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Economic Aspects | Natural Resource Aspects | Institutional Aspects | Social Aspects | Bahrain

ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN BAHRAIN

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INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

No information is available

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available

Status

Since the discovery of oil in 1932 Bahrain witnessed a variety of changes, and by the beginning of the seventies when it became an independent state, socio-economic restructuring occurred at a rapid pace, boosted by the growing production of oil and gas industry, increased prices in the world market particularly during 1973.

However, due to the fluctuation in oil prices, it is unwise to depend solely on oil as a principal source of income. Consequently, Bahrain has not only moved toward industrialization, but it has also attracted international financial institutions, making Bahrain an efficient financial centre in the Middle East.

Challenges  

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies  

No information is available

Financing  

No information is available

Cooperation  

No information is available

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Bahrain to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: 1 April 1997.

Click here to access the Island Directory on the UN System-wide Earthwatch Web Site.

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TRADE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

No information is available

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available

Status

Prior to the discovery of oil in the early thirties the economy was dependent on agriculture, the pearl industry and regional trading. The pearl industry flourished in the past because Bahrain was amongst the richest areas in pearls. Government revenues from the pearling industry were, to a large extent, based on nominal taxes and fees imposed on each pearling ship together with indirect taxes imposed in the form of custom duties on pearls exported.

Since the discovery of oil in 1932 Bahrain witnessed a variety of changes, and by the beginning of the seventies when it became an independent state, socio-economic restructuring occurred at a rapid pace, boosted by the growing production of oil and gas industry, increased prices in the world market particularly during 1973.

However, due to the fluctuation in oil prices, it is unwise to depend solely on oil as a principal source of income. Consequently, Bahrain has not only moved toward industrialization, but it has also attracted international financial institutions, making Bahrain an efficient financial centre in the Middle East.

Bahrain exports oil and non-oil products, light industrial products, aluminum, vegetables and some food stuffs. Total exports reached 1713.4 million Bahraini Dinars (BD) in 1996. Total imports, which include all necessary and complementary items, reached 1578.3 million BD in 1996. The total trade exchange was 3291.7 million BD in 1996 and the transit shipment was 26.6 million BD in the same year.

Challenges  

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies  

No information is available

Financing  

No information is available

Cooperation  

No information is available

 

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Bahrain to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: 1 April 1997.

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CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

One of the five issue-specific committees established by the national committee to charged with preparing a national strategy to execute the Agenda 21 program is the Committee on Changing Consumption Patterns. This committee is chaired by the Bahrain Chamber of Commerce and Industry, with members representing Ministry of Cabinet Affairs and Information, Bahrain Centre for Studies and Research, Ministry of Education, Bahrain Girl Renaissance Society and Bahrain Society of Economists.

The main tasks of this committee are (1) To participate in suggesting program and policies to encourage changing consumption pattern; (2) To define the effects of irrational consumption on economic growth ; (3) To encourage consumption patterns and development in a way to minimize the environmental overstrains; (4) To develop a better understanding of the consumption role and pinpoint more sustainable consumption patterns; and (5) To participate in evaluation of the relation between production, consumption and environment, and study the effects of current changes in the status of modern industrial economies on the environment.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

No information is available

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available

Status

The domestic waste problem has become a big issue at both national and regional levels. It become apparent that regional coordination is required to utilize the best available technology on recycling, separation, compost and residual incineration of domestic waste. However, the concept of recycling is still new, and investors are reluctant to invest in this line of business. There are many small companies involved in collection and segregation of waste paper, car batteries, glass, plastic, aluminum cans, metals, and wood. Some of these wastes like aluminum are being recycled in Bahrain. These activities have reduced the amount of waste that needs to be incinerated or put in landfill. Oily waste and lubricants from automobiles is collected and exported. Separation facilities in the region are neither sufficient nor efficient.

Generally speaking, there is a need to change the consumption pattern and habits in the region. The average composition of waste contains more than 50% food (left over), 4-10% papers, plastics, food and drinks package, about 0.6 - 4% cans and glass.

Challenges  

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

No information is available

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies  

No information is available

Financing  

No information is available

Cooperation  

No information is available

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Bahrain to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: 1 April 1997.

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FINANCING

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

No information is available

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

No information is available

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans

No information is available

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   
No information is available

Status

Oil production and refining contribute 56.4% of state revenue. In the last few years the dependence on oil has decreased and revenue from the non-oil sectors is gradually increasing. However, revenue from oil will dominate for years to come.

Challenges  

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies  

No information is available

Financing  

No information is available

Cooperation  

No information is available

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Bahrain to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: 1 April 1997.

