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Economic Aspects | Natural Resource Aspects | Institutional Aspects | Social Aspects | Barbados

ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN BARBADOS

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INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

Decision-Making:  Coordinating Bodies

Matters pertaining to local, regional and international trade fall under the mandate of the Ministry of Industry and International Trade.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

Comprehensive national legislation addressing sustainable development is currently under review.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

Notwithstanding the tough constraints faced, Barbados has sought to overcome them through regional and local collaboration and by emphasising the importance of social partnership (public and private sector).

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

Government recognizes the need for NGO's to be involved in many matters pertaining to sustainable development however, as yet there is no NGO which focuses specifically on issues related to trade.

Programmes and Projects   

Barbados continues to work with its regional partners in the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) on a programme for the elimination of tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade. In this respect a Common External Tariff system is being pursued.

Status

Some of the major issues related to trade, investments and economic growth that are important to Barbados include:

Challenges

Barbados’ pursuit of Sustainable Development has been hampered by a number of international and local constraints within the trade arena, viz:

International

Domestic

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available

Information

Information related to trade, investment and economic growth is made available to potential users through the Barbados Industrial and Development Corporation (BIDC) and the International Business Directory of the Ministry of International Trade and Business.

At present, information related to major changes in production and consumption patterns due to increases or decreases in trade, investment and economic growth, and the environmental impacts of those changes, is not collected.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available

Financing  

No information is available

Cooperation

Regional integration efforts include the use of the Association of Caribbean States (ACS) as a vehicle to assist wider Caribbean states in managing the globalisation process. Barbados continues to strive toward satisfying its commitments and obligations under multilateral trade organizations such as World Trade Organisation.

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This information was provided by the government of Barbados to the 5th and 8th sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: February 2000.

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TRADE

No information is available.

 

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This information was provided by the government of Barbados to the 5th and 8th sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: February 2000.

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CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

There is no government body specifically charged with oversight of this policy area. However, varying agencies and departments oversee aspects of national policy which could inform sustainable consumption and product patterns e.g. Ministry of Industry and International Business and the Ministry of Commerce, Business Development and Consumer Affairs.

On an ad hoc basis, as appropriate, depending on the issue, such major groups as stakeholders are involved in policy development and other issues.

No specific strategy or policy exists in a comprehensive framework; however national policies regarding energy resources use and water, etc, would lead to sustainable consumption and production patterns.

Existing policies on water, energy, consumer policy and waste management promote sustainable patterns of production and consumption. In addition, the following programmes have begun:

Further, use has been made of solar energy for heating water. Tax incentives are used to promote the use of this alternative source of solar energy. Additionally, energy conservation devices continue to be used in some hotels in Barbados.

Specific issues such policies and programmes address include:

Programmes highlight mainly environmental, economic and social impacts. Cultural impacts are less obvious in a society as small as Barbados.

Consumer legislation is presently being considered which may impact on current consumption patterns. Also through the promotion of environmental awareness and ISO 14000 as well as issues of waste management (through levies or taxes, etc) more sustainable consumption and production patterns may be encouraged. There is at present no overall code of practice, but it is worthy of note that discussions have been afoot to look into this matter.

The Code of Practice for Industries, standards and guidelines for the activities of industry to discourage unsustainable practices and promote sustainable production patterns are as follows:

A - Codes of Practice

B - Standards and Guidelines

Quality Management

Guidelines for auditing quality systems, auditing, qualification criteria for quality systems and management of audit programmes also exist. The guideline standards on the ISO 14000 series on Environmental management systems, namely ISO 14001 and ISO 14004 has also been adopted as Barbadian National Standards. So have ISO 14000 and ISO 14002 on Environmental auditing. Standards in terms of effluent standards are adopted from WHO and CEHI. The Codes of Practice mentioned above have been established jointly by consensus of the Government and Private Sector. These are voluntary. The standards adopted from the ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 series are also voluntary. Seven (7) companies are ISO 9002 Certified while three (3) are ISO 14000 Certified; other companies have started the process and are investigating the importance os such systems.

The Government of Barbados has a significant level of policy instruments to promote effective waste management e.g. Environmental Levy for waste management and the tax rebate on solar water heaters. Additionally there is a fee for the disposal. However a wholesale policy on economic instruments does not exist but is being developed by the Environment Division and Economic Affairs.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available

Status   

In 1999, a workshop was held to make the business sector aware of environmental performance issues and ISO 14000, wherein the issue of life-cycle analysis was looked at. It is hoped that through continued promotion, industry will take up these voluntary standards and practices in order to attain more sustainable production.

The Ministry of International Trade is presently undertaking with Barbados Investment Development Corporation and BNSI, to promote ISO 9000 and 14000. Additionally, the Environment Division will seek to promote more sustainable practices in manufacturing and industry. Further the Coconut Court Hotel is to be part of a pilot project to promote Environmental Management Systems in the hotel sector.

