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ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN BRAZIL

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INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministries of External Relations, of Finance, and of Trade, Industry and Tourism are responsible for most of the decisions related to international cooperation and trade.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Measures taken by the Government in 1993 and 1994 to eliminate or reduce trade barriers have changed the former positive trade balance figures, observed since 1981, and which had exceeded the level of US$ 19 billion in 1988, into trade deficits which topped the US$5 billion mark in 1996. Imports, mostly of durable and capital goods, have risen appreciably.

The Real Plan, launched in July 1994 with strong support from society, was the fourth or fifth attempt carried out to achieve monetary stabilization, after 30 years of persistently high rates of inflation. It succeeded in bringing the annual inflation rate down from an all-time high of 2,708 % in 1993, to about 10% in 1996. GNP is estimated as more than $800 billion at Purchasing Power Parity rates, having grown at a moderate but positive pace in the five-year period. Foreign currency reserves reached an all-time high, well in excess of US$50 billion, a result of positive inflows of outside investment.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

Total financial assistance from bilateral and multilateral sources represents less than 0.1% of GNP annually. There are over 3.5 million industrial and commercial establishments. The small and very small or micro companies are 98% in number, representing 60% of jobs, and 43% of sales. The informal sector, however, may contribute as much as 40% of GNP. External debt figures have risen since 1992, but totals represent less than one fifth of GNP and only three times the level of foreign reserves.

Cooperation

The South American Common Market Agreement (MERCOSUL/MERCOSUR) entered by Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay became operational in 1995, and has since been joined by Chile and Bolivia. A Common Import Tariff, applicable to over 9000 items, varies from zero to 20%; exceptions not exceeding 400 items per country are allowed until the year 2001. A Mercosul product must have at least 60% of its inputs produced locally.

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This information is based on Brazil's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997


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TRADE

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CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The responsible Government bodies dealing with aspects of sustainable consumption and production patterns are the Ministry of Environment and the National Environment Council.

The bodies that constitute the Commission for Sustainable Development Policies and Agenda 21 also take part in decision making. These are the Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Planning and Budget, Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of External Relations, Strategic Affairs Secretariat and Social Policies Chamber, the Brazilian Business Council for Sustainable Development, the Onda Azul Foundation, and the National Environment Council.

At the local and provincial levels, the State and Local Secretariats for Environment, Industry, Trade and Tourism and Justice are responsible.

Major Groups are involved in decision-making in this area in various ways. NGOs, under nationwide coordination of the Brazilian NGO Forum, are represented in several government fora, such as the National Environment Council; the Commission for Sustainable Development Policies and Agenda 21; and the National Water Resources Council.

The National Consumer Protection System consists of state and local consumer protection bodies (PROCON), the National Institute of Metrology, Standardization and Industrial Quality (INMETRO), the Institute of Weights and Measures (IPEM), the Consumer Protection and Guidance Association (ADECON), the Brazilian Institute for Consumer Rights and Policies (BRASILCON), the Brazilian Institute for Consumer Protection (IDEC) and the Minas Gerais Consumers and Housewives Movement.

The current institutional structure dealing with gender issues includes the National Women's Right Council, 11 state councils, 38 local councils as well as 115 NGOs and more than 3000 independent associations. 156 bills were submitted to Congress related to women's rights, on issues such as work conditions, violence, health and civil rights.

The national strategy to address issues related to sustainable patterns of consumption and production is given by the 1981 National Environment Policy and the 1990 National Policy for Consumption Relations, both instituted through laws. The main objective of the former policy is to harmonize economic and social development with the preservation of the environment and ecological balance. One of the basic principles that guide this Policy is the premise that sustainable consumption is an essential part of sustainable development and is closely linked to sustainable production. Measures to promote sustainable consumption affect not only the products and services used by consumers but also the energy and materials used during production and the wastes generated throughout the life cycle of the product, from the extraction of the raw material till its final disposal or reuse. The national sustainable development strategy has been concentrating its efforts in planning capacity, integrating actions and in creating partnerships with civil society and the private sector to solve/regulate conflicts and improve the legal framework.

The Government, in cooperation with trade associations, has promoted actions to encourage companies to adopt the NBR-ISO 14000 environmental standards. About 85% of Brazilian companies adopt some kind of procedure related to environmental issues, according to the survey "Environmental Management in Brazilian Industry", carried out by the National Confederation of Industry in 1998.

Movement towards green industries in Brazil began with the creation of the Brazilian Business Council for Sustainable Development, which is part of the Latin America Business Council for Sustainable Development.

The National Policy of Consumption Relations aims to meet the needs of consumers, to respect their dignity, health and safety, to protect their economic interests, to improve their living conditions as well as to ensure transparency and harmony in consumption relations and establishes the general rules for application of administrative sanctions. A 1997 Decree provides for the organization of the National Consumer Protection System.

Specific issues such strategies and policies address include:

Environmental Licensing

The most important instrument for encouraging sustainable production is environmental licensing, through which the productive system must adapt itself to meet established environmental quality standards. Environmental Licensing induces companies to choose the best localization for their undertaking, to invest in environmentally sound technologies, to rationalize the use of natural resources and to control their wastes.

Water Resources

The 1997 National Water Resources Policy recognizes water as a finite and vulnerable good, with economic value; it establishes instruments to regulate the various uses of water, and it adopts the hydrographic water basin as the central planning unit, with decentralized and participatory management. Five additional instruments essential to good water use management were also defined. These are: National Water Resources Plan, Granting of Water Usage Rights; Charging for Water Use; Classification of Water Bodies According to Use; and the National Information System on Water Resources. The use of these instruments reflects the state of the art of the sector, since the countries that have already adopted them are leading in terms of planning and management of water resources. This leads to a considerable improvement of performance and ensures a sustainable consumption and production water system.

Solid Wastes

The National Policy for the Environmental Management of Solid Wastes, currently being concluded, proposes as fundamental principles, in order of importance: the non-generation of wastes; the minimization of wastes; reutilization; recycling; appropriate treatment and final disposal of wastes. This Policy is already producing positive results in several Brazilian States and Municipalities, which have adopted its principles. The Ministry of Industry, Commerce and Tourism is coordinating the development of a National Recycling Program. Several local governments are already recycling their urban wastes, with excellent results. The National Program aims to strengthen these initiatives and disseminate them to all Brazilian Municipalities.

The National Environment Council is reviewing procedures for collecting and disposal of used batteries and for the co-processing of wastes that may be used to replace raw materials or fuel in clinker kilns for cement production.

Energy

In Brazil, 35% of the total energy consumed is hydroelectric, 25% biomass-based, which means that renewable resources supply around two thirds of the energy requirements of the country. This comfortable situation did not prevent the Government developing an energy policy to promote cost reduction and increase efficiency, productivity and quality of products and services. This policy is being implemented through the adoption of two programs: Program to Combat Energy Waste - PROCEL and the Program to Conserve Natural Gas and Oil Byproducts - CONPET.

To motivate consumers, the National Energy Conservation Prize and the Energy Efficiency Seal were created. The Prize is awarded every year in several categories such as: government bodies and companies, electrical energy companies, commercial and services companies, small and medium sized companies, buildings, transport and the media.

With respect to sustainable energy alternatives, the following projects may be highlighted: 1) Photovoltaic Energy Generation Project, developed by the Minas Gerais Electricity Company (solar energy); 2) the Wind Energy Generation Project, developed by the Ceara Electricity Company, which intends to implement two 30 MW power plants by the end of 1999; and 3) the Biomass Project, using GEF resources, for the efficient generation of energy from sugar-cane bagasse and biomass gasification; and 4) PROALCOOL, the National Alcohol Program, providing fuel for nearly half the automobiles in the country; alcohol is also added to gasoline, in a 22% mixture.

