for new technologies for treating water and sewage, since costs can be reduced and efficiency can be increased. Thus the resources available for investment may be used for both increasing coverage and for improving the quality of services.

All water supplied to the population by service providers must conform to the minimum drinkability requirements established in the Ministry of Health Directive No. 36, dated January 19, 1990. However, the main objective of providing universal access is water quality. Based on the information provided by the SNIS (Diagnosis of Water and Sewage Services, 1995), 92.8% of the volume of water produced and distributed to the population is treated. Financing

It is estimated that the investment necessary to eliminate the current deficit in water supply and sanitary sewage services is around R$ 21.4 billion. If growth of the population by the year 2010 is considered, the required funds will be around R$ 36 billion. (US$ 1 = R$ 1.17)

The current flow of external resources into water resource management and development includes:

Technical cooperation:
Foreign funds US$ 40.5 million (1995-1997)
Brazilian counterpart funds US$ 43.6 million
Total for Water Resources US$ 84.1 million
Grants:
For projects under execution US$ 12.3 million
Loans:
Projects under execution Resources
Total Cost of Projects US$ 8,362.4 billion
Brazilian Counterpart US$ 3,656.4 billion
Total from External Sources US$ 4,695.0 billion
Multilateral Funds US$ 3,616.9 billion
Bilateral Funds US$ 1,078.1 billion
Private flows: data not available

Within the Sanitation area, according to the Activities Report of the National Sanitation Policy, the programs carried out by the Federal Government from 1995 to 1997 were executed with 91.6% of its funds from the Federal Government Budget, the Severance Pay Fund (FGTS) and counterpart funds from States and Counties, and only 8.4% from external sources. Regional and International cooperation

Status 

See under Programmes and Projects.

Challenges

See under Programmes and Projects.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

Brazil currently takes part in the following bilateral and regional agreements for the use of international watercourses, lakes or groundwater:

At the Bilateral Level:

At the Regional Level:

 

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This information is based on Brazil's submission to the 5th and 6 th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: 1 April 1998

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LAND MANAGEMENT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

The President's Secretariat for Strategic Planning (SAE) is responsible for carrying out the Ecological and Economic Zoning of the National Territory (ZEE), and chairs a Coordinating Commission of 12 federal Ministries. The 26 States and Federal District are to establish their own ZEE Commissions. At this stage, major groups involved are State and local authorities, as well as the academic and scientific community.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Referring to the issue of fresh water resources, the Federal Lawv known as Waters’Law provides the Water Resource Plan, as an instrument to establish and orientate the implementation of the National Policy of Water Resources and the management of water resources in a given water basin.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

Flexibility in applying ZEE directives and broad participation of society in the zoning process are essential elements for the success of ZEE, which would also require greater efforts to enforce federal natural resource regulations and to promote inter-agency coordination, as well as to consolidate appropriate legislation and standards at State level, incorporating as a rule Municipal Land Use Plans.

Programmes and Projects   

The most relevant initiative in the field of planning and management of land resources is the Ecological and Economic Zoning Project (ZEE), established in 1990 as an instrument for integrating basic geographical information and related public policies, for classifying territorial areas according to their vulnerability and potential, and for stimulating negotiation, conflict resolution and partnership amongst the various public and private actors in the process of development. ZEE's three main products are thematic charts, at the 1:250,000 scale, on natural vulnerability, on social potential and on inputs for land management. Areas may be classified into productive, critical (conservation or rehabilitation) or special (preserved, restricted use or strategic).

Priority in developing the ZEE Project was given to the Amazon region where all nine States have established their ZEE Commissions, and an environmental diagnosis was carried out by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) in 1995. Sub-regional work is under way for Western Amazonia and the Madeira river valley. Elsewhere, ten of the remaining 17 States and the Federal District have set up their ZEE Commissions, and an environmental diagnosis for the Northeast was completed in 1996.

Status   

No information available.

Challenges  

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

More than 100 specialists at the State level in the Amazon were trained by the Project on Methodologies for the Evaluation of Natural Vulnerability to Soil Erosion.

Information   

With relation to hydrological data, the national hydro-meteorological network was created to attend the needs of the hydro-electrical sector. In order to fulfil water resources management purposes, it will be intensified, principally in terms of water quality data. The majority of the States also possess series of water’s quantity and quality information.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available

Financing  

See cooperation.

Cooperation

Resources allocated to the ZEE Project so far amount to about US$ 90 million, including $21.8 million from the G-7 Pilot Program. The Pilot Program for the Conservation of Tropical Forests in Brazil, established by the G-7 countries, the European Union and the Netherlands with managerial assistance from the World Bank, as well as the Frontier Development Projects sponsored by the Organization of American States, involving Colombia, Venezuela, Peru and Brazil and the Special Commission on Environment of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty, chaired by Brazil, are examples of international cooperation.

* * *

This information is based on Brazil’s submission to the 5th and 8th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: October 1999.


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MOUNTAINS

There is no information on this topic for Brazil.