Many activities have been undertaken to change unsustainable consumption and production patterns such as energy efficiency awareness, waste management public awareness and water conservation activities and public awareness and education campaigns. However it is difficult to gauge the impact of such activities on public behaviour at this time.

Challenges  

Priority constraints to implementing effective programmes to address the issues related to promoting sustainable consumption and production include:

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

Programmes for policy makers, industries, and/or consumers designed to educate and raise their awareness for more sustainable consumption and production patterns are undertaken through media such as seminars, workshops, pamphlets, capacity-building and training is executed. Additionally, there may be projects which specifically target training or capacity-building. Efforts are also underway to further the sensitization process of the April 98 ISO 14000 workshop by undertaking specific training for public and private sector persons.

Awareness campaign programmes to promote sustainable consumption patterns take place mainly through documentation such as the ISO 14000 fact sheet developed by the Environment Division, radio programmes and distribution of literature.

Information   

Normally information for decision-makers is available through contact with the relevant agency in the form of reports, documentation such as books, journals and newsletters such as ISO News and UNEP's Industry and the Environment. Agencies such as the Environment Division, BNSI, Ministry of Industry and International Business can be contacted. Further, NGOs such as Caribbean Conservation Association and Future Centre Trust can provide information on this topic.

In terms of effluent standards regarding water, the Environmental Engineering Department is responsible for testing as well as the Barbados Water Authority. Presently, no auditing or overall monitoring system has been established.

The relevant information is available by request and is not presently available on a national website.

Barbados is part of the UN Testing Programme on Sustainable Development Indicators. Further to that, the Environment Division, has developed and coordinates a National Indicators Programme (NIP) which seeks to define national indicators for all policy areas, including consumption and production patterns. Presently, the programme is in a data collection stage in terms of trying to discover what information is available and in what formats.

Research and Technologies  

Clean and environmentally sound technologies are promoted and applied in production mainly on an ad hoc basis as information becomes available. However, use of Environmentally Sound Technology (ESTs) is promoted where possible.

Other technology-related issues, for instance in packaging, labelling, product design, manufacturing and other processes that promote energy and material efficiency, reduce and recycle wastes, and extend life expectancy of products have just recently begun being addressed.

Financing  

Financing is provided through the National Budget and private sector partnership as appropriate.

Cooperation  

Currently Barbados participates in no such mechanism directly but is signatory to these: Climate Change, Persistent Organic Pollutants and Montreal Protocol which speak to the need to reduce consumption of materials potentially hazardous to the environment.

 

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This information is based on Barbados's submission to the fifth and seventh sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: February 1999

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FINANCING

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations, and Policy Instruments

Environmentally related economic instruments currently in use include those previously identified for waste management, namely:

Besides these, economic instruments used in Barbados to promote compliance with environmental requirements, tend to be of the "command and control" type in the form of penalty fees for contravention of specific standards or harvest limits. For example the 1997 Fisheries Act provides for a large monetary penalty to be charged if:

It is proposed that a tipping fee should be charged for disposal of solid waste at the landfill as well as the bulky waste disposal site. Recommendations have been submitted for the use of various economic instruments and incentives to encourage specifically the phase out of Ozone Depleting Substances in accordance with Barbados’ obligations to the Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol. Included in these recommendations are an incremental levy, a tax rebate, a licensing and certification system, and penalties for non-compliance with regulations and legislation.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

The Barbados Water Authority is in the process of institutional and administrative restructuring. One end result from this restructuring is expected to be a more economically efficient charging structure for water use which takes into consideration the depleted status of freshwater reserves as well as the increasing volume of demand for water from domestic and visitor populations. The existing standard fee for water use is expected to be replaced by a rising block tariff structure as well as differential charge rates for different categories of use such as domestic, commercial and industrial.

No explicit policies exist to make foreign direct investment (FDI) more environmentally friendly. However, recommendations which emanated from the Environmental Management for Land Use Planning and Sustainable Development (EMLUP 1998) project, in the form of the revised Physical Development Plan and the revised Town and Country Planning Development Act, are expected to ensure that all new developments, including Foreign Direct Investments; are more environmentally friendly. These recommendations include requirements and guidelines for Environmental Impact Assessments by proponents of development applications as well as a process for the review of such proposals by an EIA Committee composed of representatives for a variety of relevant sectors, agencies and government departments. Performance bonds have also been recommended for certain areas.