Forests

The Brazilian Forest Policy aims at the continuous and sustainable production of forest goods and services, conservation of biological diversity and of the vital processes associated to forest ecosystems, and improvement in the quality of life of the Brazilian people.

This policy considers the following principles: the country's forest heritage is inalienable; all actions should seek sustainable forest management; assigning of fair value to forest goods and services; decentralization of management and participatory management considering the multiple uses and functions of the forest as well as the best technology available to prevent its degradation; dissemination of information to the community should be broad and transparent; initiatives that promote international cooperation should be encouraged; native and traditional communities that live in forests should be respected; foreign trade of forest goods should be non-discriminatory; and the participation of women should be encouraged in all aspects of conservation and use of forests.

Traditional Populations

In 1991, the National Traditional Populations Center was created to improve the social, land and environmental issues, as well as to encourage the extraction of certain natural resources, which besides bringing significant socio-economic effects, strengthens safeguarding of borders and the Amazon biome. Among the various productive activities of these populations are: conservation of rubber trees and latex extraction, previously underutilized; obtaining of oil, starch and coal from the babassu nut. Collection and breaking of the babassu nut employ a population of approximately 300,001 people, mostly women and children.

Participation of local communities and indigenous peoples on decisions about access to natural resources in the areas they occupy are the basic principles governing the Bill recently approved by the Senate. This Bill specifies the responsibilities of public bodies and establishes the rights of local communities and indigenous populations; it also establishes guidelines for technology development and transfer, and determines sanctions to be applied to transgressors.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

Institutional Strengthening Program for Environmental Licensing: its object is to improve environmental quality and the preservation of natural resources, thus making Licensing a preventive instrument for a more efficient environmental control. It is a powerful instrument for structuring an environmentally sustainable productive system. It is being implemented.

The Brazilian Recycling Program: The Ministry of Industry, Commerce and Tourism instituted in 1998 an Interministerial Working Group, with the participation of the private sector, to draft a proposal for the Brazilian Recycling Program, to add value and increase use of urban, industrial, mineral and agricultural wastes as raw materials as well as development of recycling plants.

Project for Life Cycle Analysis of Packaging for the Brazilian Market. This project aims at establishing life cycle analysis for products and processes related to packaging and to the environment, and has been seeking to conform to ISO 140000 standards. This project is being developed by the Packaging Technology Center (CETEA) of the Institute for Food Technology (ITAL), together with a consortium of associations and companies, and with the support of the Sao Paulo State Foundation to Support Research (FAPESP).

Additional projects include: the National Environmental Education Program - PRONEA, the National Program for Education and Control of Noise Pollution (SILENCIO), the National Program to Combat Water Waste, the Citizens for Water Movement, the Decentralized Execution Projects (National Environment Program), the Program to Conserve and Revitalize Water Resources, Program to Develop the Forest Sector, the National Program for Native Forest Seeds, the Program to Control Air Pollution from Automotive Vehicles, Brazilian Molecular Ecology Program, the Program for Energy Development in the States and Municipalities of the North Region, Efficiency of Public Lighting Systems, the Program to Combat Electricity Waste - PROCEL, and the National Program to Rationalize the Use of Oil and Natural Gas Byproducts - CONPET. These are discussed in the relevant sections, below.

All these programs take into account environmental, economic, social and cultural aspects, where relevant, seeking a holistic and complementary approach in all activities. The Brazilian recycling Program, for example, establishes guidelines that would add value and increase use of urban, industrial, mineral and agricultural wastes as raw materials, as well as development of recycling plants.

The economics of the activity are not seen in an isolated fashion, but as a whole including such aspects as: social - job generation, and environmental: conservation of energy and scarce natural resources, and waste reduction.

The most relevant recycled materials come from products which are energy and resources intensive. Thus, recycling will diminish pressures on these natural resources, on the import of fossil materials and on the investments that would be necessary to increase the introduction of the replaced basic inputs. The expected savings are significant.

Important legal instruments in this area include:

Codes of Practice for industries, Standards or Guidelines for the activities of industry to discourage unsustainable practices and promote sustainable production patterns include:

The Industry Principles for Sustainable Development include the following:

  1. Promote effective active participation of the industrial sector, together with society, parliament, government and non-governmental organizations so as to develop and improve environmental laws, regulations and standards;
  2. Exert business leadership in society with respect to environmental issues;
  3. Increase competitiveness of Brazilian industry, respecting the concepts of sustainable development and rational use of natural resources and energy;
  4. Carry out analysis and studies of issues that could harm the environment and human health, as well as implement appropriate actions to protect the environment;
  5. Support and recognize the importance of continuous and permanent worker involvement and the commitment to supervise companies, ensuring that workers have the necessary training and knowledge of environmental issues;
  6. Promote monitoring and assessment of environmental parameters and processes within companies;
  7. Encourage research and development of clean technologies to reduce or eliminate harmful impacts to the environment and human health;
  8. Promote continuous improvement of environmental management systems, worker health and safety within companies;
  9. Encourage relationship and partnerships of the private sector with the Government and the community in the search for sustainable development, as well as the continuous improvement of communication processes;
  10. Encourage business leaders to permanently act with the community on environmental issues;
  11. Encourage development and supply of products and services that do not produce inappropriate impacts to environment and public health;
  12. Promote maximum dissemination and knowledge of Agenda 21 and encourage its implementation.

The Declaration of Industry Principles, the Green Protocol and the ISO 14000 standard are all voluntary instruments.

There are, in addition, Guidelines intended for consumers, including the Seal of INMETRO (Brazilian Institute for Measurements, Standardization and Industrial Quality) and recommendations in the media.

Policy and economic instruments that are applied to discourage unsustainable and encourage sustainable consumption and production practices include the Green Protocol (see above); Charge for Water Use, one of the instruments of the National Water Resources Policy; and the Law of Environmental Crimes (see above).

Status   

Some of the major programmes and projects underway or planned to address issues related to consumption and production patters include:

Decentralized Execution Projects (National Environment Program) have proven that it is possible to develop alternative and sustainable economic activities throughout the country, generating solutions for environmental problems and jobs for thousands of families in nature-rich areas. Partnerships with associations, local governments, universities and government environment agencies were tested and implemented. The thirteen projects inaugurated in December 1998 have generated 1500 jobs - 2600 families are benefiting; among them are: seedling nurseries, organic fertilizer manufacturing plant, visitors centers for ecotourism, seed bank and laboratory to produce plants for therapy, alevin breeding facilities, artesian wells and a unit for storing pesticides.

Program to Conserve and Revitalize Water Resources, aims to contribute to the control of water resources pollution and, consequently, improve the quality and quantity of water in several hydrographic water basins in the country. The general objective of this program is to provide revitalization where necessary and conservation as a whole, under the perspective of the hydrological cycle, through management of elements of the physical and biotic environments, having the basin as the basic planning and work unit.

Program to Develop the Forest Sector. The country has around 7 million hectares of planted forests for consumption of products derived from cellulose and paper. This program aims at stimulating the sustainable use of forest resources and enhance the value of the initiatives undertaken by eltractivists and social entities that support traditional communities, small landowners and indigenous people.

National Program for Native Forest Seeds: it was started in 1994 by the Ministry of Environment, to maintain and ensure the natural heritage by developing sustainable exploitation models. Several partnerships were consolidated, in particular the technical committee for forest seeds of the Seed Technology Association. As a result 24 training courses have been held on management and conservation for over 500 people.