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OCEANS AND COASTAL AREAS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

The Ministry of Environment has a responsbility for decision-making in all three of the issues areas convered in this Chapter. In addition, the Ministry of the Navy has a responsibility with respect to the protection and control of pollution from sea-based activities, in particular that from ships and offshore platforms, and the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Supply shares responsibility for sustainable use and conservation of marine living resources.

There are two main mechanisms to facilitate coordination among the organizations responsible for coastal and marine environmental issues. The first is the Interministerial Commission for Marine Resources (CRM), created in 1974 to coordinate the National Marine Resources Policy (PNRM). CIRM, whose Coordinator is the Minister of the Navy, has representatives from the Ministry of the Navy (which is also the Secretariat of the Commission), the Ministry of Environment, the Ministry of External Relations, the Ministry of Transport, the Ministry of Education and Sports, the Ministry of Industry, Commerce and Tourism, the Ministry of Planning and Budget, the Ministry of Mines and Energy, the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Chief of Staff's Office of the Presidency and the Strategic Affairs Secretariat.

The second mechanism is the National Environment Council (CONAMA), presided by the Minister of Environment. The Ministry of Environment is the Secretariat of the Council. CONAMA has representatives from Ministries, State Governments, Local Governments, NGOs, and trade associations from industry, commerce and agriculture.

In this context, CIRM supervises the implementation of the National Coastal Zone Management Plan. This Plan recently underwent revision. which included the creation of a Coastal Zone Management Integration Group (GI-GERCO), a forum to provide technical support for CIRM decisions on coastal zone management. This Group has representatives from the federal sectors most active in the coastal zone, as well as from the Brazilian Association of Environmental Entities (ABEMA) - which congregates the state environment agencies; from the National Association of Municipalities and Environment (ANAMMA) - which congregates local government environment bodies; and also representatives of NGOs that represent the four coastal regions in CONAMA. This Group is coordinated by the Ministry of Environment, which is also its Executive Secretariat. Two years ago a Permanent Coastal Zone Management Technical Chamber was created under CONAMA, to provide technical support for the decisions of the Council, especially with regard to the proposal of general standards for coastal zone and oceanic environmental management.

Furthermore, the Federal Government instituted through decree in 1995, the Executive Group for the Fishing Sector (GESPE), made up of representatives of nine Ministries and the Strategic Affairs Secretariat. GESPE has among its duties: propose to the Natural Resources Policies Chamber the implementation of its actions; propose updating of legislation of the fishing and aquaculture sectors; implement the guidelines established by the Chamber related to the sector. GESPE also has facilitated and enabled the implementation of a series of projects and proposals that the Ministry of Environment/IBAMA and other Ministries and entities related to the fishing sector have developed over the years.

As to the technological and scientific community involved with oceans and seas, a significant effort exists to integrate a growing amount of information produced in this sector during decision making. This effort has been characterized by an important renewal of academic workd to support the recovery of Brazilian development planning, on a more sustainable and participatory basis. This process has been induced in all fora under the guidance of CIRM (subcomissions, working groups and executive committees).

With respect to fisheries, including fishing and aquaculture, the participation of "interest groups or agents" in decision-making has been carried out throughout the years by means of formal or informal trade associations, such as fishermen federations, shipping unions or fishing trade unions, as well as the various aquaculture associations (national, regional or sectoral).

This participation is particularly evident in the discussion and formulation of regulatory instruments inherent to the management of fishing activities, especially with respect to the definition of moratoria, permitted devices and forbidden fishing areas.

Lately, on the initiative of IBAMA, the creation of State Fishing Committees has been encouraged, made up of representatives of these entities, as well as from other NGOs and government agencies. These Committees participate in the formulation of Management Plans for the most important fisheries, as well as in the definition of criteria for use of public coastal waters for mariculture.

The Executive Group of the Fishing Sector, associated to the Natural Resources Policy Chamber of the Presidency, has also encouraged and promoted the participation of these groups, especially during the formulation of proposals for the Fisheries Bill, the National Fishing Policy and the National Master Plan for Fisheries and Aquaculture, recently submitted to the Policy Chamber for appreciation.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The main legal instruments with respect both to integrated coastal zone management and marine environmental protection are:

With respect to the sustainable use and conservation of marine living resources the following apply:

Most of the instruments (codes, standards or guidelines) are mandatory. The voluntary instruments are restricted to ISO standards, which are being adopted in several sectors of the economy.

The regulations currently in force for fishing, which determine moratoria, permitted devices and means, minimum species size, etc., are established by the Government (IBAMA), that is, it is mandatory and even provided for in the new Environmental Crimes Law.