For economic information on Bahrain in the Island Directory maintained by Earthwatch, click here.
For information on participating States in the Global Environment Facility, click here:
For information about issues and projects in the Middle East and North Africa from the World Bank, click here:

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TECHNOLOGY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

While the Environmental Affairs Agency seriously considers the introduction of the Environmental Management and ISO 14000 as future target, many industries have been awarded ISO 9000 series certification showing their commitment for achieving quality production.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans

No information is available

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

No information is available

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available

Status

It is well known that cleaner production and zero waste technology hold tremendous promise for the alleviation of many problems associated with industrialization. The Environmental Affairs Agency is taking a proactive step to spread this approach in industry, and it stands now as one of Bahrain's major activities.

The concept of Cleaner Production was introduced in Aluminium Bahrain (Aluminum reduction plant) at a cost of Bahrain Dinars (BD) 95 Million and is also being introduced in an integrated Iron and Steel plant and other metal processing industries.

Challenges  

Like other developing countries, Bahrain faces obstacles in the implementation of new technology due to lack of immediate transfer of technology from developed countries and due to lack of experience.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

Some regulatory means are introduced as part of the process of environmental impact assessment, and training is imparted in this field for staff abroad.

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies  

No information is available

Financing  

No information is available

Cooperation  

No information is available

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Bahrain to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: 1 April 1997.

Click here for the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Biosafety WebPages
Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to go to the Web Site of UNEP's International Register on Biosafety.

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INDUSTRY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

Effluent guidelines are mandatory for all existing plants discharging their effluent into the marine environment. Moreover, EA and MoOI have realized the importance of requiring Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for new industries, whereby both the Government and industry have signed A Memorandum of Understanding which provides a flexible system to promote both industrial investment and sustainable development. This has been re-stated in the Amiri decree-law No. 21 (1996), whereby industry and as well as others involved in development, shall get the approval and the consent of EA before the start of a project. The EA has prepared the EIA procedures for development projects under the authority of H.E. the Minister.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans 

The main guiding principle of the Environmental Affairs Agency (EA) is to balance development objectives with environmental protection. Sustainable industrial development and protection and conservation of Bahrain's natural resources are the ultimate goals. Industry is being asked to promote cleaner technology, minimize waste, install pollution control equipment, increase efficiency and recycling. New development projects are carefully analysed by the EA and, where necessary, the developer is requested to submit environmental impact statements.

As a result of Government efforts and EA policy to mitigate and minimize stress and hazards to the environment, the discharge of untreated and insufficiently treated waste water into the sea has been reduced through the expansion of the sewerage system, the installation of treatment plants among large industries, environmentally oriented industries and the improvement of some treatment facilities in various plants.

Furthermore, Environmental Affairs has requested all industries through the Ministry of Oil and Industry (MoOI) to perform self monitoring for their effluent and to report the result periodically to EA which collects random samples to ensure quality and compliance.

The EA in cooperation and coordination with concerned authorities and major companies is finalizing a plan of action to combat industrial accidents. The plan is based on the manual for "Awareness and Preparedness of Emergencies at the Local Level (APELL)" and some scenarios planned by major industries. In addition, the Environmental Affairs Agency took the initiative of translating and printing APELL manual in Arabic and of distributing it to all Arab Countries and specialized institutions.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available

Status   

No information is available

Challenges  

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies  

No information is available

Financing  

No information is available

Cooperation  

No information is available

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Bahrain to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: 1 April 1997.

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TRANSPORT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans 

There is currently a joint effort to implement an Action Plan to reduce car emissions and introduce unleaded petrol, in coordination with the Directorate of Traffic and licensing and the Bahrain National Oil Company (BANOCO).

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

A program called "Fume watch" was introduced in Bahrain in 1994, to report vehicles that were emitting smoke. This has resulted in noticeable improvement.

Status

There is a continuous increase in the number of cars locally, in addition to those entering Bahrain from neighbouring countries through King Fahad Causeway. In 1985, there were 169,318 vehicles registered in use, which equals a ratio of one car for every 3 persons living in the country.

Challenges  

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies  

No information is available

Financing 

No information is available

Cooperation  

No information is available

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Bahrain to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: 1 April 1997.

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SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

The Environmental Affairs Agency intends to develop forty-three hectares of mangrove swamp into a wetland conservation area. There are plans for a museum, walkways, and bird watch towers, ultimately aiming to convert it in to a tourist spot. Also planned is an education centre which will publicize the importance of the reserve as nursery grounds to fisheries. The Cabinet of Ministers, in the session No. 1341 of 16 April 1995 and by Ministerial Order No. 1 of 13 June 1995 further declared full protection for the mengal and a ban on coastal landfill. This development will allow the public to experience and enjoy the natural history of Bahrain's coastline.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement   

No information is available

Programmes and Projects

No information is available

Status   

No information is available

Challenges  

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies  

No information is available

Financing  

No information is available

Cooperation  

No information is available

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Bahrain to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: 1 April 1997.



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