Click here to go to the following issues:

Economic Aspects | Natural Resource Aspects | Institutional Aspects | Social Aspects | Antigua and Barbuda

NATURAL RESOURCE ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

Click here to go to these sections:

AGRICULTURE

Please refer to the information provided under the FRESHWATER chapter.

 

* * *

This information is based on Antigua and Barbuda's Report to the 6th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1998. Last update: 21October 1997

To access the FAOSTAT Data Base for information by country, item, element and year, click here:
Click here for access to FAO country reports on Plant Genetic Resources
Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to link to Country and Sub-regional Information on Plant Genetic Resources of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
Click here to go to Web Site of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, which includes information on the Codex Alimentarius and the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme.
Click here to access the Web Site of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).
Click here to access the sixteen international agricultural research centers that are members of the CGIAR.

| Antigua and Barbuda | All Countries | Home |

ATMOSPHERE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea was ratified in 1989.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status

The main issues relating to climate change are the potential effect on the strength and frequency of hurricane activity and the likelihood of flooding or drought. Certain coastal areas have been considerably eroded in recent times, especially after hurricane activity.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

 

This information is based on Antigua and Barbuda's Report to the 6th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1998. Last update: 21October 1997

Click here for national information from the Web Site of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
For the access to the Web Site of the Ozone Secretariat, click here:

| Antigua and Barbuda | All Countries | Home |

BIODIVERSITY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The Convention on Biological Diversity was ratified in 1993

A legal framework for the protection of endangered species has been adopted and public awareness campaigns are being carried out. Generally biological resources are threatened by the needs of industry. The main problems are destruction of habitat, lack of inventories, lack of trained staff and little public awareness.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Antigua and Barbuda participate in the Action Plan for the Environment of Latin America and the Caribbean, which includes conservation of biological diversity. Technical assistance on a small scale has been provided for projects such as documentation on and preservation of seabird colonies in Barbuda.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information is based on Antigua and Barbuda's Report to the 6th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1998. Last update: 21October 1997

For access to the Web Site of the Convention on Biological Diversity, click here:

For access to the Web Site of the CITES Convention, click here:
For the Web Site of the CMS Convention, click here:
For the Web Site of the Convention on the Protection of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage, click here:
For the country-by-country, Man in the Biosphere On-Line Query System, click here:
Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to go to the Web Site of UNEP's International Register on Biosafety.
Click here for the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Biosafety WebPages

| Antigua and Barbuda | All Countries | Home |

DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought an/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa was ratified in 1997.

Please refer also to the information provided under FRESHWATER.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

 * * *

 

This information is based on Antigua and Barbuda's Report to the 6th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1998. Last update: 21October 1997

For access to the Web Site of the Convention to Combat Desertification and Drought, click here:

| Antigua and Barbuda | All Countries | Home |

ENERGY

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information is based on Antigua and Barbuda's Report to the 6th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1998. Last update: 21October 1997

| Antigua and Barbuda | All Countries | Home |

FORESTS

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information is based on Antigua and Barbuda's Report to the 6th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1998. Last update: 21October 1997

| Antigua and Barbuda | All Countries | Home|

FRESHWATER

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Antigua Public Utilities Authority (APUA) is responsible for coordinating water resource management and development. Its mandate also includes hydrological and hydroecological studies, construction of catchments, dam design and construction. At the river basin level, the following are involved: the Central Board of Health, the Ministry of Agriculture, Lands and Fisheries and the Development Control Authority (DCA). Their mandates include: monitoring freshwater quality, general watershed management and the establishment of water storage facilities in newly constructed buildings. The Soil and Water Conservation Division of the Ministry of Agriculture ensures that the establishment of farming plots, household plots, and water conservation structures is balanced, factoring sustainability into consideration.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The Public Utilities Act (1993) is the main legislation for water resources management and development. Legislation provides for fining and legal action against those found to be involved in polluting waterways.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

A national policy for disaster preparedness is under development.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

The role of the private sector in water resources management and development is little and should be increased.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status

Annual withdrawals of ground and surface waters amount to 47.55% of available total water or 441,107,664 imp. gals. Average domestic consumption of water amounts to 14.07 litres per capita and per diem. The density of hydrological networks ( average area served by one hydrological station) is 55.94 sq km.

The pricing of water for households is meant to recover the cost of maintenance of the water-borne system only. The cost of actually obtaining water from the water table is government-subsidised. Industrial rates for water use exceed those for household and agricultural use, providing greater incentives for conservation in industry. A debate is underway to determine whether the policy should be changed and the percentage increase of cost recovery.