Federal University of Ceara (UFC): development of appropriate technologies for treating effluents of the cashew nut industry through an aerobic biological process. This project is being developed in partnership with local cashew nut industries and the environmental agency of the State of Ceará, within a Program to Improve Environmental Conditions of the Metropolitan Region of Fortaleza.

Federal University of Para/ Poverty in Environment Program: implementation of a data bank on sustainable development projects aspects of cultivation, processing and commercialization of Amazon Region products and transmission of these techniques to communities of small rural producers; technical support and installation of 15 drinking water supply microsystems in rural communities; organization of self-management sanitation systems; management of cut-over land for formation of agroforestry systems; implementation and dissemination of techniques for cultivating medicinal plants; development and dissemination of techniques for storing agroforestry products; and development of techniques to implement policultures and reduce the malnutrition of poor populations and reduce environmental degradation.

National Energy Commission/Radioprotection and Dosimetry Institute (CNEN/IRD): development of methods to study environmental impacts and management of areas contaminated by the transport and storage of radioactive material wastes; application of procedures for environmental radiological protection, including proposals for regulatory actions and inspection to reduce the environmental radiological impact caused to workers and the public in general by the exploitation and inappropriate use of mining byproducts.

University of Brasilia, Physics Department (UnB); development of an active filter that transforms 95% of toxic gases generated in combustion motors into harmless substances.

PONSA S.A.: introduction of special technological processes in the treatment of paper scraps enabling energy savings of 30 to 40% of conventional processes; increase in the use of scraps went from 60 to 90% and the processes for recovering and reusing industrial effluents from paper manufacturing machines reduced water consumption from 25m3/t to 10m3/t - and it should still be further reduced to 6-6.5m3/t.

RONDOPAR: this battery manufacturing company achieved significant improvements in the processes used to produce plates and electrical accumulators by implementing changes that enabled increased productivity and product quality with optimization of resources. The company established a partnership with the Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar), thus ensuring technology transfer. The company also hired those with scholarships from the Industrial Technological Development.

Federal University of Santa Catarina/ Mechanical Engineering Department/ Refrigeration, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Center (UFSC/DEM/NRVA): dimensioning of capillary tubes was carried out through software and selection diagrams; improvement in the application of compressors to refrigeration systems; and experimental determination of the thermal load of a refrigeration system to adjust compressor dimensioning; dimensioning of roll bond evaporators to optimize refrigerant charging and consequent improvement of the compressor with a possible reduction of energy consumption. The research is also part of agreements with interested universities and companies such as EMBRACO (Brazilian Compressor Company).

University of Campinas/ Physics Institute (UNICAMP/IF): development of Advanced Carbonous Materials, such as fullerene, activation through plasma of mesophase microspheres, carbon-carbon compounds and research on uses of agroforestry wastes (development of a combustion chamber to burn timber and roasted agroforestry wastes briquettes). USIMINAS requested a patent for an Advanced Carbonous Material developed with the aid of researchers from the project. The fullerenes were produced and supplied to other laboratories involved in other research.

The National Alcohol Program (PROALCOOL) was a program of great impact, initially created to reduce oil imports during the 1973 crisis, by developing unique technologies for the production of anhydrous alcohol on a large scale, and the development and adaptation of equipment using that fuel. The impact of this Program was positive not only economically, but, above all socially, generating jobs, and environmentally, reducing carbon dioxide emissions.

Challenges  

Although there are several sectoral programs that directly or indirectly address the issue of sustainable consumption and production, the main constraint today is the non- existence of a specific national program on the issue of sustainable consumption and production.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

The Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of Education formulate national policies, to encourage, guide, strengthen, follow and assess ongoing environmental education actions, based on the National Environmental Education Program - PRONEA, where specific actions on environmental education are to be found.

The National Environmental Education Program - PRONEA, instituted in 1994, establishes guidelines for formal and informal environmental education actions under two perspectives: the first has the school system as its instruments; the second, which is directed towards sound environmental management, aims to raise public awareness and to produce information to reach three main groups: a) the group that has decision making power in organizations, or capacity to influence decisions made on the environmental issue, that is, public administrators, congressmen, professionals, scientists, business leaders and leaders of social movements; b) the group of users of natural resources, including farmers, ranchers, timber workers, miners; and c) the group of those active in the media, including radio, television and the press, cinema, theater.

MULTIBRAS: the project permitted capacity building of human resources in the areas of thermal systems and electronic components to develop highly efficient refrigeration products. The developed research led to a reduction of energy consumption in refrigeration equipment and replacement of CFC and HCFC, which are harmful to the ozone layer. The project further enabled integration of Brazilian and foreign universities, with exchange of experiences and absorption of technologies.

The National Program for Education and Control of Noise Pollution (SILENCIO). Established in 1990 by the National Environment Council, its strategy seeks to establish standards, methods and actions to control noise emission from machines and equipment; to raise public awareness; technical capacity building of state and local environment agencies; and to encourage manufacture of machines and equipment with lower noise levels. These actions are already being implemented in nearly all of the States. CONAMA recently approved the mandatory Noise Seal for household appliances as a way of adapting the industrial sector to the social and environmental demands of the country.

The National Program to Combat Water Waste has as its main object promoting the rational use of water for public supply, to benefit environmental sanitation and service efficiency, based on actions and technological, regulatory, economic and institutional instruments for an effective saving of water.

The productive sector encourages and supports capacity building of agents that act in institutions that provide professional training and social action such as SENAI (National Industrial Training Service), SENAC (National Commercial Training Service), SESI (Industry Social Service), SESC (National Commercial Service) and in other extension courses such as those at SEBRAE (Brazilian Service to Support Small Business) and EMBRAPA (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation), seeking to address the environmental dimension in the various productive activities, through environmental programs closely linked to commerce, industry and agriculture;

Also included are the education program Usina Hidrelétrica do Xingó (The Xingo Hydroelectric Power Station), promoted by IBAMA in 1998; and the capacity building program in Environmental Management for government and private sector technical personnel under MERCOSUL, held by the Specialized Meeting of Science and Technology of the Sub-Working Group - Environment (defined as a continuous and permanent activity).

The strategic actions to raise awareness include:

The Citizens for Water Movement was created to provide visibility for actions that benefit water, with the objective of encouraging citizens to act towards the preservation and recovery of water resources. The Movement is decentralized in nature, having Reference Centers throughout States and Municipalities. What differentiates the Citizens for Water Movement from others already created throughout Brazil is that, in spite of being conceived by a government body, it does not establish norms or rules for those who integrate it. Each person in his own space and in a voluntary manner, defines what is the best way to solve the water problems of his locality, seeking partnerships and mobilizing other citizens to work together to protect the waters. The great advantage of the Movement is that it brings together and mobilizes in the same forum, people, entities, government agencies, the privates sector, housewives and environmentalists. There are already more than 60 Reference Centers, which coordinate the process of repeating the actions of citizens in each Municipality.

Information   

The information on the  National Environment Policy and Brazilian environmental legislation is available in the Ministry of Environment's Internet site.

The Declaration of Industry Principles for Sustainable Development is promoted by the National Confederation of Industry.

Information is also available on the Web Sites of the National Confederation of Industry; the Environment Sanitation Agency (CETESB); the Business Commitment to Recycling; and the  Ministry of Industry, Commerce and Tourism.

There are sectoral indicators in the country for the following areas: economy, science and technology, human development, mines and energy, agriculture and education, among others. In the environmental sector, indicators are undergoing aggregation. There are indicators related to water, air, and soil at state and local levels.

Research and Technologies  

The Environment Technology Development Division of IBAMA promotes the development, access, incorporation and application of environmentally sound technologies.

