United Nations



5-6 OCTOBER 1993
                        TOKYO DECLARATION
                     ON AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT
                   "Towards the 21st Century"

     We, the participants of the Tokyo International Conference on African
Development (TICAD), consisting of African countries and Africa's development
partners, declare with one voice our continued dedication to the development
of Africa towards a new era of prosperity.  We, therefore, solemnly adopt the
present Declaration, in the firm belief that it will serve to strengthen an
emerging new partnership for sustainable development of Africa based on self-
reliance of African countries and the support of Africa's development


1.   Africa's economic and social crises of the 1980s highlighted the
development challenges faced by this Continent.  To address these challenges,
many African countries have embarked on far-reaching political and economic
reforms.  We, the participants of TICAD, are encouraged by signs in recent
years of both positive macro-economic performance and political development
resulting from those reforms.  In so doing, we nevertheless recognize the
continued fragility and vulnerability of Africa's political and economic
structures and situations that inhibit the achievement of sustainable
development.  TICAD intends to give further impetus to these reforms, taking
into account the United Nations New Agenda for the Development of Africa in
the 1990s (UN-NADAF).

2.   With the end of the Cold War, African countries and the international
community now have an opportunity to share a broader common understanding of
the need for dynamic development cooperation. The development of the Continent
has emerged as an imperative in our search for a better future.

3.   While special consideration should be given to obstacles confronting
Africa, we are determined to strengthen our collective forward-looking efforts
for the development of the Continent.  This has been the spirit in which we
have conducted our deliberations on the issues central to sustainable
development in Africa.

4.   These issues include the on-going process of simultaneous political and
economic reforms, the necessity of increased private sector participation in
domestic economic activity, the promotion of regional cooperation and
integration, and the detrimental effects of humanitarian emergencies on
Africa's socio-economic development.  We recognize that the Asian experience
of economic development and the catalytic role of international cooperation
offer hope and provide a challenge for African economic transformation.

Political and Economic Reforms

5.   Convinced of the advent of a new international era, we, the African
participants, reaffirm our commitment to pursue and further strengthen
political and economic reforms, in particular democratization, respect for
human rights, good governance, human and social development, and economic
diversification and liberalization.  To achieve sustainable, broad-based
economic growth, we, the participants of TICAD, believe that more open,
accountable and participatory political systems are vital, including a
stronger role for civil society.  We recognize that political, economic and
social reforms must be initiated and carried out by African countries
themselves, based on their visions, values and individual socio-economic
background.  Africa's development partners should therefore support African
initiatives in these areas.

6.   We, the participants of TICAD, recognize that simultaneous
implementation of political and economic reforms, while conducive to
development, may often entail painful transition processes.  The interaction
between political and economic reforms, which over time should be mutually
reinforcing, is a complicated process which requires support to bring about
progress.  We, Africa's development partners, reaffirm our commitment to
providing priority support to countries undertaking effective and efficient
political and economic reforms.  We, the participants of TICAD, also reaffirm
our commitment to enhancing constructive dialogue to facilitate the reform

7.   We, the African participants, reaffirm our commitment to improving the
quality of governance, in particular, transparency and accountability in
public administration.  We recognize that criteria for public expenditure
should aim at enhancing overall socio-economic development and reducing non-
productive expenditures.  The building of human and institutional capacities
for sustaibale development is essential for all of these objectives.  We
commit ourselves to creating the enabling environment for training, retaining
and effective utilization of human resources and improving institutional
capacities.  We, Africa's development partners, will enhance our support for
African capacity building including improved technical assistance.

8.   We, the participants of TICAD, reaffirm that structural adjustment
programmes should take more actively into consideration the specific
conditions and requirements of individual countries.  We reiterate that
political and economic reforms should ultimately lead to the alleviation of
poverty and enhanced welfare of the entire population.  To that effect,
structural adjustment programmes should contain, more than in the past,
measures to improve the access of the poor in particular to income earning
opportunities and to effective social services, while seeking to shield them
as far as possible from adverse social consequences.  Increased priority
should be given to investment in human capital through nutrition, health and
education programmes, especially to improve the situation of women and
children.  Additionally, noting that the overall economic development in
Africa has not kept pace with Africa's rapid population growth, we recognize
the importance of sound population policies and call upon African Governments
and the international community to address this issue within the socio-
economic development process.

Economic Development through Activities of the Private Sector

9.   The private sector is vital as an engine for sustainable development. 
We, the participants of TICAD, agree that though foreign aid has an impact on
development, its role is only supplementary in magnitude and catalytic in
nature.  We recognize that a workable and practical cooperation between
government and the private sector is a key factor for development.  A climate
of trust between these two actors should be encouraged and interaction
promoted.  We realize that political and economic stability is a prerequisite
to commitments for long-term investments.