With regard to foreign direct investment (FDI), the Environmental Management and Land Use Planning Project completed in 1999, issued recommendations for legislation and policy developments with respect to environmental issues specifically, as well as sustainable development in general. A procedural process and legislation have been proposed for the conduct of Environmental Impact Assessments accompanying various classes of land use changes and building/construction developments.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

Government has in place a major Poverty Eradication Programme, which is administered by the newly established Ministry of Social Transformation. As part of this programme, Minimum Wage Cheques are issued to individuals who have been employed for a stipulated length of time and in receipt of salaries below a minimum level. The Minimum Wage Cheques are intended to compensate for the imposition of the Value Added Tax.

The Government continues to explore the feasibility of utilizing additional financial and economic instruments to support and encourage sustainable development initiatives in Barbados. One area of specific focus in this regard is solid waste management. The Sewerage and Solid Waste Project Unit of the Ministry of Health, is compiling comprehensive national waste management legislation, which will include additional appropriate economic instruments to promote compliance with revised regulations.

Status

Issues related to financing sustainable development and the implementation of Agenda 21 that are of concern for Barbados at the international level include the fact that:

Another issue at the regional level is that there is a lack of an effective regional coordination mechanism.

Challenges

Issues related to financing sustainable development and the implementation of Agenda 21 that are of concern for Barbados include:

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies  

No information is available

Financing

The Government of Barbados in January 1999 created a new Ministry of the Environment, Energy and Natural Resources mandated in part to facilitate and support the pursuit of national sustainable development. Even though no specific component of the national budget is allocated to "sustainable development" per se, all development sectors are addressed and environmental concerns are integrated into individual projects and programmes. The information presented below, identifies the total costs of projects, actual expenditures for 1996/1997 and 1997/1998, as well as, the budget allocation for 1999/2000. Included in the list are projects that are ongoing and those that are proposed eg the West Coast Sewerage Project (Construction Phase) and the Coastal Conservation (Investment Phase).

 

Project Name

 

Total Costs
US$ million
Act. Expend. 1997/8
US$ million
Act. Expend. 1998/9
US$ million
Budget
Estimate
Coastal Conservation II
Phase 1
US $3.996 US$ 1.377 -0- -0-
Coastal Conservation Investment Phase US$22.000      
West Coast Sewerage Study US$4.33 US$0.617 US$0.282111 US$0.987
West Coast Sewerage Project Construction US$143.490 - - -
Water Resources and Water loss Studies US$1.625 US$0.043 -0- US$0.175
Environmental Management & Land Use Planning for Sustainable Development US$1.795      
Beautify Barbados 2000       US$1.000
Feasibility Studies of Harrison's Cave, Folkestone Part & Marine Reserve, and Carlisle Bay US$1.99 US$1.270   US$0.531
The South Coast Sewerage Project US$113.000 US$15.218 US$10.039 US$28.00
Solid Waste Management Programme US$28.470 US$7.779 US$0.296 US$5.250

Currently, an environmental levy is imposed to offset the disposal cost of non-biodegradable packaging material on imported items. The Environmental Levy generated revenues of US$ 2.391 million and US$ 4.799 million in fiscal years 1996/7 and 1997/8 respectively. These revenues are not currently earmarked specifically for environmental initiatives but consideration is being given to adopting this kind of approach.

Since January 1996 all new domestic and commercial buildings of stipulated sizes, were encouraged to install energy- and water-saving equipment through the provision of income tax rebates.

Cooperation

Funding assistance has been received for various sustainable development projects including:

(i) Montreal Protocol - Phase out of Ozone Depleting Substances -

(ii) National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP)

(iii) Green House Gas Inventory

Assistance for the execution of the above projects has taken the form of loans from donor countries as well as banks, for example the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank. Technical assistance has also been provided in the form of equipment and trained personnel.

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This information was provided by the government of Barbados to the 5th and 8th sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: February 2000.

For information on participating States in the Global Environment Facility, click here:
For information about issues and projects in Latin America and the Caribbean from the World Bank, click here:

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TECHNOLOGY

Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technology

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Ministry of Health and the Environment, Ministry of Transport and Works, and National Council for Science and Technology are responsible for the promotion and transfer of Environmentally Sound Technologies (ESTs).

No organised forum exists for stakeholder involvement in the decision-making process. The involvement of stakeholders has traditionally been ensured through various mechanisms such as working groups, workshops etc, on an ad-hoc basis. Harmonisation occasionally occurs if there is an incident in which more than one group is involved and a common solution is being sought for an urgent problem. Potentially, this could be facilitated through the National Commission on Sustainable Development (NCSD).

Presently, no National Strategy or Policy for the promotion of innovation in the area of Environmentally Sound Technologies exists. However, it must be noted that the National Council for Science and Technology (NCST) and the Barbados Industrial Development Corporation (BIDC) have had discussions on the setting up of an innovation centre.

Presently, there is no defined policy for the use of ESTs. Some environmentally-sound technologies (devices etc) are available in Barbados and upon serious discussion, specific incentives and economic instruments have been applied to encourage consumption. These include :

As regards Ozone Depleting Substances, a policy document is being developed to address the promotion of ESTs to complement the drive to freeze and phase-out ODS consumption.