The major reference center in the country is the Environmental Sanitation Technology Company (CETESB) of São Paulo, which concentrates solid waste management activities and provides technological support and technical cooperation to state and local bodies.

The National Confederation of Industry System also includes the following centers: Technology Centers - National Environmental Technology Center, the Industry Technology Center, the National Clean Technologies Center and the Industrial Social Service Laboratory, all providing services and guidance to industry in environmental matters.

Environmentally sound technologies used in packaging, labeling, product design, manufacturing and other processes are being promoted in particular by the System of the National Confederation of Industry and SEBRAE.

The National Solid Wastes Policy, as well as the Brazilian Recycling Program, are among the instruments to identify appropriate technologies for waste treatment by the Government.

Among the technology-related programmes in this area are the following:

Program to Control Air Pollution from Automotive Vehicles, created in 1986, aims to reduce the level of pollutants in vehicles as well as to encourage national technological development, both in the automobile industry and in the methods and equipment needed to carry out trials and measurements of pollutants. The maximum emission limits for pollutants were determined, with a specific timetable for three distinct categories of vehicles: Light Passenger Vehicles, Light Commercial Vehicles and Heavy Vehicles. To meet these limits it was necessary to apply technologies and systems that optimize motor operation to provide perfect fuel ignition and consequent reduction of emissions and consumption. In 1992, the use of catalytic converters became necessary. In 1997, besides catalytic converters, new devices such as electronic injection have also become necessary.

Brazilian Molecular Ecology Program for the Sustainable Use of the Amazonian Biodiversity: a three pronged consolidation of biodiversity, biotechnology and bioindustry, this Program coordinates the implementation of the Amazon Biotechnology Center, to be built in the Manaus Industrial District, to be inaugurated at the end of 1999. This Program will change the parameters of economic exploitation in the Amazon, resulting in the collection and research of Amazonian natural resources and generation of knowledge and biotechnologies to develop bioindustry.

Program for Energy Development in the States and Municipalities of the North Region. Settlements in this region are far from urban centers and other sources of electrical energy. The Ministry of Mines and Energy, together with the National Institute for Colonization and Agrarian Reform (INCRA), starting in January 1999, will install solar panels in 41 community centers of agrarian reform in municipalities of the North Region. Systems will be installed in schools, community and health centers, providing not only lighting but also cold storage for medication, access to information through the use of satellite dishes, television and VCRs in the schools.

Efficiency of Public Lighting Systems. Following global trends, the program to enhance the efficiency of public lighting has become a relevant contribution to the actions to conserve energy and to counter waste, given the solutions related to the so-called appropriate technologies to preserve the environment and reduce the socio-economic impacts of the generation and use of energy. Enhanced efficiency of public lighting systems lead to reduced energy consumption, and may represent an important step to make better use of natural and financial resources of the country. Programs to enhance public lighting efficiency are being implemented throughout the country, whereby 700,000 lights will be replaced by sodium vapor lights and more efficient auxiliary equipment.

Program to Combat Electricity Waste - PROCEL. This program was created in 1985 and restructured in 1995, to combat waste, which represents 1/3 of all the energy consumed in the country. PROCEL defines strategies and mobilizes representative sectors of society, such as electricity companies, government bodies at all levels, universities, research centers, associations, consumer groups, commercial, industrial and service sectors, NGOs, national and foreign financing agencies and international entities. Integrated action between supplier and consumer will result in a reduction of consumption of 130 billion kWh by the year 2015, resulting in net gains of up to US$34 billion.

National Program to Rationalize the Use of Oil and Natural Gas Byproducts - CONPET. This program was created in 1991 and its action covers all sectors that consume oil and natural gas byproducts. The transport sector, responsible for nearly half the domestic consumption of oil by-products has a high potential for rationalization, not only because of habits of drivers, but also due to the high fuel consumption of domestic vehicles when compared to that of foreign vehicles. In the residential and commercial sector, the LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) is used by circa 85% of the population. In this sector substantial savings could be achieved by informing consumers as to its more efficient use and improvement in the equipment. In the industrial sector, enhancing energy efficiency will lead to improved quality and competitiveness of products. In the agricultural sector, consumption reduction will have an impact on the price of food and, consequently, on the cost of living. CONPET actions are both economic: it is expected to reduce consumption by about 230 thousands barrels a day by the year 2010; and environmental: preservation and improvement of air quality in both small and large cities.

Financing  

Although resources are insufficient, the sector is financed by the national budget, partnerships with the private sector and external assistance.

Cooperation  

Cooperation in this area takes place through the Montreal Protocol Multilateral Fund; the GEF Multilateral Cooperation; bilateral cooperation with Germany in projects such as WEAVES (for weaving industry, to replace dyes with biodegradable dyes); SHIFT (in the area of research and technology; and with UNIDO for the Clean Production Center.

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This information was provided by the Government of Brazil to the fifth and seventh sessions of the UN Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: February 1999.


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FINANCING

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

In the seventies and eighties subsidies were created to correct interregional development inequalities which, in the Amazon region, implied deforestation to create agro-pastoral systems. Around ten years ago, these subsidies were eliminated. Two years ago, the Presidency of the Republic launched the Green Protocol, through which public banks have been committing themselves not to finance environmentally aggressive undertakings and to provide support to sustainable productive systems, adapting, for this purpose, their procedures for analysis and concession of credit. Recently, measures were drawn up for forest regions to avoid that standing forests be taxed as unproductive for purposes of Rural Land Tax, thus avoiding a stimulus to the non use of goods and services that a native forest can provide. Considering that foreign investments receive the same treatment as domestic investments, the Green Protocol may contribute to guide foreign investments in the direction of sustainability. In Brazil initiatives, both state and private, are being implemented, so that foreign investments made in the country are for undertakings certified by the ISO 14000. A negotiation is also under way to internalize resources of European ethic funds, with the commitment for their exclusive use in environmentally sustainable projects. In the table below, the environmental taxes and tariffs used in Brazil:

Instruments

Current Situation

Purpose

Charge for water use in hydrographic water basins by volume and polluting content:
  • National
  • State of São Paulo
x
x
  • approved by Law 9.433 on 12/01/98.
  • to be implemented in 1998.
to finance hydrographic water basin entities and inducement of wise use of water resources
Tariff for industrial sewage, based on pollutant contents:
  • State of São Paulo

x

  • State of Rio de Janeiro
x
x
  • partially implemented since 1981


implemented since 1986 and concluded in 1994

to recover the costs of sewage treatment stations



Tax on fuel being implemented (1998) reduce polluting emissions
x Financial Compensation due to exploitation of natural resources:
  • hydroelectric generation
  • oil production
  • minerals (except oil )
  • totally implemented in 1991





to compensate counties and states where production is carried out and also the regulatory agencies

x Fiscal compensation for preservation areas:
  • State of São Paulo
  • State of Paraná 
  • State of Minas Gerais
  • implemented in 1994
  • implemented in 1992
  • under implementation
to compensate counties for the restriction on soil use in spring areas and for forest preservation

x Deforestation Tax:
  • Federal Fund for Forest Replacement paid by users with no reforestation activities
  • Tax for Forestry Services in Minas Gerais paid by users of forest based products
  • implemented in 1973
  • partially implemented since 1968 and totally reviewed and implemented in 1994
  • to finance public reforestation projects
  • to finance state forestry activities

Source: Serôa da Motta & Reis ( 1998 )

The most striking recent measure was the approval of the Environmental Crimes Law, in February 1988. This law provides environmental enforcement agencies with new instruments, to strengthen environmental impact preventive and mitigating measures and the use of natural resources in the various productive sectors.