10.  We, the African participants, are determined to continue policies which
foster a greater role for the private sector and which encourage
entrepreneurship.  While stepping up deregulation measures, we will provide
and maintain, in cooperation with our development partners, physical
infrastructure and viable administrative, legal and financial institutions. 
We consider in general the informal sector as a source of vitality for African
economies which deserves support in order to further mobilize entrepreneurial
capacity, generate employment, and to facilitate the transition into the
formal economy.

11.  We, the participants of TICAD, are convinced that further improvements
in financial systems and practices are needed to stimulate domestic savings
investment, and to prevent and reverse capital flight.

12.  In support of these efforts, we, Africa's development partners, shall
continue to provide assistance in order to improve the enabling environment
which requires economic reforms and privatization, the building of human and
institutional capacities, and the development of financial intermediation.  We
recognize the importance of appropriate insurance and guarantee schemes to
protect private enterprises investing in Africa from political and economic

13.  We, the African participants, affirm the central importance of
international trade to our future development prospect.  We, Africa's
development partners, will work to facilitate market access for African
products globally and to assist in up-grading and diversifying African
exports.  We, the participants of TICAD, support the vital role of private
associations such as the African Business Round-Table and confirm the
usefulness of investment - and trade-promotion initiatives within Africa and
between Africa and the rest of the world.

Regional Cooperation and Integration

14.  We, the African participants, reaffirm our vision and aspiration for
ultimate regional integration and cooperation goals as embodied in the Abuja
Treaty establishing the African Economic Community.  We, the participants of
TICAD, realize that although these goals have been, since the early years of
independence, a logical development strategy for African countries, most of
which have small national markets, greater efforts must now be made in
promoting inter-regional trade and investment.

15.  We, the African participants, will ensure that our commitments to
regional schemes are fully incorporated in our national development plans,
policies and programmes.

16.  We, Africa's development partners, welcome and support the renewed
commitment to regional cooperation and integration as has been recently
demonstrated by African countries.  These regional arrangements should
continue to be consistent with the multilateral open trading system, and
contribute to trade expansion.  We will continue to extend our support to
African countries' efforts aimed at reducing obstacles to integration through
measures such as reduction of trade and investment barriers and policy
harmonization, and to viable regional endeavours particularly in the area of
infrastructure development and capacity building.  We, the participants of
TICAD, believe that regional integration should also be pursued by encouraging
private sector initiatives, adopting consistent and gradual approaches for
broadening exchanges and rationalizing existing schemes.

Emergency Relief and Development

17.  We, the participants of TICAD, note with great concern that over the
last two decades, and particularly in recent years, that a large number of
African countries have suffered and are still suffering from natural and man-
made disasters.  The international community has responded generously to these
situations since the early crises in the 1970s.

18.  These disasters have constrained development in many African countries,
destroyed the very basis for development, increased the number of refugees,
and diverted human and financial resources that otherwise could have served
development purposes.

19.  We, the participants of TICAD, realize that man-made disasters are the
result of a complex interplay of political, economic and social factors.  In
this context, lack of democratization and respect for human rights and the
rights of minorities are among the root causes of these disasters.

20.  We, the participants of TICAD, accept that responsibility for disaster
prevention and management rests primarily with Africans themselves.  We, the
African participants, are therefore determined to devote our efforts to
addressing the root causes of these disasters.  We also confirm the critical
role of regional cooperation as demonstrated in the past.  We, the
participants of TICAD, underscore the need to establish effective mechanisms
for prevention, preparedness and management of man-made and natural disasters
in general, and to strengthen food security schemes in particular.  We,
therefore, welcome the decision of the Organization of African Unity to
establish the Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management and Resolution and
pledge our support to strengthen the effective functioning of this mechanism. 
We also reaffirm our willingness to assist victims of disasters, and urge the
removal of all hindrances to effective distribution of relief supplies.

21.  We, Africa's development partners, having recognized that there is a
continuum between emergency relief and development, will ensure that the
humanitarian assistance for the affected communities continue to be provided
for resettlement, rehabilitation and reconstruction.

Asian Experience and African Development

22.  Over the past 30 years, in contrast to Africa, the countries of East and
South-East Asia have achieved high rates of growth in per capita income. We,
the participants of TICAD, are mindful that in view of the differing
international and internal conditions no one model of development can be
simply transferred from one region to another.  Nevertheless, we acknowledge
some relevance of the Asian experience for African development.  The very
diversity of successful Asian countries gives hope that lessons can be drawn
for African development.