There has been no legislation or regulation to address ESTs at present. However, the Environment Division and the Ministry of Economic Affairs, are collaborating to develop a policy on the application of economic instruments to promote sustainable development, including the promotion of ESTs.

Major efforts are also underway in the legislation of the following:

ESTs are most urgently needed in the following sectors:

As a result of their research, the Sewerage and Solid Waste Project Unit should promote innovation and transfer of ESTs as regards waste management, and the Water Resources Management and Water Loss Study should do the same for water resources management. Other areas may be addressed through more informal mechanisms. The National Environment and Sustainable Development Policy will also seek to address this issue in a comprehensive manner.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available

Status   

No information is available

Challenges  

An important constraint is the lack of a coordinated strategy and government policy. Public awareness would be more effective in the midst of such a policy.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No specific programmes to educate policy makers in the concept of and policy design for innovation and transfer of ESTs are presently in place. Through some NCST activities, there is facility for awareness and education. At the regional level, the Caribbean Council for Science and Technology is looking to host a workshop to address the specific issues of innovation and technology for sustainable development.

Science and Technology Exhibitions "Sci-Tech Expos" staged by the NCST are aimed at promoting and improving the selection, transfer and application of ESTs, wherein Science and Technology Practitioners and particularly science students of secondary schools as the major target groups, exhibit the results of their scientific enquiry. The categories selected highlight Environmental Sustainability and the potential role of science, in terms of innovation and research and development. Occasionally, efforts are made by organization like the Future Centre Trust and environmentally conscious NGOS to raise awareness of ESTs. In addition, agencies such as the Environment Division pass on information to the relevant sectors and agencies regarding environmentally-sound technologies.

Information   

Information for decision-makers on ESTs is available from individual agencies through reports, issue papers as well as through workshops and any tests carried out on the technology before a decision was made. The information is usually available by request. There are no web sites on the issues of technology as yet.

Barbados is part of the UN Testing Programme on Sustainable Development Indicators. Further to that the Environment Division, has developed and coordinates a National Indicators Programme (NIP) which seeks to define national indicators for all policy areas, including science and technology. Presently, the programme is in a data collection stage in terms of trying to discover what information is available and in what formats.

More generally, the NCST is involved in the collection of information on Science and Technology Indicators. Sustainable Development Indicators are not specifically targeted but such matters will be part of the general information collected.

Research and Technologies  

Decisions regarding technology choice are often made at the department/division level by officers who are directly involved in the specific programme area. Once information on a particular technology is available, the relevant Ministry will usually develop a response and a rationale for its promotion and through inter-ministerial and inter-sectoral collaboration, a decision will be made. Pursuant to this, then details for promotional incentives will be defined and presented to Cabinet for approval on the recommendation of the Ministry of Finance. Administrative support is often received in order that funds may be provided.

Financing  

Most activities in this area are funded through the public sector, from the national budget or from funding resulting from loans or grants from international agencies such as the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), which funds a regional project in which Barbados participates. Projects which may suggest the adoption of some ESTs are partly funded by government as well as by external assistance. In addition, some innovation will result from the research of regionally and nationally funded institutions such as the University of the West Indies and UWICED, among others.

Cooperation  

There is cooperation through the Regional Indicators Project, coordinated through the CDB. No convention is involved. The Caribbean Council for Science and Technology (CCST) is also involved in a regional Indicators Project in which Barbados is a participant.

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Barbados to the seventh session of the UN Commission on sustainable Development. Last update: January 1999.

Biotechnology

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Environment Division of the Ministry of Health and the Environment is primarily responsible for this sector. Some legal elements are to be enforced by the Environmental Engineering Division of the Ministry of Health. There is only one law related to the use of biotechnology: the Pest Plant and Disease (Importation) Act, Cap. 226, which prohibits imports of bacteria and the like, with the exception of specific cases for laboratory research purposes. The NGO community initiated education programmes concerning biotechnologies.

Currently the Environmental Division is working towards establishing a National Committee on Biosafety / Biotechnology. The scientists and experts included on the committee would be responsible for advising Government on biotechnology related issues as well as for establishing guidelines pertaining to the safe import, handling, use, storage and disposal of genetically modified organisms.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

See under Decision Making: Coordinating Bodies.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

There are no specific policies or strategies in place to promote the use of biotechnologies, and there are no biotechnology risk assessments or risk management mechanisms. The University of the West Indies, the Caribbean Agriculture Research and Development Institute (CARDI) and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development are involved in biotechnology projects. The following are the most important:

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

See under Cooperation.