Official financing institutions are playing an important role in the observance of environmental policy, since as resource providers they also act in a preventive manner, from the initial analysis of a project to its effective implementation. Aside from the Green Protocol other such mechanisms in Brazil are:

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

International technical cooperation is responsible for about $706.5 million, distributed among 151 bilateral projects which are under execution, negotiation or have been concluded in the last five years.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information is based on Brazil's submission to the 6th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1998. Last update: 27 April 1998

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For information on participating States in the Global Environment Facility, click here:
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TECHNOLOGY

Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technology

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

With regard to legislation to protect Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) with a view to promoting investments related to the transfer of ESTs, the Intellectual Property Law was recently approved by the Congress. In addition, there is the Biosafety Commission and the Law of Cultivars which are consistent with international agreements.

ESTs are most urgently needed in the following areas:

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The PPA-Multiannual Plan for Science and Technology-96/99 which includes Management of Ecosystems and Natural Resources is the national policy for the promotion of innovation in the area of Environmentally Sound Technologies (ESTs). This plan is formulated by the Ministry of Science and Technology - MCT, which reports to the Ministry of Environment, Water Resources and the Legal Amazon on those Science and Technology programs related to the environment; to the National Science and Technology Council -CCT (which prepares the Federal Government's annual Report of Activities in Science and Technology-C&T); to the Ministry of Mines and Energy in matters related to the use of renewable energy sources, and together with SEAIN (International Affairs Secretariat of the Ministry of Planning and Budget) follows the projects financed by GEF in the areas of energy and environment.

The objectives of this plan are to strengthen the scientific and technological competence of the country in areas that are strategic for development, by means of a rigorous selection of institutions and groups of researchers to lead thematic networks of research and development. It foresees the establishment and consolidation of 50 centers of excellence, technology centers and incubators; the implementation of 40 thematic R&D networks and the provision of support to 200 research centers. Through these activities it will create mechanisms for Brazil to access new technologies and promote capacity building in areas of strategic significance such as special materials, optoelectronics; superconductivity; biotechnology for health; agriculture and energy; conservation and alternative sources of energy.

The National Center of Clean Technologies (CNTL) created by UNIDO and UNEP at the SENAI in Rio Grande do Sul, is an instrument to facilitate the establishment and dissemination of the concept of clean technologies in all sectors. The CNTL develops programs for environmental conservation incorporating the following activities: disseminate and implement cleaner production techniques in companies; promote professional capacity building; assess companies in approaching financial and environmental institutions to draft projects; and to develop systems for treating and disposal of solid wastes. Brazilian universities are also important centers for technology development. Within the National Confederation of Industries (CNI), the Euvaldo Lodi Institute works within the University-Business interaction to develop new technologies.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

There are a number of programmes of action developed from the Plan. Under the coordination of MCT/SEDEC - Scientific Development Secretariat, the programs implemented by CNPq, by FINEP and by other institutions include:

The main components of these programs of action are as follows: The Science and Technology Subprogram of the Pilot Program to Conserve the Brazilian Rain Forest - PPG-7 The MCT, through FINEP, participates in the execution of the Science and Technology Subprogram, which consists of a group of integrated activities to promote the generation and dissemination of scientific and technological knowledge on the conservation of tropical rain forests and on the sustainable development of the Amazon region. This work focuses on two main areas: consolidation of the Emilio Goeldi Museum of Par  and the National Institute for Amazon Research as centers of excellence, with the capacity to generate and disseminate knowledge; and the implementation of Directed Research Projects (PPD), to promote the generation and consolidation of the knowledge required for the conservation of the Amazon tropical rain forest, as well as the wise use of its resources.

Research activities are organized according to the following priorities: Amazon ecosystems, technologies for sustainable development, infrastructure and improved living conditions. As to the support for centers of excellence, the following activities may be highlighted: research in comparative biology, tropical biology and ecology, use of natural resources, development of rural production systems, climatology and water resources. It is expected that this subprogram will go far in institutional strengthening and development, including the recovery and improvement of research infrastructure, capacity building of human resources and dissemination of scientific information.

The Program is financed by the G-7, USAID through the World Bank, ODA through bilateral cooperation and by the Brazilian Government. In a recent meeting of the participants of the PPG-7, donations of ECU 5 million from the European Union and US$ 10 million from the US/USAID were announced.

Marine Sciences Pilot Program The Program, created in 1994, aims to promote research to make the sustainable use of the potentialities of the Brazilian maritime zone feasible, even under the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Program and by means of international cooperation projects. The main lines of action of the program that will continue in 1998 are as follows: follow-up of global changes, control of environmental quality; identification and sustainable exploitation of renewable natural resources; international cooperation and exchange.

Assessment of the Sustainable Potential of the Living Resources of the Exclusive Economic Zone - REVIZEE The Program to Assess the Sustainable Potential of the Living Resources of the Exclusive Economic Zone (REVIZEE) is intended to make an inventory of the living resources in the EEZ and of the environmental characteristics of their occurrence; to determine the biotic resources; and to establish the sustainable yield catches. Its results will allow Brazil to meet the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea with respect to living resources. They will also permit management of the national fishing sector, based on consistent and updated technical-scientific data. Furthermore, it will enable the incorporation of new resources and open a new frontier for fishing in the country, made up of the farthest areas of the EEZ, practically unexplored today by Brazilian vessels.

LBA - Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in the Amazon. This is a large scale experiment on the Brazilian biosphere, headed by Brazil (INPE/MCT) to generate the knowledge necessary to understand the operation and interactions between the Amazon and the planet's biogeological system.

The Brazilian Antarctic Program - PROANTAR Brazil has undertaken scientific activities in Antarctica since 1982, through the Brazilian Antarctic Program - PROANTAR, in order to understand the phenomena that occur there and their influence on the Brazilian Territory. Knowledge of the characteristics and phenomena that occur in Antarctica may clarify issues of global and regional significance, such an environmental changes and the feasibility of exploitation of natural resources without causing impacts harmful to the environment. PROANTAR activities demonstrate Brazil's firm interest in the Antarctic region, making Brazilian presence effective and creating conditions for its full participation in the decision making process of the Antarctic Treaty.

Environment (RHAE) Support research projects that contribute to the scientific and technological development in the institutions that are active in the environmental area, bearing in mind the principles of sustainability of resources. The projects are mainly concentrated in the following areas: environmental management, conservation of genetic resources, biodiversity conservation, waste treatment, basic sanitation, ecological economic zoning, recovery of degraded areas, environmental policy and management, planning and management of water resources, limnology, coastal zone management, sustainable rural development and sustainable industrial development. The results obtained have been of great relevance to the priority issues in the environmental area. The following products may be highlighted:

The Energy Sector It is hoped that with the advent of the Federal Government's new policies for restructuring the energy sector, which include breaking the generation monopoly and privatizing energy distribution, there will be increased competition in the production and use of new energy sources. Research and development (R&D) now has an essential role to play in the reduction of production costs and in the search of more efficient and environmentally sound systems.

To date support has been given to the development of projects that aim to consolidate an institutional technological competence for a greater conservation efficiency of the national energetic systems. Priority was given to projects that had a sustainable perspective of the environment, with the objective of providing a clean production and an efficient use of conventional energetic resources (non-renewable) and the development of methodologies more appropriate to the technological systems that use renewable resources. The projects are mainly concentrated in the following areas/sectors: Refrigeration and Combustion, Management of Electric Energy Demand, Energy Accumulators and Hybrid Systems, Energy Conservation, Alternative Energies, Biomass and Artificial Intelligence (neural networks) applied to the operation of Energy Substations. Among others, the most significant results are:

In the area of Renewable Energy Sources. Emphasis has been placed on coordinating Science and Technology activities carried out in the country related to the development an use of alternative energy sources. Among the most relevant activities are:

Besides the programs coordinated by SEDEC/MCT, there is the environmental component of PADCT - Program to Support Scientific and Technological Development (Environmental Sciences Subprogram - (CIAMB) and the Center for Technological Development (CDT). It carries out cooperative projects involving the participation of universities, companies and R&D institutes)and gives support to development of environmental projects but also to the organization of "platforms" to bring together stakeholders to define joint work plans. FINEP-GREEN is another program which gives subsidized loans to companies to carry out projects for the development of clean technologies.