In the specific case of coastal and marine Gving resources, the Environmental Guidelines for the Fishing Sector were established by the Ministry of Environment and distributed to all the State Environmental and Fishing Agencies, as suggested voluntary guidelines. At the same time, the Ministry has been participating in the discussions on the application of the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, which is also voluntary.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Brazil has the 1980 National Marine Resources Policy (PNRM) which aims at promoting the integration of the territorial sea, the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf to the Brazilian territory, and the rational exploitation and sustainable use of marine resources, including living, mineral and energetic resources from the water column, soil and underground, of interest to the social and economic development of the country, as well as ecological sustainability. The PNRM, whose implementation is coordinated by CIRM, is made up of multi-year and yearly Plans and Programs, through which it strives to meet its objectives. Currently, these instruments are:

In addition, there is the 1994 National Maritime Policy which aims to "direct the development of the country's maritime activities, in an integrated and harmonious manner, aiming at the effective, rational and full use of the seas". Its implementation is the responsibility of the National Maritime Commission (COMANA), created in 1983, and presided by the Minister of the Navy.

Also relevant in this context are the laws that established the National Environment Policy (1981), the Fishing Code (1967); The National Coastal Zone Management Plan (1988); the law dealing with the Brazilian Territorial Sea, the Contiguous Zone, the Exclusive Economic Zone and the Continental Shelf (1993); the National Water Resources Policy and the National Water Resources Management System (1997); Waterway Traffic Safety in Waters under National Jurisdiction (1997); Environmental Crimes Law (1998), dealing with sanctions and penalties for actions that are harmful to the environment; and all the instruments of International Law to which Brazil is a Party which provide guidelines to achieve the common aim of sustainable use of marine resources.

As a consequence of the PNGC and the work carried out by GERCO, notably in the necessary coordination of federal actions for the Brazilian coastal zone, a Federal Plan of Action for the Coastal Zone was drafted by the GI-GERCO, approved by CIRM. The Plan establishes a basic agenda of management priorities for the main problems of national scope.

At the same time, last September a meeting was held in Brasilia, promoted by UNEP and organized by the Ministry of Environment, with the participation of Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina. This meeting aimed at initial understandings for the implementation of the Global Program of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-Based Activities in the Southwest Atlantic, identifying priorities for action and establishment of general guidelines to draft a Regional Program of Action.

Also worth mentioning is that the pre-investment stage of a Regional Project for the Preservation of Biodiversity and the Socioeconomic Value of the Mangroves of Tropical America is undergoing the final approval phase. Resources for the project have already been allocated by GEF, based on the results obtained in the Preparatory Assistance stage. This project is essential for the establishment of regional and domestic policies that ensure the protection and sustainable use of this important ecosystem.

As to the coral reefs, there is at the moment no national policy that ensures their protection. A national workshop was held on the issue in 1997, the international year of coral reefs. As a strategy to implement the guidelines resulting from this workshop a project was negotiated with the IDB. The project is for the Conservation of the Coral Reefs of the Region from Tamandare (southern coast of Pernambuco) to Paripueira (northern coast of Alagoas), one of the regions with the most potential for tourism of the Brazilian coastline. With IDB resources, a federal Environmental Protection Area should be implemented, where the main goal is to preserve the reef environments, based on an integrated management of the coastal and marine environments that influence them, thus enabling the control of land-based impacts on the reefs and the sustainable use of fishing and tourism activities. This may be considered a pilot project, whose results will provide input for a national policy. In addition, IBAMA has recently established a Brazilian Program to Monitor Coral Resources.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

Major Groups are involved in decision-making in this area in the following ways. With the establishment of the legal base, and in particular Law No. 6938/81), the participation of NGOs in the National Environment Council (CONAMA) grew, bringing together regional and local interests, including those related to oceans and seas. This structure is repeated at state level (State Environment Councils) and local level (Municipal Environment Councils). In the CONAMA, all groups indicated in Agenda 21 are represented, and they participate in all studies, assessments and drafting of environmental legislation.

More specifically, "management groups" are being set up as a result of the drafting of Coastal Zone Management Plans, with the participation of the various actors involved in the actions which are prioritized according to these Plans. These groups, once consolidated, may come to elert a relevant role in translating the interests of stakeholders, facilitating decision-making of programmed actions. These groups have been put together at local, sectoral (involving a group of municipalities) or state level, depending on the scope of the Management Plan.

Programmes and Projects   

The following programs should also be mentioned: Fishing Statistics Program; Program for the Biology and Fishing of Species of Economic Value; Program to Support Development of Extractivism (PRODEX); Brazilian Program to Monitor Coral Resources; Archipelago Program; and Program to Monitor the Ozone Layer.

Status   

The major current uses of the coastal areas are:

The percentage of the economy contributed by fishing and methods in place to encourage sustainable use and conservation of marine living resources is approximately 1 billion dollars/year (mostly informal). Brazil is continuing to study the incorporation of economic incentives to environmental policies. Some initiatives have already been or are being introduced in the country, such as: financing for pollution control equipment (PRONACOP, PROCOP, Green Protocol/ IBAMA); differentiated distribution of local tax income because of Protected Areas (Municipal Compensation Law); differentiated financing for pollution control and management projects supported by the Brazilian Social and Economic Development Bank/Ministry of Planning and Budget (Green Protocol).