Cooperation

The projects mentioned have been supported by UNESCO, Barclays Bank International, Third World Academy for Science and the International Foundation for Science with approximately US$100,000 annually.

 

* * *

This information is based on Barbados's submission to the 5th & 6th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997 & 1998. Last update: 10 June 1998

Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to go to the Web Site of UNEP's International Register on Biosafety.
Click here for the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Biosafety WebPages

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INDUSTRY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The principal threats to human health or the sustainable use of natural resources associated with industrial activity in Barbados come from the Sugar Industry which generates smoke emissions from factory chimneys. Regulations and legislation pertaining to regulating smoke emissions exist and are enforced. Recently an overhaul of the cane transport sector has reduced emissions from all old and inefficient vehicles. The Mobil Oil Refinery poses a potential risk of pollution in case of an accident. However the refinery is in the process of closing down its operations and the major focus now is to ensure comprehensive remediation of the site so that it is suitable for future developments.

With regard to implementing a national policy for ecologically sustainable industrial development, efforts are ibeing undertaken to establish a Code of Conduct procedure regarding environmental issues and Sustainable Development, to be adopted by the private sector industries in general. The Code, though not finalized, so far envisages the following:

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

Tourism is the major economic industry in Barbados and as such is a major user of fresh water resources. The scarce supply of this resource, as well as the great number of competing demands for use, could well be a constraint to future development of the tourism industry especially if the proposed development poses great demands on water resources.

No major incidents of industrial pollution have been recorded to date. However, Atrazine from the agricultural sector has been detected in freshwater supplies. Efforts have begun to replace atrazine with alternative fertilizers including organic ones.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information is based on Barbados's submission to the 6th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1998. Last update: 10 June1998

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TRANSPORT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

For National Transport, the Ministry of Public Works, Transport & Housing and the Interim Transport Authority which will become Public Transport Authority are responsible. In the area of International Transport, the Ministry of Tourism and International Transport is responsible.

In the area of National Transport, the Government consults with its Social Partners, the Worker's Union and representatives of the passenger Transport Association. on Major issues. In the area of International Transport, several non-governmental organizations are consulted when necessary on proposed legislation, operational matters and major infrastructural projects. Examples would include the proposed Recreational Diving Regulations, the draft Protocol VI - Transport Policy, scheduling at the Airport and the Expansion and Reform Projects at the Air and Sea Ports. The NGOs involved include:

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

See under Decision Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Barbados is in the process of devising a national Strategy for National Transport within the ambit of the Interim Transport Authority. In the case of International Transport, the policy framework enunciated by Government is as follows:

The objectives listed below represent the plans that the Government will implement in air and maritime transport. The specific activities in both sub-sectors are identified subsequently.

Air Transport
Regulation of Air Services
To satisfy the requirements for continued growth and expansion of the air transport, trade and tourism sub-sectors.
To promote a network of regular air links with adequate seat capacity between Barbados and other countries, (especially major market areas) in keeping with the position of Barbados as a major hub for the Eastern Caribbean.
To maintain safety standards to ensure the safe operations of Barbadian airlines.

Specific activities for Air Transport are as follows:

Maritime Transport
To establish efficient shipping facilities and systems to continue the development of the maritime sub-sector.
To contribute towards the national and global mission of a safe and pollution - free marine environment.
To ensure that the Caribbean region does not become a haven for sub-standard ships.
To continue the operations of an "international" ships register, whilst ensuring that such Barbadian ships maintain the highest standards of safety and do not present a threat to the marine environment.
To maintain safety standards and safe practices to ensure the safety of life and property at sea for all Barbadian vessels and seamen worldwide as well as all vessels, seamen and passengers using Barbadian waters.
To establish Barbados as a leading port of call and home port for cruise business in the Caribbean.

Specific Activities for Maritime Transport are as follows:

Relevant legislation is the area of Transportation include:

National Transport

International Air Transport

International Maritime Transport

The shipping legislation listed in the previous section was revised to be in conformity with the international maritime law instruments mentioned in 8 below.

Regulation of international transport is primarily based on standards developed in the International Civil Aviation Organisation and the International Maritime Organisation. Both of these organisations have granted observer status to a number of NGOs.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

The country is adequately supplied with maritime transport services. With regards to maritime transport, there is a problem with over-tonnage and high freight rates. Most maritime transport services are supplied by foreign carriers.

With regards to air transport, most of the services are provided by foreign carriers. It is estimated that the average load factor is 55%, hence there is a certain level of underutilised seat capacity. However, on a seasonal basis each year, there is a severe shortage of available seats.

Among the major projects and activities underway in these areas are the following: In relation to scheduled air transport services, new negotiations planned are expected to result in new air service. With regards to airline charters, the marketing efforts of the Barbados Tourism Authority are expected to result in increased activity.