Besides the programs that support research development and environmentally sound technology transfer as described above, the fiscal incentives awarded to Planning and Development activities (Law No. 8661) executed by companies also include the development of environmentally sound technologies. The Government, in cooperation with business associations, has promoted actions to encourage companies to certify themselves according to environmental standards NBR ISO 14000. Twenty industrial units have already had the environmental management systems certified and five organisms have been accredited to provide certification in this area. It is expected that in 1998 some ninety environmental management certificates will be issued. The certifying companies currently authorized are: Carlos Alberto Vanzolini Foundation - FCAV; the American Bureau of Shipping Quality Evaluation - ABS-QE; the Bureau Veritas Quality International - BVQI; the Den Norske Veritas - DNV; and the DQS. Small businesses are being encouraged to adopt measures for production control and improvement, taking into account the environmental variable, through the Brazilian Service to Support Small Businesses - SEBRAE.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

Capacity building programs for sustainable development are defined and prioritized according to regional, state and local needs, or those of governmental and non-governmental institutions. These actions are carried out through courses for personnel from IBAMA and state and local environment bodies, using traditional tools and mechanisms and qualified instructors or through continuous and correspondence education, using technology in education.

To ensure improvement and expansion of human resources needed for research and development, 50,023 scholarships-year were awarded by the National Council of Scientific and Technological Development - CNPq. Among these, 2,706 scholarships were given to support training of researchers directly at businesses, through the Program for Technological Capacity Building in Strategic Areas - RHAE.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

Biotechnology

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry of Environment, Water Resources and the Amazon cooperates closely with the Ministry of Science and Technology in the proposal and implementation of policies and programs.

The National Technical Council on Biosafety, a subsidiary body of the National Council on Science and Technology, under the Ministry of Science and Technology, was established in April 1996 and is responsible for regulating all activities and projects related to the engineering, cultivation, management, use, transportation, storage, trade, consumption, licensing and disposal of genetically-modified organisms. Business corporations, Scientists and NGOs participate.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

Main programs include the National Support Program for the Development of Science and Technology (PADCT), and the research and Development Program on Agricultural Biotechnology, involving several hundred researchers and projects. The Brazilian Bioinformatics Resource Center and the Brazilian Molecular Biology and Technology Network, with a Biosafety database and discussion list are regular information exchange mechanisms.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

Federal budget allocations by the Ministries of Science and Technology, Education, Health, Agriculture, and the Environment, to universities, to the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA) and the Osvaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), and to other institutions, for training and research on biotechnology, have exceeded US $40 million annually.

Cooperation

Bilateral initiatives on biotechnology in agriculture include agreements with Argentina, France (African Oil Palm), Germany, Belgium (Bean Methane), as well as the UK (Fermentation Yeast) and several U.S. Universities (Cornell, Texas A&M, and other). Multilateral support has been channeled through IDB and the IBRD.

* * *

This information is based on Brazil's submission to the 5th & 6th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997 & 1998. Last update: 27 April 1997

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For the Ministerio do Planejamento, click here.
For access to FINEP - Financiadora de Estudos e Projectos - click here.
For the Ministry of Science and Technology, click here.
For the Ministerio do Meio Ambiente, dos Recursos Hidricos, e da Amazonia Legal, click here.
For the Ministerio do Meio Ambiente, dos Recursos Hidricos, e da Amazonia Legal, click here.
Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to go to the Web Site of UNEP's International Register on Biosafety.
Click here for the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Biosafety WebPages

INDUSTRY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

See under Programmes and Projects.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

See under Programmes and Projects.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

See under Programmes and Projects.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

See under Programmes and Projects.

Programmes and Projects 

In view of the the growing expansion of the services sector and given that the share of the industrial sector in the Brazilian GDP was 31.4% in 1995, while that of the farming sector was 11.3%, it may well be said that the country is following the standard trend of the industrialized economies. Brazilian industry is widely diversified and increasingly decentralized, geographically speaking. It is estimated that the national market is more than US$ 3.5 million. On the other hand, business success depends largely on both the sustainability of the environment, and social and economic sustainability, so that companies can become globally competitive. Over the last few years, the environmental initiatives and practices in the business world have launched a series of reforms and initiatives aiming at sustainability, since it is impossible to dispute the brutal environmental degradation caused in the world today by developing countries and, in particular, developed countries.

In Brazil potentially polluting activities are to be found in the chemical, petrochemical, mining, paper and cellulose sectors, among others. According to technical research carried out by the Ministry of Labor, threats to human health associated with industrial activities, (specially without environmental control), are:

It is also important to highlight the activities of small and medium sized industries that, taken together, contribute on a large scale to the total emission of pollutants in Brazil. Examples are the metal-mechanical, leather and shoes, agroindustrial sectors.

Within the context of specific legislation for the industrial sector, (see Part IX, item 3). With regard to a national policy for ecologically sustainable industrial development. the Green Protocol, was launched in 1996 by the Presidency of the Republic. Under this protocol which was signed by the federal public institutions related to the economic and environmental, one of the guidelines is the creation of special lines of credit and financing for undertakings with well known concern for environmental protection and preservation. Public banks have committed themselves not to finance environmentally aggressive undertakings and to provide support to sustainable production systems. To this end, the banks have adapted their procedures for analysis and concession of credit.

In addition, the renewed investment in infrastructure, that now is being considered strategically, is a necessary condition for sustained economic development in Brazil. This strategy promotes economic and social development, as it increases the return on private investments, and above all, promotes employment.

The main legal instruments related to the industrial sector are:

From the point of view of the private sector, the National Confederation of Industries (CNI) guides its activities and positions on issues related to the environment according to its "Industry Principles for Sustainable Development" (see annex). Thus, it develops programs/projects with the purpose of strengthening the competitiveness of the Brazilian industry, bearing in mind the wise use of natural resources. These programs/projects have come together in a group of integrated activities of the CNI system of entities (CNI/SESI/SENAI/IEL), both in the field of business representation and in providing services to the Brazilian industry. As to providing services, the initiatives aim at stimulating and supporting the efforts of the domestic industry to improve competitiveness through better environmental management, development of clean technologies and capacity building .

CNI has in its Work Plan, several projects to support its strategy such as the CNI Ecology Prize. Instituted in 1997, the awarding of this prize aims to encourage and recognize industries which adopt actions that result in improved environmental quality, and promote awareness of the need to integrate the various aspects related to the environment and industrial management processes.

Another such project is Capacity Building of Human Resources in Environment in which it is expected that 200 companies will participate in 1998. Begun in 1994, the Program has already trained more than 650 technical personnel in all the CNI System Units, Industry Federations, Business Associations and industries. Given its multiplier effect, it is estimated that the Program has trained some 1500 technicians at all levels, in environmental issues. In addition CNI is elaborating a National Environmental Education Program to be ready in 1998.

CNI also continuously disseminates information on the environment. The main products related to information dissemination are:

Publications

Seminars In 1997, six national seminars were held in different Brazilian states, in order to raise awareness of society, particularly Brazilian business, of the importance of environmental protection. The topics for the seminars were: Fuel Quality and Pollutant Emissions; Biodiversity; Recycling of Solid Wastes; Amazon and Planted Forests. A total of 710 people participated in the events. For 1998, an International Seminar on the Environment will be held as well as National Seminars on: National Water Resources Policy; Environmental Legislation; Application of Clean Technologies; Environmental Auditing; Technical Environmental Barriers to International Trade; and the Amazon.