Some States are beginning to adopt an ecological merchandise tax, to favor environmentally sound economic alternatives, such as ecotourism, in place of those practices that degrade the environment, including traditional fisheries currently overexploited. Other incentives are being studied under the new Fisheries and Aquaculture Department of the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Supply, responsible for fostering and development of the fishing sector. These incentives should be in agreement with new concepts being applied based on modern perspectives, whereby the fishing activity is seen as a management instrument for the sustainable use of resources.

The impact of shipping, be it for cargo or leisure, on coastal zones is quite significant. These impacts are related to the construction of structures to anchor vessels, store cargo, to the permanence of vessels in piers and mooring or to accidents involving oil spills and discharges of noxious and hazardous substances. The impacts of these activities may be thus described:

Shipping can also be extremely impacting on a permanent scale when accidents involving plutonium or other radioactive materials occur. Sinking of grounded ships can also lead to disturbances in the sustainable management of the coastal zone.

On the other hand, intentional dumping of wastes and other matter in the sea are a significant source for the coastal zone since they often include heavy metals, which return to the coastal environment due to the hydrodynamics of water bodies, or they are organic, leading to blooming.

In regard to control of pollution caused by ships, to be highlighted is the methodology of diluting tanker ballast waters developed by Petrobras, which enables renewal of 90% of the used ballast, significantly reducing the introduction of exotic marine species. This methodology, consolidated after an in-situ test in 1998, was presented to and approved by the IMO Environment Protection Committee in November 1998. Its inclusion in the forthcoming Annex VII of the MARPOL 73/78 Convention should be recommended.

The main impacting activities from industrial processes are listed below, together with the impacted areas or with potential risk, according to the Macrodiagnosis of the Brazilian Coastal Zone.

I - Petrochemical Sector

Petrochemical activity mainly affects the South, Southeast regions as well as parts of the Northeast region, where there are oil terminals, oil duct networks with adjacent petrochemical complex. Coastal regions of low altitude, subject to flooding, are particularly vulnerable to oil spills. Besides the dockside activities of the oil sector, we should highlight the existence of oil extraction platforms in the Southeast and Northeast region. Petrochemical centers close to oil refineries near the coastal zone have high environmental risk indicators, associated to the vulnerability of natural systems.

II - Chemical Sector

The activities of the chemical sector are concentrated in the south of the country, in the State of Parana, where fertilizers are produced; in the Southeast region, particularly in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo; and in some Northeastern States.

The cities of Cubatão, Guarujá and Santos, in the State of Sao Paulo, have admittedly serious environmental problems.

In the State of Rio de Janeiro, where the most important bays are to be found in the country, the natural conditions, allied to high levels of urban concentration and equipment from the chemical industry center make the region vulnerable to flooding and landslides, thus increasing the environmental risk situation of these bays.

In the Northeast the environmental risk situation is worsened by the lack of basic services.

III - Metal-Mechanic Industrv Activities

The impact areas of the metal-mechanic industry coincide with those that are impacted by other industries, such as the chemical one, given the high level of industrial concentration in certain parts of the country, as is the case of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo. Espirito Santo, Pernambuco, Maranhão and Pará are also affected by these activities. One of the largest alumina processing units of the southern hemisphere is to he found in the State of Maranhão.

IV. Paper and Cellulose Industry

The activities of this industry have impact in the States of Espirito Santo and Bahia, where some of the Productive equipment of the sector is to be found.

V. Sugar-Alcohol Activity

The impacts of this activity affect the Northeast region of Brazil, notably the States of Alagoas and Paraiba, where plantations, processing plants and distilleries are situated.

VII. Port Activity

The states most affected by dock activities are: Parana, with the Paranaguá Port - the main export corridor for grains from the South; Pernambuco, with the Suape Industrial Port Complex; and Maranhão, with the Itaqui terminal, ran by the Rio Doce Company to export iron and manganese ore from the Serra de Carajás.

According to the results of studies carried out under the National Coastal Zone Management Program, the primary sources of land-based pollution of the marine environment are:

The primary source of sea-based pollution is related to the offshore exploitation of oil and gas, which impact the marine environment through the following ways:

Research shows the existence of environmental impact generated by water produced by the offshore platform in Bacia de Campos, in Rio de Janeiro.

Brazil implements several projects and activities related to mangroves, coral reefs, and to the regional implementation of the Global Program of Action, to the Federal Plan of Action for the Coastal Zone, to the operation of an environmental agenda for the Brazilian ports, among others. Also relevant is the drafting of a National Contingency Plan to Combat Oil Spills.

Challenges  

Constraints

With respect to the implementation stages already achieved, the full operation of the Integrated Coastal Management in Brazil, as well as the other policies and programs related to the sustainable development of oceans, further efforts are still needed to overcome a set of difficulties. such as:

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

There are ongoing efforts in some coastal states to draft and implement Local Agenda 21s. For example, the State of Espirito Santo, where some actions have already been initiated, in particular those dealing with Chapter 17 - on the protection and sustainable use of oceans. This work will continue in 1999.

GERCO efforts have enabled the training, over the last six years, of some thousand technical personnel of state staff governments and other involved segments in more than 10 regional courses. GERCO also published the teaching material.