The level of maritime services provided is dependent on fluctuation in trade activity. Hence as activity in the manufacturing or other industrial sectors improves, shipping lines would take steps to increase their capacity.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

Barbados undertakes the training of ratings (seafarers) in a co-operatives arrangement between the Barbados Port Authority, the Coast Guard and the Fire Department. Certification of this personnel is undertaken by the Director of Maritime Affairs. A project is in place to transfer this training activity to the Samuel Jackman Prescod Polytechnic, which is a premier technical vocational school.

Training in air traffic control and related matters is undertaken at the Barbados Air Traffic Control School which is operated by the Civil Aviation Section of the Ministry, headed by the Technical Director (Aviation). Efforts are in train to achieve for the school TRAIN AIR accreditation by the International Civil Aviation Organisation. Officers of the Ministry and related agencies, are exposed, from time to time, to both local and overseas training in transportation related areas.

The International Maritime Organisation in association with the Caribbean Community Secretariat is arranging a High Level Conference for Senior Government Officials in the maritime sub-sector to take place in the first quarter of next year. This event is intended to sensitise policy makers on matters relating to port State control and Flag State Implementation.

The Bridgetown Roads and Safety Improvement project included two (2) technical assistance components to address the need for sustainable development in the transport sector. These were:Traffic Management and control, and National Traffic Education. As a result various proposals are being submitted to the Planning and Priorities Committee for long term management, control and education in the sector.

Information

National information available to assist both decision-makers and planners working in transportation and communication includes:

For National Transport:

For International Transport:

Most of the information is in report form and available from the respective agencies. There is no web site address. All statistics are available in hard copy only and some are restricted in their circulation.

Barbados is part of the UN Testing Programme on Sustainable Development Indicators. Further to that, the Environment Division, has developed and coordinates a National Indicators Programme (NIP) which seeks to define national indicators for all policy areas, including communication. Presently, the programme is in a data collection stage in terms of trying to discover what information is available and in what formats.

Research and Technologies  

Technology has not usually been a problem in the area of transporation.

Financing

The International Maritime Organisation and the International Civil Aviation Organisation have technical co-operation programmes. From time to time Barbados has accessed technical assistance under these programmes. The Barbados Port Authority, which is responsible for all of the port and harbour facilities in Barbados is self-financing. The Grantley Adams International Airport is part of the Ministry of International Transport and its operations are financed from the national budget. Major reform and expansion projects planned for both Ports will be financed from both national and external financing sources. Transport services are provided by the private sector, and no joint ventures with Government have been put in place.

Cooperation

The 1996 Caribbean Memorandum of Understanding on Port State Control was adopted by over twenty States of the Caribbean Region. Its main focus is to ensure that the Caribbean does not become a haven for sub-standard ships. There has been a limited acceptance of the Caribbean MOU - only ten States to date.

The Caribbean Community Secretariat is currently working with Member States with a view to adopting Protocol VI - Transport Policy which would amend the Treaty establishing the Caribbean Community. This Protocol is expected to form the framework for co-operation in international transport. CARICOM Governments have also signed a Multilateral Air Services Agreement, which is to govern air transport relations between Member Governments.

In addition, Barbados is a party to the following Agreements related to the area of transport:

Maritime Conventions

 

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Barbados to the seventh session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: January 1999.

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SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry of Tourism and International Transport is responsible for sustainable tourism at the national level. At the local level, the Barbados Hotel and Tourism Association is responsible. Major Groups are involved in decision-making through active participation in the development of National Tourism Policy through submission of written comments and participation in national form. They are also represented on committees convened by the Ministry of Tourism.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

See under Decision Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Barbados has a National Tourism Policy, whose broad objective is to pursue sustainable tourism development through improvement and optimal use of human resources and services, and through the conservation and managed use of our cultural, built and natural heritage, in order to ensure a product of the highest quality whilst improving the life and economic development of the people of Barbados.

Specific objectives of the National Tourism Policy include:

Specific Objective 1: Human Resources
To enhance the quality of the visitor experience by improving the interaction between visitors and hosts, and by implementing initiatives designed to enhance the skills, knowledge and attitudes of the people of Barbados, especially those involved in the tourism sector.
Specific Objective 2: Organisational Structure
To collaborate with the social partners in fostering the development of an organizational framework and culture which enhances the productivity and competitiveness of tourism institutions and related businesses.
Specific Objective 3: Standards
To encourage the development, promotion and enforcement of world class standards in the tourism industry.
Specific Objective 4: Contribution to the Economy
To maximise the tourism sector's financial and economic contribution to the growth and development of the Barbados economy.
Specific Objective 5: Investment
To support the creation and maintenance of an enabling investment climate for the tourism industry in Barbados.
Specific Objective 6: Marketing
To develop and implement year round globally competitive marketing programmes which reflect consumer expectations while respecting the diversity of Barbados and its peeple.
Specific Objective 7: Community Involvement
To encourage and facilitate the involvement of communities in all areas of tourism development and the visitor experience.
Specific Objective 8: Services
To develop, support and enhance a range of economically viable, wholesome and self-sustaining services in order to provide a rewarding and high quality visitor experience.
Specific Objective 9: Accommodation
To determine the optimal mix of the types of establishments to be encouraged; continuously upgrade the accommodation product and encourage investment which would promote an operating environment to help the sector to economically viable and self-sustaining.
Specific Objective 10: Built Environment
To encourage the management and development of the built environment in such a way as to ensure its conservation and enhancement so that it can be promoted as part of the unique Barbadian experience.
Specific Objective 11: The Natural Environment
To promote sustainable tourism development through the protection, conservation and development of the natural environment within its carrying capacity and through education and awareness of, and respect for, our unique and natural heritage.
Specific Objective 12: Cultural Heritage
To invest in the conservation, development and marketing of our cultural heritage whilst encouraging the preservation of its integrity.
Specific Objective 13: Cruise Tourism
To optimise the contribution of cruise tourism to the Barbadian economy while ensuring that growth is sustainable.
Specific Objective 14: Sports Tourism
To use sports as a means of fostering closer interaction between locals and visitors, and enhance international publicity for Barbados.

All issues are addressed by this policy including: services, standards, environment, protection of the built environment and ensuring harmonisation with natural features, and community involvement to name a few. Also included are nature-based tourism and heritage tourism.

At the present there are no established procedures to monitor continuously the progress of tourism development. although periodic review is undertaken as part of the work of the Ministry to review progress, etc. Deterrents exist mainly in terms of social mechanisms and legal ones to some extent. Standards on issues of water quality and waste water treatment are enforced by the EED.

Legislation or other regulatory machinery which seeks to ensure sustainable tourism includes:

Codes of Practice, Standards or Guidelines for the activities of industry in sustainable tourism include:

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

Programmes and Projects 

See under Status.

Status 

Tourism is the major foreign exchange earner in Barbados, totalling $1.4b at the end of 1997. Also at the end of 1997, 12,300 persons were employed by the tourism industry directly.

One of the impacts of tourism has been on coral reefs. The carrying capacity of some reefs especially on the south and west coast has been surpassed due, in part, to the concentration of both tourist and local populations in these areas. Additionally, anchoring shipping mainly for sailing vessels have contributed to degradation in some areas particularly because of solid waste disposal.

The growth of the tourism sector in Barbados' economy is represented by the following Table:

TABLE 1

VISITOR ARRIVALS BY COUNTRY OF RESIDENCE 
1956 - 1996

 

 

Period

 

UK

 

Canada

 

USA

Caricom

Countries

 

Other

Total Tourist

Arrivals

Cruise Ship

Passengers

Total Visitor

Arrivals

1956

1,170

1,859

4,133

7,380

3,287

17,829

12,391

30,220

1957

1,398

2,142

6,721

9,461

4,051

23,773

10,802

34,575

1958

1,523

2,499

7,072

9,335

4,516

24,945

12,145

37,090

1959

1,735

3,359

8,554

11,668

4,933

30,249

17,044

47,293

1960

2,102

3,755

9,716

14,638

5,324

35,535

24,172

59,707

1961

2,901

5,429

10,322

13,985

4,423

37,060

26,943

64,003

1962

3,363

7,944

11,688

16,220

4,843

44,058

24,658

68,716

1963

4,765

9,991

13,154

16,975

5,712

50,597

27,184

77,781

1964

6,174

10,923

15,138

19,261

6,129

57,625

41,671

99,296

1965

6,673

14,212

19,811

20,842

6,880

68,418

52,664

121,082

1966

8,304

16,372

23,827

23,149

7,452

79,104

51,593

130,697

1967

9,622

18,293

29,813

24,713

9,124

91,565

45,451

137,016

1968

11,493

27,879

41,287

24,117

10,921

115,697

75,981

191,678

1969

10,168

31,617

52,689

25,517

14,312

134,303

80,899

215,202

1970

12,083

39,609

57,111

33,450

14,164

156,417

79,635

236,052

1971

13,621

53,690

68,487

33,892

19,385

189,075

79,159

268,234

1972

14,851

61,918

75,525

36,608

21,447

210,349

100,086

310,435

1973

17,690

68,639

74,779

36,349

24,623

222,080

116,469

338,549

1974

23,782

77,246

66,237

38,139

25,314

230,718

119,524

350,242

1975

24,802

75,517

54,894

38,070

28,203

221,486

98,546

320,032

1976

25,843

73,005

56,041

38,515

30,910

224,314

99,406

323,720

1977

25,481

83,749

70,389

47,491

42,204

269,314

103,077

372,391

1978

35,718

91,192

85,473

54,333

50,167

316,883

125,988

442,871

 

