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SOCIAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN ARMENIA

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POVERTY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry of the Economy and Social Security of the Republic of Armenia is principally responsible for anti-poverty actions.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available.

Status   

No information is available.

Challenges  

Most affected are the disabled, orphans, families of single pensioners and single pensioners themselves, and persons who have been living in temporary shelters in the disaster zone. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the attainment of independence in 1991, Armenia inherited an economy in a state of collapse. Economic and social problems were further aggravated following the 1988 earthquake and the economic blockade which began as a consequence of the conflict in Nagorny Karabakh. As a result of this, output declined sharply - by more than 60 per cent during the period 1992-1994. The same period also saw a sharp rise in the inflation of the dram (900 percent during the last two months of 1993 and 1500 percent in 1994). Subsidies for electric power, produce and transport for the population were also reduced.

The fall in State budget revenue led to a sharp decline in vitally important social expenditures and services, and the standard of living of the population declined and poverty became significantly more widespread (approximately 30 per cent of the population is living at or below the poverty line). The principal way to remedy this situation in conditions where there is a slump in production and an increase in poverty is to provide a stimulus to the mechanisms which will lead to rapid economic growth. This is a national priority for Armenia. Armenia has developed a Strategy for the elimination of poverty in the short, medium and long term. The problems being addressed by this Strategy include the following:

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

Presently, anti-poverty efforts are supported by the State budget, Pension and Employment Fund, and the Social Security Fund of the Republic of Armenia. 

Cooperation  

Armenia cooperates with IMF, World Bank, USAID, UNDP, World Food Programme and a number of other public donor organizations.

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This information is based on the Republic of Armenia's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

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DEMOGRAPHICS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry of Social Security is responsible for demographic issues.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement 

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available.

Status   

As of December 1996 the population of the Republic of Armenia was 3,780,800, though it is important to note that this number may not accurately reflect the 700,000 citizens who have emigrated over the last five years due to adverse socio-economic conditions. The urban population consists of 2,539,600 people (about two thirds), and the rural population is 1,241,100. The number of births for 1996 was 47,200 and the number of deaths 26,200 for an increase of about 21,000. Migration for 1996 was 6,560 people. Average life expectancy for 1996 was 72.5 years.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation

Armenia receives assistance for the Institution Building Loan Social Component, from financing by the World Bank Paros System. The Social Investment Fund is financed by the World Bank, USAID and the Government of Netherlands. Other cooperation is with the EU TACIS Programme, World Bank, USAID and other international organizations.

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This information is based on the Republic of Armenia's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

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HEALTH

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Health matters for the Government of Armenia are the concern of the Ministry of Health.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

See under Financing.

Status   

No information is available.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

The Government is introducing a comprehensive reform program, intended to secure stable financing of the health care system, make it more efficient and cost effective, and to protect access to basic services for all the population. Key elements of the reform program include:  

The Health Development Program is to be financed by the World Bank (preparation is financed by the Government of Japan). Health care is predominantly financed by the state budget and credits of the World Bank Japanese Grant. Support for this sector comes from the EU TACIS Health Reform Program, and the World Bank Health and Education Development Program.

Cooperation  

See under Financing.

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This information is based on the Republic of Armenia's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

To access the Health for All On-Line Database (WHO): Europe and CIS countries, click here:
Click here to go to the Health and health-related statistical information from the World Health Organization.

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EDUCATION

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The competent departments of the Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources, scientific centres, NGOs and the mass information media are involved in the process of environmental education. Regional centres of environmental education have been opened in the districts of Gegarkunik and Armavir.

  Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The educational system and the legislative and normative basis for the provision of access to education are being reformed. A Government decree is being prepared on the introduction of a system of continuing environmental education in the Republic of Armenia.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Education is being reoriented with the inclusion of the principles of the concept of sustainable development.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

See under Decision- Making: Coordinating Bodies.

Programmes and Projects   

In ten State higher educational establishments and 40 higher educational establishments in the private sector, new programmes on questions relating to development and environmental protection are being developed and organized. In several faculties at Erevan State University (ESU), courses are being taught on the global programme for sustainable development.

Status   

Government departments and scientific and public organizations are active in promoting the implementation of continuing environmental education and the establishment of sustainable development mechanisms. These departments and organizations include:

Erevan State University and the Association for the Sustainable Development of Human Society, with the cooperation of the Ministry of the Economy of the Republic of Armenia and UNDP, organized the first National Conference in the context of Rio + 5, on the Sustainable Development of Society and Armenia, in which Government organs, higher educational establishments, scientific research institutes and non-governmental organizations participated.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Information   

A national report on Armenia, environmental journals and materials on educational methods are published.

An experimental textbook has been published for senior secondary school classes entitled "Principles Governing the Utilization of Nature and Environmental Protection", which is fully oriented towards Agenda 21 and the principles of sustainable development.

Through the efforts of UNDP, ESU and the Association for the Sustainable Development of Human Society, a textbook has been published for higher educational establishments entitled "The Concept of Sustainable Development: Theory and Practice".

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

Environmental and sustainable development research are funded by Government organizations, national and international funds. For example, UNDP financed research on the transformation of the human development index (HDI) into the sustainable human development index (SHD I), research which was carried out by an interdepartmental group of experts. The evaluation of the cost of labour and the allocation of activities is being carried out in accordance with the priorities in that sphere.

Cooperation  

See under Financing.

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This information is based on the Republic of Armenia's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

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HUMAN SETTLEMENTS

No information is available.

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Click here to access UNCHS "Best Practices for Human Settlements" in Eastern Europe, including all transition countries.
For information related to human settlements and refugees, you may access the UNHCR Country Index by clicking here:


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