The Train-Sea Coast Brasil Program, associated to the UN Train-X capacity building network has already held some four training courses since its implementation in Brazil, for technical personnel, researchers, managers and decision makers.

In 1997, CIRM created the Marine Mentality Program (PROMAR)s whose objective is to "stimulate, through planned, objective and systematic actions, the development of a marine mentality in the Brazilian population, consonant with national interests and geared towards a greater knowledge of the sea, its resources, its importance for Brazil, the responsibility of its rational and sustainable development and the need to preserve it". The Program is made up of 12 projects:

  1. Publications on the sea
  2. Video tapes on the sea
  3. Marine Philately
  4. Professionals of the Sea
  5. Youth and the Sea
  6. Marine photographs and paintings
  7. Sea Week and Ocean Day
  8. Support for Naval Scouts Groups
  9. Naval modeling
  10. Support to Sailing Associations for Underprivileged Children
  11. Itinerant Exhibition on the Sea
  12. Support to Marine Museums.

Besides this, IBAMA is developing several environmental education initiatives, where the value of the marine and coastal zones are emphasized, as well as the need to apply the concept of sustainable development to oceans.

With respect to the International Year of the Ocean, Brazil had two representatives at the Independent Global Commission on Oceans, created by the UN General Secretariat and the UNESCO as one of the- initiatives to commemorate the International Year of the Ocean. One of the Brazilian representatives was one of the Vice-Chairs of the Commission. Furthermore, the country set up an Independent National Commission on Oceans, which provided detailed contributions to the Global Commission.

Activities to commemorate the International Year of the Ocean, aiming at awareness raising on the sustainable management of oceans:

IBAMA, in cooperation with several NGOs, such as "Movimento Artistas pela Natureza" (Artists for Nature), the AFundacao Onda Azul" (Blue Wave Foundation) and the Project "São Sebastião tem Alma", and with UNESCO support, promoted several awareness raising and environmental education initiatives on the importance of the oceans and their role in the balance of the planet. From December 6 to 13, 1998, an event called "Mutirao do Mar" was held to reflect on the problems of the Brazilian coast, with cleansing of beaches, seminars, cultural events that could lead to creative solutions for marine problems.

Information   

National information is available to assist both decision-makers and planners working in coastal areas related to sustainable management of fishery resources, as follows:

Among the largest problems in appropriate decision making for the sustainable management of fishery resources are the discontinuity in statistical data, and that there has been no consolidation of all the initiatives in this area. With the aim of solving these problems, the National System for Fishing and Aquaculture Information was created in 1995, coordinated by the Ministry of Environment. The system is a knowledge bank to provide input for planning in the fisheries sector, and it aims to collect, process, analyze and make available information on fisheries. It is currently undergoing testing for data entry on continental fishing, only lacking the incorporation of the marine fishing statistics system, currently being developed by IBAMA.

Information on marine pollution in Brazil is concentrated in the following:

Given the concentration of monitoring institutions in the South-Southeast region, this region has a much larger volume of data than other Brazilian regions. Brazil, like most countries of the region, still does not have an inventory of sources associated tocontaminants, an essential environmental management instrument.

Information on Mineral resources is as follows:

Information on living resources other than fish is derived from the

. Information on critical uncertainties (for example, climate change, El Niño La Niña, sea level change) is available from the following sources:

Geographic Information Systems are used for environmental monitoring in Brazil. Several research centers have geoprocessing laboratories. The most used geoprocessing applications in Brazil are: ARC/INFO, SPANS, MGE/INTERGRAPH, SITIM/SGI and SPRING, and the integration systems SPANS/VIEW and ARC/VIEW. IBAMA uses satellite images and airborne sensors in supervision and monitoring.

Information on different aspects of management of coastal zone and marine environments are available in different formats, such as maps and charts, technical reports, socio-environmental diagnoses, descriptive memorials, specific publications, electronic files, and relational and georeferenced databases.

There are several Internet sites where executing institutions may be contacted for information on the National Coastal Zone Management Plan, land use and management, or environmental problems of the Brazilian coastal zone. Addresses of these institutions may be found at the Ministry of Environment's site. At the same site, information is also available on the Program to Assess the Sustainable Potential of the Living Resources of the Exclusive Economic Zone (REVIZEE).

Also at the Ministry's site, and at IBAMA's site, is information on the management of fishery resources, with frequently updated information on ongoing activities. When the Fisheries Information System is concluded, it will have its own site, with links to areas of interest (Ministry of Industry, Commerce and Tourism, FAO, INFOPESCA, etc.).

IBAMA is developing a System to Monitor Biodiversity in Federal Protected Areas - SIMBIO, aiming, with the use of indicators, to monitor and detect significant alterations in the environment which may place the safety of the areas at risk as to the conservation of biodiversity. It will also produce and make available information on the state of the art of trends in biological diversity in these protected areas.