23.  We, the participants of TICAD, have noted that as demonstrated by the
successful examples of the Asian development experience, the backdrop of
development success lies in the combination of a strong commitment by the
leadership and the people to economic prosperity, appropriate long-term
development strategies and functional government adminstration to pursue these
strategies coherently.

24.  We have also noted that the policy factors which contributed to the
remarkable performance of East and South-East Asia have included (1) the
rational application of macro-economic policies and maintenance of political
stability, (2) the promotion of agricultural production through technological
research and innovations as solid basis for socio-economic development, (3)
long-term investment in education and human resource development as priority
of development strategy, (4) market-friendly and export-led policies to
advance and adapt modes of production in order to increase opportunities for
trade and economic growth, (5) measures to stimulate domestic savings and
capital formation by developing financial intermediation and by expansion of
banking services at the community level, (6) policy emphasis on the private
sector as an engine of growth and development, and (7) early implementation of
land reform.

25.  We, the participants of TICAD, recognize that development achievement in
East and South-East Asia have enhanced opportunities for South-South
cooperation with Africa.  We welcome the interest shown by some Asian and
African countries in promoting this cooperation.

International Cooperation

26.  We, the participants of TICAD, have concluded that the current situation
in Africa calls for increased solidarity among us to act in full partnership
to address this situation.  This new partnership should be based on Africa's
objective to achieve self-reliance on the one hand and responsive support by
Africa's development partners on the other.

27.  We, the participants of TICAD, agree that stability and security are
prerequisites to sustainable development, and that it is essential to make
efficient use of scarce resources and to minimize military and other
unproductive expenditures.

28.  We, the participants of TICAD, realize that development calls for full
participation by the people at all levels, who should be galvanized toward
action as agents for progress.  In this regard, we acknowledge the dynamic and
diversified role of African women in various sectors of the economy and
recommend that special measures by taken to promote their rights and roles in
order to enhance gender equity and to remove all legal, social and cultural
barriers for advancement of women.  Furthermore, we recognize the need to
enhance cooperative efforts with local NGOs and other institutions of civil
society which play constructive roles for African development.

29.  We, Africa's development partners, will make all efforts to enhance
development assistance to Africa, despite current global economic
difficulties.  This assistance will be increasingly oriented toward the
priorities set by African countries.  In making commitments to continued and
enhanced cooperation, we will take into account the expectation of our
constituencies that resources by spent where they are most efficiently
utilized for the greatest development impact.

30.  As African countries are at various stages of development, and have
different cultural and historical backgrounds, we, Africa's development
partners, may take differentiated approaches as we plan and implement our
development cooperation, with due regard to aid coordination.

31.  We, Africa's development partners, will apply a comprehensive approach
covering aid, trade, debt strategy and investments.  We, the participants of
TICAD, reaffirm that debt and debt service still pose serious difficulties to
many African countries.  We emphasize the necessity to urgently address the
debt issue within the overall context of debt relief and flows of new
financial resources for development.  We confirm the validity of the
international debt strategy and invite the Paris Club to continue reviewing
the question of debt relief for the poorest highly-indebted countries,
especially with regard to earlier reductions in the stock of debt on a case by
case basis.  We urge creditor countries to take into account the difficulties
that heavily indebted African countries are now facing.
32.  We, the participants of TICAD, reiterate the importance of a successful
conclusion to the Uruguay Round of GATT negotiations and will make all efforts
to remove trade barriers and other trade practices that prevent the expansion
of African exports including exports to other African countries.  We
underscore the importance of primary commodities for many African countries'
export earning and the need for diversification to reduce the volatility of
these earnings.

33.  We, the participants of TICAD, confirm that United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development (UNCED) agreements should be steadfastly
implemented with a special emphasis on balanced relationships among
agriculture, population and environment policies, particularly drought and

34.  We also recognize that many of the gains made in Africa are threatened
by the HIV/AIDS pandemic and related diseases which are already of a
disastrous proportion in some countries.  There is a need for a much stronger
response by Africa and its development partners, for preventing and
controlling these diseases including caring facilities as well as measures
addressing its socio-economic impacts.


35.  We, the participants of TICAD, pledge to take, in our respective spheres
of responsibility, measures aimed at advancing the spirit of this Declaration
through effective policies and actions.  We have entrusted the three co-
organizers of TICAD with evaluating and reviewing progress made towards the
implementation of this Declaration.  Ultimately, we intend to hold a
conference of a similar magnitude and membership at the latest before the turn
of the century.

                           * * * * * 

     By virtue of the deliberations, guidance and consensus of the conference
we believe that prospects for significant development of Africa have been
greatly enhanced.


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