Period

 

UK

 

Canada

 

USA

Caricom

Countries

 

Other

Total Tourist

Arrivals

Cruise Ship

Passengers

Total Visitor

Arrivals

1979

49,430

92,745

91,354

75,966

61,421

370,916

110,073

480,989

1980

56,226

84,934

85,971

84,398

58,386

369,915

156,461

526,376

1981

72,090

69,897

74,472

86,859

49,237

352,555

135,782

488,337

1982

51,145

59,619

75,511

81,577

35,943

303,795

110,753

414,548

1983

47,662

53,198

113,989

83,789

29,700

328,338

102,519

430,857

1984

46,274

67,307

140,201

83,774

30,096

367,652

99,166

466,818

1985

38,822

70,573

148,093

70,884

30,763

359,135

112,222

471,357

1986

47,590

60,285

166,250

61,471

34,174

369,770

145,335

515,105

1987

79,152

64,349

175,093

63,455

39,810

421,859

224,778

646,637

1988

101,231

65,667

170,773

63,380

50,434

451,485

290,993

742,478

1989

118,122

65,564

154,269

62,840

60,464

461,259

337,100

798,359

1990

94,890

57,841

143,295

62,298

73,768

432,092

362,611

794,703

1991

88,166

46,287

119,069

57,988

82,712

394,222

372,140

766,362

1992

88,759

49,999

110,685

52,831

83,198

385,472

399,702

785,174

1993

100,071

49,190

112,733

52,462

81,523

395,979

428,611

824,590

1994

123,455

52,286

109,092

51,487

89,312

425,632

459,502

885,134

1995

126,621

53,373

111,983

58,635

91,495

442,107

484,670

926,777

1996

139,588

54,928

111,731

56,752

84,084

447,083

509,975

957,058

 

Major programmes in effect to promote sustainable tourism include:

Examples of the ways in which eco-tourism and nature-based tourism are being promoted include activities of the Future Centre Trust (through their exhibits); and the Environmental Park at Bawden's Nature trail development (Martin's Bay to Bath, Speightstown, Joe's River), proposed Discovery Route System.

Some activities which are geared both to sustainable tourism and to eco-tourism and nature-based tourism are

Challenges

Constraints to pursuing sustainable tourism include:

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

Seminars and workshops are available for employees in the tourism industry to assist them in understanding, applying and promoting sustainable tourism. These are also used to educate policy makers in the concept and policy design of sustainable tourism.

The Ministry of Tourism undertakes periodic campaigns as well as works with the Barbados Tourism Authority on activities such as Tourism Week. The Ministry also collaborates with CZMU and the Environment Division on Sustainable Development awareness programmes.

With regard to marketing, at the property level there are facilities promoted as being environmentally conscious and market their products as being such e.g. Casuarina Hotel and Beach Club. However there is no specific focus in this area in national destination marketing efforts. Segmentation of the tourism product or branding is not yet a specific activity.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

Technology-related issues that need to be or are being addressed include those such as the use of freshwater resources - devices are available to reduce consumption; waste-water treatment and reuse are also promoted. Additionally, the Government has undertaken a project to address sewering of the south and west coasts. ESTs are often promoted as they become available.

Environmental management systems are applied in hotels and other tourist establishments. Examples include Casuarina Beach Hotel and Almond Beach Resort. Additionally the Ministry of Tourism is currently undertaking a project aimed at increasing the awareness of the importance of environmental management systems and developing fiscal incentives to facilitate tourism operators implementing such systems.

Information National information available to assist both decision-makers and the tourist industry in promoting sustainable tourism includes brochures and pamphlets, videos and reports. Mapping and inventorying natural resources and ecosystem characteristics has been conducted by the country as a whole under the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan and the Environmental Planning and Land Use Study.

Relevant information is made available through the Ministry upon request; through the GIS, through the library and various other Government departments; as well as the Press/Media. The Ministry of Tourism is in the process of developing a Website.

Barbados is part of the UN Testing Programme on Sustainable Development Indicators. Further to that, we have developed a National Indicators Programme (NIP) which seeks to define national indicators for all policy areas, including sustainable tourism. Presently, the programme has reached the data collection stage in terms of trying to discover the level of existing available information and formats.

Financing

Activities in this area are financed through special funds, the national budget, private sector partnership, and external assistance.

Cooperation

The Ministry collaborates with the Barbados Tourism Authority and the Barbados Hotel Tourism Association to promote sustainable tourism in terms of holding seminars, operating campaigns and also undertaking projects or activities such as Adopt-a-Beach.

Other cooperation takes place within the framework of the following agreements:

 

* * *

This information is based on Barbados's submission to the 5th and 7th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: January 1999



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