The Ministry of Environment is developing an Integrated Environmental Monitoring System based on partnerships, using the National Environment Information System, involving the Ministry, IBAMA, state and local environment bodies, government sectoral bodies, scientific community, private sector and non-governmental organizations. In this system, existing monitoring systems will be used and integrated. A specific subcomponent for marine and coastal zones is foreseen. From a methodological point of view, among the first stages are the selection of indicators, the bringing together of existing knowledge and the promotion of discussions on the issue.

Universities, research centers and companies such as Petrobras have started work in this field, although basically to meet demands. In IPEA and other institutions of the economic area, important studies are being carried out with respect to the development indicators which will be used in these ongoing actions.

Research and Technologies  

To increase the insertion of Brazilian products in international markets, the business sector has sought, voluntarily, to incorporate ISO standards, based on an understanding of the benefits incurred by the sustainable management of production mechanisms.

There are several initiatives for technological enhancement along the coastal zone, which have proved to be viable alternatives to solve conflicts between socio-economic needs and the environment. These alternatives are mainly concentrated in the association of the traditional extractivism to new sustainable economic activities such as aquaculture, management of agroforestry systems, renewed value of handicrafts, tourism and ecotourism.

he capacity to compare, study, systematically observe and evaluate biological diversity must be strengthened throughout the country and elsewhere by adopting efficient actions and enhanced international cooperation. Remote sensing techniques are being successfully employed by the fishing sector. In the area of fishing technology, it is necessary to improve methods for handling, conservation and processing, both on board and on land, and to reduce losses. Introduction of new catch technologies, impact studies on the ecosystems and market studies would enable improved use of products by the market, more competitive prices, more efficient management systems, reduction of operational costs as well as better management of marine biological diversity.

Mariculture is an alternative capable of bringing an important contribution to increment domestic fishing production. However, development of techniques in natural settings requires work on the autecology of the species and populations, to identify the optimum conditions for preproduction, feeding and growth.

Collection of surface oceanographic data for extensive areas and with a high temporal repetitiveness present enormous logistic difficulties as well as high cost. The innumerable satellite systems permit collection of oceanic data on a regional or global scale. Through this technology it is possible today to collect meteorological and surface oceanic data in real time. The recent launching of satellites that operate in the microwave band enabled the collection of data on wave fields, oceanic winds, sea level and the detection of oil pollution under practically any meteorological conditions.

Brazil still lacks an assessment and registry of the numerous successful experiences in sustainable management and use of natural resources, several of which have been on the coastal zone. These experiences have often been community-based with innovative technologies, in partnership with independent consultants and research institutions.

With respect to combatting oil spills, there are a series of techniques used for cleanup in place. They are diivided into four categories: chemical treatment (dispersants, emulsifiers), in situ burning (not well accepted in Brazil), mechanical recovery (booms, skimmers, water-oil separators, adsorbents) and bioremediation (including chemical). To these may be added technologies which use mathematical models for diffusion and dispersion in water bodies.

Use of multiple use response technologies requires a rapid and scientific decision-making structure, based on an integrated system. This structure is defined in the National Contingency Plans to combat accidents, for both oil spills and hazardous and noxious substances. To this end, Brazil held a workshop in 1998, with the support of the Canadian Coastal Guard. At that time, the first version of this plan was drafted, currently being reviewed and consolidated. Studies are also being made of the need to create a fund to make the plan self-supporting.

The Ministry of Environment is currently coordinating a Working Group to complement National Environment Council Resolution 6/90, which provides for the regulation of the application of chemical dispersants on oil leakages, spill and discharges. This work should be finished by the first quarter of 1999.

With the exception of the oil and gas terminals of companies such as Petrobras, Shell and Esso, the Brazilian port subsector is generally lacking a managerial and physical structure to manage liquid effluents and wastes. The MARPOL 73/78 Convention on the Prevention of Pollution from Ships was promulgated in Brazil in 1998. This Convention requires that the State Parties ensure appropriate facilities to receive wastes which do not cause unnecessary delays to ships, where these facilities should meet the needs of users and of the environment. However, each port should determine which type of facility it should provide.

Currently a bill is being reviewed in the National Congress which regulates MARPOL.

With respect to the prevention, control and combat of marine pollution by oil, Petrobras has taken charge of and maintains the Model Centers for the Prevention, Control and Combat to Marine Pollution by Oil - CENPOL, to reduce the effects of oil accidents in terminals. These centers, installed in terminals, train "anti-spill brigades" who attend courses and practical lessons and are always close to terminals, ready for action. Furthermore, Petrobras carries out marine and coasta' environmental monitoring in the Bacia de Campos, where around 80% of the oil produced in Brazil comes from. Several universities are involved in this monitoring project, whose research covers an area greater than 60,000 sq. km., and requires the work of more than 200 people.

One of the major problems of deep sea oil production technology, of which Brazil is a pioneer and leader, besides the huge water pressure on equipment and the wasting of materials, is the accumulation of paraffin or wax on the walls of the ducts that carry the oil from the well to the surface platform, due to the extremely low temperatures, thereby leading to risk of blockage or breakage/spills. The Petrobras Research Center developed a chemical solution, SGN - Nitrogen Generating System - that when injected in the obstructed part of the duct causes a chemical reaction that generates nitrogen and gives off heat, melting the paraffm and unblocking the duct. Besides being cheap, SGN is also ecologically correct: in addition to nitrogen and heat, the only byproducts of the reaction are common salt and pure water. This technology is being considered a definitive solution to the problem.