Desalinisation plants are being used in order to augment freshwater supplies, as an alternative to the use of ground water and, when necessary, to supplement the volume of water available in agriculture and industry. During seasons of drought, desalinisation plants provide up to 83% of all freshwater. They also help maintain the amount of water supplied and stabilise prices. However, the special needs of the poor need to be addressed.

The Government intends to ensure universal coverage of water supply and sanitation; however, there is no centralised waste water treatment available, and St. Johns and its environ are in desperate need of centralised sewage treatment facilities. Some hotels recycle waste water on a small scale. Feasibility studies, design and financing are needed to address waste water treatment needs.

Concerning water purification, assistance is needed to determine ground water availability and concentration of chemical contaminants. All water within the pipe borne system is treated and is potable. However, some is extracted from the water table illegally, and is untreated. For water quality control, WHO standards are used.

Challenges

Major constraints towards integrated management of water resources are lack of public awareness, lack of human and financial resources and lack of training for public servants. Lack of public awareness particularly hinders the participation of stakeholders in decision-making processes and, therefore, education programmes are desperately needed. Water supply is limiting the expansion of the farming sector, e.g. of canneries and crop production.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

No information is available.

Information

Information on water management and development in the agricultural sector is collected through the Soil and Water Conservation Division of the Ministry of Agriculture. The Central Board of Health is collecting information on the household sector, e.g. it carries out laboratory inspection on water samples for microbial content. Information is available on request, in part on diskette, to Government agencies and other bodies.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.

Financing

The estimated cost for achieving universal coverage of water and sanitation is US$ 300 million.

Cooperation

External funding has not been provided on a significant scale since the mid-1980s, but in recent times, APUA has been affiliated with the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO), and the Caribbean Basin Water Management Programme. USAID has also been of invaluable assistance. Antigua and Barbuda participate in the Action Plan on the Environment for Latin America and the Caribbean.

Occasional reports highlighting e.g. sectors needing assistance, progress in water supply technology, and the ecology of watersheds are occasionally prepared for OECS.

 

* * *

This information is based on Antigua and Barbuda's Report to the 6th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1998. Last update: 21October 1997

| Antigua and Barbuda | All Countries | Home|

LAND MANAGEMENT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Development Control Authority (DCA) is responsible for processing and investigating applications for land use, and aims at ensuring sustainable approaches to land use. The main issues relating to land management are balancing land needs of the tourism and agricultural sectors and the demand for household plots, as well as issues related to waste disposal.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

A process encouraging participation of community groups in land management has not been fully implemented and would be greatly aided by a centralised plan.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information is based on Antigua and Barbuda's Report to the 6th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1998. Last update: 21October 1997

| Antigua and Barbuda | All Countries | Home|

MOUNTAINS

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information is based on Antigua and Barbuda's Report to the 6th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1998. Last update: 21October 1997

| Antigua and Barbuda | All Countries | Home |

OCEANS AND COASTAL AREAS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change was ratified in 1993

The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was ratified in 1992.

The main issues relating to climate change are the potential effect on the strength and frequency of hurricane activity, and the likelihood of flooding and/or drought. Certain coastal areas have been considerably eroded in recent times, especially after hurricane activity.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Plans for the adaptation to sea-level rise are not available and there is no funding for adaptation measures.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

Community consultations on coastal resource management were held under the aegis of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS). However, goals of public awareness campaigns have not been realized.

 

* * *

This information is based on Antigua and Barbuda's Report to the 6th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1998. Last update: 21October 1997

To access the Web Site of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, click here:

| Antigua and Barbuda | All Countries | Home |

TOXIC CHEMICALS

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information is based on Antigua and Barbuda's Report to the 6th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1998. Last update: 21October 1997

| Antigua and Barbuda | All Countries | Home|

WASTE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was ratified in 1991.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

There is no national plan for waste management. The main problems relating to waste management are the outdated methods of waste treatment and the lack of centralised sewage treatment facilities. Improper waste disposal and land runoff result in the contamination of coastal areas.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

Financial and technical assistance are needed to establish a centralised waste and sewage treatment system. Also, extensive and comprehensive policies need to be enacted to control pesticide use and monitoring. In addition, a strong, active pesticide control board is needed. A first step to improve the situation would be an assessment of the present structures and advice of modern technologies for the establishment of a centralised waste treatment system.

Please refer also to the information provided under the FRESHWATER chapter.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information is based on Antigua and Barbuda's Report to the 6th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1998. Last update: 21October 1997

For direct link to the Web Site of the Basel Convention, click here:


| Economic Aspects | Institutional Aspects | Social Aspects |

| Antigua and Barbuda | All Countries | Home |