National Technology Centers The CNI System has the following Technology Centers: CETSAM - National Environmental Technology Center in Curitiba, PR; CETIND - Industrial Technology Center; CNTL - National Clean Technology Center and SESI-LAB to provide services and guidance to industrial businesses with respect to the environment.

Due to the fact that there is no precise data on green industries and their relationship to the national economy, the CNI intends to carry out a study in 1998 to quantify industrial investments in the environment (environmental accounting) and to draft a proposal to quantify, encourage and stimulate green industry. In Brazil, the movement in the direction of green industries was consolidated with the creation of the Brazilian Business Council for Sustainable Development - CEBDS, which is part of the Latin American Council of the Business Council for Sustainable Development - BCDS. The CEBDS published a "Report on Business Sustainability" at the end of 1997, where it presents the results of 27 associated companies, with economic, social and above all environmental sustainability and ecoefficiency indicators.

The Government, in cooperation with business entities (specially CNI and SEBRAE), has promoted actions to encourage certification of companies according to NBR-ISO 14000 environmental standards. Twenty industrial units have already had their environmental management systems certified, and five bodies were authorized to issue certification in this area. In 1998, around ninety environmental management certifications are expected to be issued. The certifying companies currently authorized are: Funda‡ao Carlos Alberto Vanzolini - FCAV; the American Bureau of Shipping Quality Evaluation - ABS-QE; the Bureau Veritas Quality International - BVQI; the Den Norske Veritas - DNV; and the DQS. Small companies are being encouraged to adopt measures to control and improve production processes, taking into account the environmental variable, through the Brazilian Service to Support Small Business - SEBRAE. The companies are thus seeking to set guidelines, based on reform elements, including various environmental norms, among them:

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

 

* * *

This information is based on Brazil's submission to the 6th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1998. Last update: 27 April 1998

Brazilian Business Council for Sustainable Development National Confederation of Industries
Environmental Sanitation Technology Company of the State of São Paulo
Business Commitment to Recycling
Brazilian Association of Chemical Industries
Mineral Technology Center
Ministry of Environment, Water Resources and the Legal Amazon
Ministry of Industry, Commerce and Tourism

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TRANSPORT

No information is available.

 

* * *

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SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The regulation of Ecotourism is being discussed in the National Environment Council - CONAMA. The Brazilian System for Rating Lodgings seeks to implement quality standards in lodgings. Although joining the system is voluntary, it has been guiding the implementation and operation of lodgings throughout the country. The Brazilian System for Rating Lodgings was recently reformulated, although not yet fully implemented, and the Consumer Protection Code is being increasingly used by tourists as a means to solve problems in tourism, particularly misleading advertising.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

In Brazil, the Ministry of Industry, Commerce and Tourism - MICT - and the Brazilian Tourism Institute - EMBRATUR - are responsible for decision-making on sustainable tourism at the national level. At the local level, the Municipal Tourism Departments or Secretariats are responsible.

Major Groups are involved in decision-making in a number of ways. The National Program to Municipalize Tourism - PNMT, presumes a broad participation in the decisions on local tourism development. To do so, Municipal Tourism Councils were created with representatives from government, private sector and organized civil society. In the case of Ecotourism in the Amazon, the GTC-Amazonia is a body in which representatives of civil society, trade associations and all levels of government participate.

For the indigenous populations, there is the Pilot Program for Ecotourism in Indigenous Lands, a project of the GTC-Amazonia. To define norms, procedures and principles for developing Ecotourism in these lands, a workshop was held in Goiás, in 1997, with representatives from the indigenous population, non-governmental organizations, from the official indigenous assistance body, FUNAI, and from the Ministry of Environment.

The National Tourism Policy comprises several actions, in particular the National Program to Municipalize Tourism, whose area of action includes 1320 small and medium-sized municipalities.

The National Integrated Legal Amazon Policy, through the Program to Develop Ecotourism in the Legal Amazon - PROECOTUR - covers the nine states of the region.

Issues covered by these Policies include the following:

Among several government actions, the Guidelines for a National Ecotourism Policy can be highlighted. These were drafted in 1995 with an ample participation by the public and private sectors and organized society, under the coordination of the Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of Industry, Commerce and Tourism.

The guiding principles of governmental and private actions are:

Based on these principles, nine strategies for actions were developed:

With respect to monitoring, there are, in addition to an annual survey on international and national tourism receptiveness, which supplies indicators on the degree of dissatisfaction of the tourist with several aspects of Brazilian tourism, no systematic procedures to monitor the development of sustainable tourism at a national level.

Some procedures of this nature are implemented, on an isolated basis, by state and local governments.

The Brazilian System for Rating Lodgings established by the Brazilian Government through EMBRATUR determines environmental criteria that must be observed when operating rated lodgings, penalizing those that do not comply with the established procedures at any time.

In the case of Ecotourism, controls and regulations are being discussed within the National Environment Council - CONAMA, the highest regulatory body for environmental issues in the country.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

Major programmes in effect to promote sustainable tourism include:

The document Guidelines for a National Ecotourism Policy was developed to define the concept and to order, coordinate and establish basic parameters for a National Ecotourism Policy.

Based on these guidelines, a Technical Group to Coordinate Ecotourism in Amazonia was instituted in the Ministry of Environment. This Group coordinates the activities of developing, assessing and monitoring the Regional Ecotourism Policy and Program, its sub-programs and associated projects. It has representatives from the Ministry of Environment, through its Amazonian Affairs Secretariat and the Brazilian Institute for Environment and Natural Renewable Resources - IBAMA; and from the Ministry of Industry, Commerce and Tourism, through the Brazilian Tourism Institute. Other entities also collaborate with the technical group, such as: national and regional bodies, related state bodies, tourism operators, trade associations, non-governmental organizations, industry and trade.

In order to make the development of ecotourism in Amazonia viable, to enable the sustainable development of the region, the Ministry of Environment, in partnership with the Inter-American Development Bank, is drafting the Program to Develop Ecotourism in Amazonia - PROECOTUR. The program consists of two stages: a pre-investment stage at a cost of US$10.025 million and with a 15-month implementation period, and the investment stage, estimated at US$200 million, with a 3-year implementation period.

Studies and surveys are being developed under the coordination of EMBRATUR on the conditions for implementation or development of ecotourism centers in other regions of the country.

Status   

Tourism now plays the following roles in the economy of Brazil:

30.4 million passengers landing on domestic flights (1998 - estimated)

5.5 million passengers landing on international flights (1997)

2.9 million foreign tourist arrivals (1997)

US$ 2.6 million income from international tourism (1997)

6 million direct and indirect jobs (1994)

1 out of 11 Brazilian workers are employed in "travel and tourism" (1994)

The growth of the tourism sector in Brazil's economy over the past ten years and as projected over the next decade is represented below:

Foreign Tourist Entries

1993 1,572,000

1994 1,853,000

1995 1,991,00

1996 2,666,000

1997 2,995,000

1998 3,200,000 (estimated)

INCOME (in US$ billion)

1993 1.091

1994 1.925

1995 2.097

1996 2.469

1997 2.669

1998 2.800 (estimated)

PROJECTIONS FOR 2002

35 million domestic passengers arrivals

5.5 million foreign tourist arrivals

US$ 4.9 billion income from tourism

Since sustainable tourism is a recent concept, it has not yet been fully absorbed by most actors in the sector. Measures to revert these practices are being adopted, in order to observe principles of sustainability, environmental balance, social justice and cultural respect and recovery.