In international fora on the issue, developing countries have reaffumed the need for new and efficient technologies to increase their capacity to achieve sustainable development, without which the implementation of alternative economic policies becomes difficult. Thus, the role of financial support and partnership arrangements with donor countries, agencies and the private sector is essential.

However, it has also been stated that this transfer process cannot be a factor of further debt for developing countries, thus the transfer of environmentally sound technologies must be carried out under favorable, mutually agreed, conditions, including concessional and preferential terms. These technologies should also be economically feasible and socially acceptable.

As a rule, it may be stated that the when choosing technologies the major factors are:

Specifically in the case of combatting oil spills or discharges of hazardous substances some of these factors are:

Financing  

For Coastal Zone Management, besides federal budgetary resources, about 80% of the allocated funds over the past six years has been from a loan agreement between the Brazilian Government and the World Bank, through a specific subcomponent in the National Environment Program. Currently there are other sources for specific actions, such as GEF resources for a regional project on mangroves, and a specific project on the Sao Francisco River estuary, and IDB resources for the project to implement the protected area of the Tamandare-Paripueira coral reefs, and actions linked to the National Environment Fund. These experiences may enable elpansion of new sources, based on broader programs.

The basic financing source for study and research of marine living resources is the federal budget. However, new partnerships and additional financing sources, both domestic and foreign (GEF, IDB, World Bank and PPG-7), are being sought.

Cooperation  

Brazil is a Party to the following:

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), signed by Brazil in 1982, ratified in 1988 and in force since 1994;

Other related agreements, particularly regional and sea-specific agreements, to which Brazil is a Party include:

Brazil also participates in the Agreement on the Zone of Peace and Cooperation of the South Atlantic (includes provisions related to the sustainable development and use of marine resources); and the Southern Common Market - MERCOSUL - Sub-Working Group on Environment.

This information is based on Brazil's submission to the 5th, 6th and 7th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: February 1999

To access the Web Site of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, click here:

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TOXIC CHEMICALS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Regulatory capacity at the federal level lies with the Ministry of Environment, either directly or through the National Council on Environment (CONAMA) or the Brazilian Institute on Environment and Renewable Resources (IBAMA). The Ministries of Health, Agriculture, Labor, and Transport oversee licensing and control of the manufacture, labeling, storage, transport, handling and use of toxic and other chemicals, particularly those harmful to human health, such as pesticides, wood preservatives, asbestos, mercury and cyanide. Additionally, the Ministry of Justice controls chemical inputs for the production of cocaine and other drugs.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Brazil has legislation on environmental protection related to pesticides and specific substances; control and supervision norms on chemical products and inputs involved in the manufacture of cocaine and narcotics; legislation on procedures for licensing the use of metallic mercury and cyanide in gold prospective areas; regulations and norms for licensing, transport (rail, road, maritime, river and air), use and control of several toxic substances. Harmonized legislation on chemical substances for the South American Common Market (MERCOSUL) entered into force on January 1st 1998. Brazil participates actively in the Inter-governmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS) and in the discussions related to issues such as Prior Informed Consent (PIC), the control of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), risk reduction of toxic substances, risk evaluation systems and harmonized labeling.

Within MERCOSUL there is ongoing discussion on harmonizing legislation on chemicals, especially agrochemicals. According to a MERCOSUL resolution, as of this year, harmonized procedures for trade in agrochemicals should come into effect. Other resolutions related to the issue are also being discussed.

Procedures for importing and exporting of wastes have been defined taking into account the Basel Convention on the Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal (CONAMA Resolution No. 23, dated 12 December 1996). The entrance into Brazil of wastes for final disposal and incineration is prohibited by the same Resolution.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

The Ministry of Environment has been developing studies to define environmental quality indicators under the MONITORE Program. Current Program activities are concentrating on a survey of the installed capacity in the country for a later proposal of studies on the most appropriate quality indicators for the various ecosystems. In this context, these quality indicators should include toxic substances.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

Brazil participates in various intergovernmental fora and in the activities of several international protocols that aim at the discussion and definition of sustainable environmental policies related to toxic substances. Among them are the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS), where Brazil takes part in discussions on Prior Informed Consent (PIC) and the Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP), defines programmes to reduce the risks of toxic substances as well as systems to assess risks and harmonize labeling. Currently, Brazil has an Interministerial Group to discuss IFCS issues.

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This information is based on Brazil's submission to the 5th and 6 th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: 1 April 1998


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WASTE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Solid Waste and Sanitation

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

At this stage, decisions on solid wastes lie mostly at the municipal level, pending the enactment of a national policy to be proposed by the Secretariat of Urban Policy. The Secretariat for Urban Policy of the Ministry of Planning and Budget is responsible for federal directives on waste collection, treatment and disposal issues, with the assistance of other Ministries, such as Health, Transport, and Environment, Water Resources and the Amazon. Coordinated efforts among the three levels of government on solid wastes disposal began in 1966 with 10 solid waste management pilot projects and incentives for 5 waste-minimization projects, to be implemented until 1999, under the experimental PROGEST program. Priority is attributed to municipalities that require and are willing to implement integrated solid waste management systems, where inadequate disposal induces high-risk public health problems, pollutes freshwater sources, or depends on uncontrolled fills, and those where the production of hazardous wastes is significant.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

Regular waste collection services in 1991 were provided to 80.0% of the urban and 5.6% of the rural population, for a total of 241,000 tons a day. These figures rose to 86.7% and 10.4% respectively in 1995. In 1991, 76.7% of the total waste collected was dumped in open pits, while 21.9% was disposed of in controlled or sanitary fills and 2.1% processed in composting plants, recycled or incinerated. Disposal in water courses is not relevant and restricted to the Northern region, and the highest incidence of uncontrolled dumping occurs in the Northeast. Industrial and hazardous wastes collected by the municipal systems is minor, and their disposal depends largely on the producer's initiative.

In 1991, 49% of urban and 2% of rural households were served by sewerage systems and another 19% and 8%, respectively, had septic tanks. No more than 10% of the total sewage collected, however, went through treatment plants, mostly at primary level, and predominantly in the Southeast. If septic tanks are added to these totals, the average national percentage rises to 29%, with higher marks for the South and the North.

Special efforts have been directed in the recent past to waste collection and sewerage services for the urban poor in densely population areas. Some experiments have been carried out for exchanging individually-collected garbage for bus tickets or food supplies in low income districts where services cannot be offered. Programs to organize groups of rag pickers into cooperatives and as microentrepreneurs have also been moderately successful in a number of large cities. Innovative experiments on community sewage disposal units and lower cost treatment plants such as aerated ponds are being implemented with some success.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

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Hazardous Wastes

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

All three levels of Government share the responsibility for enforcing general and specific legislation and regulations concerning the management and disposal of hazardous wastes. There is no specific policy concerning the issue, and whatever licensing and control exists in practice emanates from federal and state environmental bodies and agencies.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

The management of hazardous wastes has not as yet been regulated by a national policy that would encompass its many aspects as well as ensure coordinated action on the part of the three levels of Government. Nonetheless, the Ministry of Environment, Water Resources and the Amazon, through the National Council of Environment (CONAMA) has enacted, since 1988, a number of decisions on classification, licensing, handling, processing, storage, exports and imports of hazardous wastes, in accordance with Brazilian standards and with mechanisms contemplated in the Basel Convention. Otherwise, issues on hazardous wastes such as transportation and recycling have been addressed by Presidential Decrees, interministerial bodies and directives from other Ministries and States.

Recent action on the subject has included a Task Force organized by CONAMA to propose a draft National Policy on Wastes, efforts by the environmental agencies of the States of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, among others, to prepare their Master Plans and Waste Management Plans, in accordance with CONAMA Resolution no. 05/93, and the two projects on international cooperation described below on waste management and technology data banks and on information networks and systems. Participation of Major Groups is envisaged in the proposed draft National Policy on Wastes.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

Two relevant international/regional cooperation projects were initiated since 1992:

 

* * *

Radioactive Wastes

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

All activities related to the management of radioactive wastes are licensed and controlled by a specialized department of the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), an agency supervised by the President's Secretariat for Strategic Affairs. International trade in radioactive wastes must be authorized by CNEN after prior consultation with the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Resources (IBAMA). The latter will notify the competent authorities in the country of destination of all exports of radioactive material originating in Brazil.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Most contacts are carried out with the scientific community, especially within the framework of the National Radiological Event Monitoring System. Relevant legislation and regulations issued since 1992 include the National Council of Environment (CONAMA) Resolution 24/1994, on international trade of radioactive wastes, Decree 96.044 concerning transportation of dangerous products, and preliminary criteria for the disposal of medium- and low-level radioactive wastes.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

Radioactive wastes and byproducts generated in the past 40 years in Brazil are stored in nuclear installations and other sites either owned or controlled by the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) located in four different states. They have originated from the operation of the Nuclear Power Plant in Angra dos Reis, the radiological accident in Goiania in the early 90s, from the processing of maonazitic sands and from the use of radioisotopes in medicine, industry and research, and they represent a volume of approximately 5,440 m3.

A program was approved in November 1996 by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), involving CNEN and all its research institutes for capacity building in the areas of waste treatment, public acceptance and repository safety evaluation. Brazil participates in training programs in the areas of transportation of radioactive materials (with ARCAL) and implementation of a National Radiological Event Monitoring System (SINAER) for Latin America. During the year 1996, 160 sanitary inspectors, as well as airline, airport and internal revenue personnel posted at port, airport and border facilities were trained in control procedures regarding radioactive materials.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 


* * *

This information is based on Brazil's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

For direct link to the Web Site of the Basel Convention, click here:


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