These premises are intrinsic to the Brazilian concept of ecotourism, and thus essential to ensure and consolidate this tourism segment.

Brazil is undertaking a number of activities geared to sustainable tourism, eco-tourism and nature-based tourism. A few examples follow:

Specific areas have been delimited for ecotourism, and priority areas were defined in Amazonia for its development, called Ecotourism Centers, in the nine states of the Region. It is one of PROECOTUR's strategies.

For the other areas of the country, surveys and studies are being carried out to identify other Ecotourism Centers. RINTUR - Tourism Information Guide - is also identifying the municipalities where ecotourism should be developed. The Guide divides these municipalities into 2 groups: those where tourism is already consolidated and those with touristic potential. These include: Centers for Development of Ecotourism in the South and Mid-West Regions (being edited); Ecotourism in the Ribeira Valley (being edited); Indigenous Manual for Ecotourism; Ecotourism leaflet (annexed); and Various leaflets.

Challenges  

Among major constraints are the following: the non-existence of indicators to assess impacts; the low awareness of public and private sectors, as well as local communities, of the concept and its applicability; insufficient resources to fund specific projects and lack of technical consistency so that they can be monitored; and non-internalization of technologies appropriate to environmentally sustainable practices for the various tourism activities.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

The Ministry of Labor, with funds from FAT (Worker Assistance Fund), runs the National Professional Tourism Education Program. FAT resources have been used over the last three years by State Labor Secretariats to train around 300 thousand professionals in various tourism related activities.

The first stage in the implementation of the PNMT is an awareness raising process on sustainable tourism development and is directed to the various actors of local tourism, including local authorities.

The National Program to Municipalize Tourism has as its main target, besides the public and private sectors, the local communities. Its main partners are SEBRAE (Brazilian Service to Support Small Business), SENAC (National Commercial Training Service), and the banks Caixa Economica Federal and Banco do Brasil.

There is a Program to Raise Awareness and Education for Tourism, whose target audience is the local community, through elementary school children, with support from SENAC (National Commercial Training Service);

Workshops for Raising Awareness on Ecotourism were held for populations of the extractive reserves of Chico Mendes and AUo Jurua in the State of Acre, Cajari in the State of Amapa, Rio Ouro Preto in Rondonia and Santarem and Lago Tucurui in the State of Pará.

In order to inform, disseminate and popularize Ecotourism, the GTC-Amazonia edited the Indigenous Manual for Ecotourism, with technical information, procedures and principles to be observed for its development, and the game "Amazonia Legal", an interactive game with information and questions on environment, health, ecotourism in the Amazon region, aimed at the communities of the region.

The Program Clean City, directed to tourists and local communities, encourages, through campaigns, concern for quality of life with respect to urban cleanliness. This Program is developed mainly under the PNMT, and is thus supported by all the partners of that program.

As an example, every leisure or tourism boat that casts anchor in Abrolhos from July to November is visited by a technician or an intern of the local IBAMA project, who explains the ongoing work, highlighting the need to protect the humpback whales of the region. Each visitor receives a leaflet with the norms for watching cetaceans in Brazilian waters (IBAMA 1990 Directive No. 2306), as well as information related to the conservation and biology of these creatures. The tourist then has the means to evaluate the proximity of the vessels, having the opportunity to make any transgressions known through a questionnaire at the back of the folder, or even verbally. Furthermore, the exchange of information between tourists and vessel captains has provided important reports on the occurrence, number, behavior and structure of groups watched.

Monitoring of vessels that come close to the whales in the Abrolhos Archipelago is also carried out by the intern in charge of fixed point observations. Using binoculars and a portable VHF radio, he guides and controls the approximations, requesting the vessels to move away from whales when norms are not followed. The intern however has no power to punish transgressors.

The following literature is also available to promote sustainable tourism:

Information   

Information is made available through the PNMT, especially on sustainable tourism planning.

Likewise, the Ecotourism Capacity Building Program promotes dissemination of information on tourism planning and operation. Special mention should also be given to the development of specific studies and research which aim at providing input for ecotourism planning and operation.

General information on domestic tourism is being used for ecotourism. However, specific studies and research on Ecotourism management and planning are being developed and encouraged.

In the Legal Amazon region, the Centers chosen for Ecotourism Development have detailed information on natural resources and characteristics of their ecosystems.

Specific mapping is being developed for ecotourism in the other regions of the country. EMBRATUR, through RINTUR, is carrying out another mapping of the touristic potential of Brazilian municipalities, including an initial survey of natural resources.

Finally, one of the tools used in PNMT is guidance and incentive to prepare inventories of touristic attractions, including, among many others, listing of natural attractions.

Information on http://www.embratgr.gov.br in Brazil is available on the Web, where there are also links to other information sources, although this site is still under construction.

The Ministry of Environment, through its Amazon Affairs Secretariat, is preparing a Web Site with specific information on Ecotourism.

Relevant information can also be found at the  Brazilian Ecotourism Association Ecobrasil.

Under PROECOTUR, a set of indicators is being developed to guide the development of ecotourism in the Amazon Region.

RINTUR is another system that provides indicators for the development of sustainable development, and it also seeks to identify and follow-up the evolution of municipalities which are a priority of tourism development.

Research and Technologies  

In Ecotourism, infrastructure means technology. Thus, clean technologies are being adapted to ensure the sustainability of ecotourism products, and as a consequence, of its ecosystem. Discussions within the sector on the development and application of technologies to reduce negative impacts on the environment - with respect to transport, water supply, sewerage, disposal of solid wastes, and energy generation - have grown in the last few years; however, more significant results are expected only in the medium-term.

Ecotourism activities are increasingly employing management plans for their operations, even though there is still no regulation or certification processes that make this practice mandatory or that provide incentives.

However, hotels involved in ecotourism, if they want to adopt the classification established by EMBRATUR, are obliged to meet strict criteria for environmental, cultural social and economic sustainability parameters.

Financing  

Financing of the Brazilian tourism sector is carried out by federal budgetary resources, complemented by fiscal incentives, Constitutional Funds and credit lines from development banks, as well as resources from the private sector.

There is also foreign funding from financial agents such as the World Bank and IDB. With respect to the credit lines and financing sources for ecotourism, there are:

if they are situated in forests or other natural beauty localities;

if they are in places without urban characteristics;

if they are totally integrated to the local landscape, without any interference to the environment;

if they offer their users simple facilities, equipment and services, provided by themselves or third parties, for transport, lodging, food and programs for integration with the environment and its touristic use.

Cooperation  

Although still under implementation, the Centers for Ecotourism Development in the Legal Amazon will eventually become models for ecotourism, as will other Centers currently being identified in the other regions of the country. This is a result of the application of the actions proposed in the paper "Guidelines for a National Ecotourism Policy", which has been guiding the planning in all these areas. In the case of Amazonia these Centers are priority areas for PROECOTUR investments.

Cooperation with public authorities, with the private sector and local communities is basically through technical and financial support required for implementing government programs, especially PROECOTUR, PNMT and the National Amateur Fishing Program.

Practically all bilateral cooperation agreements include sustainable development principles. Multilateral actions developed under MERCOSUL, ALADI, COTASUR and the projects to be applied under FTAA, as well as Brazilian participation in specific programs coordinated by the World Tourism Organization should also be added.

In the specific case of Ecotourism in the Northern Region, bilateral and multilateral cooperation is dealt with under the Treaty for Amazonian Cooperation, in the Special Environment Commission.

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Brazil to the seventh session of the UN Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: February 1999.

 



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