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Repertoire of the Practice of the Security Council

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Sanctions and Other Committees

Article 41 of the United Nations Charter gives the Security Council the authority to use a variety of measures to enforce its decisions. The Council regularly creates subsidiary organs to support or implement these measures. Among the most common are those measures that are known as "sanctions", which are generally supported by a Committee, as well as Panels/Groups of Experts or other mechanisms to monitor implementation of the sanctions.

This page covers all of the committees that were created by the Security Council in connection with mandatory measures and that were featured in the Repertoire, organized by area or region, then chronologically starting with those established most recently. It provides a short description prepared on the basis of the content of the Repertoire, as well as links to the sections covering them in the Repertoire.

The Repertoire covers the specifics of sanctions and other mandatory measures in its section on Article 41. The Council’s discussion on the general topic of sanctions can be found here.

Africa

Angola

Committee established pursuant to resolution 864 (1993) concerning the situation in Angola

The Committee was established on 15 September 1993 to monitor and oversee the implementation of an arms embargo and petroleum sanctions against the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA). UNITA was sanctioned due to its internationally condemned military actions during the Angolan Civil War as well as its attacks on civilians and United Nations personnel. On 9 September 2002, the sanctions were terminated and the Committee was dissolved.

Panel of Experts: 1996-1999 2000-2003

Côte d'Ivoire

Committee established pursuant to resolution 1572 (2004) concerning Côte d'Ivoire

By resolution 1572 (2004) of 15 November 2004, the Security Council established a Committee to oversee the arms embargo against Côte d’Ivoire, as well as an assets freeze and travel ban imposed on designated individuals. By resolution 1643 (2005) of 15 December 2005, the Committee’s mandate was expanded to include monitoring of the diamond ban imposed by the same resolution. By resolution 1584 (2005) of 1 February 2005, the Security Council also established a Group of Experts to assist the Committee in its work.

Group of Experts: 2004-2007 2008-2009 2010-2011

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Committee established pursuant to resolution 1533 (2004) concerning the Democratic Republic of the Congo

By resolution 1533 (2004) of 12 March 2004, the Security Council established a Committee to oversee the ban on arms transfers to the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the prohibition of assistance from other countries to foreign and Congolese armed groups operating in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Subsequently, the Council also requested the Committee to oversee an assets freeze and travel ban on designated individuals and groups, as well as certain restrictions related to aviation. By resolution 1533 (2004) of 12 Mach 2004, the Council also established a Group of Experts to assist the Committee in fulfilling its mandate.

Group of Experts: 2004-2007 2008-2009 2010-2011

Eritrea/Ethiopia

Committee established pursuant to resolution 1298 (2000) concerning the situation between Eritrea and Ethiopia

The Committee was established on 17 May 2000 to monitor and implement the arms embargo against Eritrea and Ethiopia in response to continuing hostilities between Eritrea and Ethiopia over the borders. On 16 May 2001, the Committee was terminated as the Council recognized the Algiers Agreement as a step towards a peace settlement.

Liberia

Committee established pursuant to resolution 1521 (2003) concerning Liberia

By resolution 1521 (2003) of 22 December 2003, the Security Council established a Committee to oversee an arms embargo, travel ban and trade sanctions against Liberia. Since 2004, the Committee also oversees the implementation of an assets freeze on individuals and entities. The sanctions on timber and diamonds were terminated in 2006 and 2007 respectively. By resolution 1521 (2003) of 22 December 2003, the Council also established a Panel of Experts to assist the Committee.


Committee established pursuant to resolution 1343 (2001) concerning Liberia

The Committee was established on 7 March 2001, to ensure the effective implementation of the arms embargo against Liberia. On 22 December 2003, due to the changed circumstances in Liberia, the Committee was dissolved to revise the legal basis of sanctions imposed.

Panel of Experts: 2000-2003


Committee established pursuant to resolution 985 (1995) concerning Liberia

The Committee was established on 13 April 1995 to monitor the arms embargo against Liberia in response to the First Liberian Civil War. On 7 March 2001, the Committee was dissolved with the termination of the arms embargo.

Panel of Experts: 2000-2003

Libya

Committee established pursuant to resolution 1970 (2011) concerning Libya

The committee was established on 26 February 2011 to implement and oversee the arms embargo, travel ban and assets freeze imposed on Libya.

Panel of Experts: 2010-2011

 

Committee established pursuant to resolution 748 (1992) concerning the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

The Committee was established on 31 March 1992 to monitor the implementation of civil aviation, arms embargoes and selective travel ban on Libyan Arab Jamahiriya in accordance with its non-compliance with investigations relating to the destruction of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland and Unionde transports aeriens Flight 772 over the Niger. Sanctions measures were strengthened in 1993 following continued non-compliance by Libyan Arab Jamahiriya resulting in wider travel ban, financial asset freezes as well as further restrictions on the sale of particular petroleum equipment. [Following the suspension of sanctions in 1998 as a result of the handover of suspects in connection with the Lockerbie bombing for trial, on 12 September 2003, the Council decided to lift the measures and dissolved the Committee.

Rwanda

Committee established pursuant to resolution 918 (1994) concerning Rwanda

By resolution 918 (1994) of 17 May 1994, the Security Council established a Committee to oversee the arms embargo against Rwanda in response to the continuing large-scale violence towards the civilian population. The arms embargo against the Government of Rwanda was lifted in August 1995, and the remaining measures against non-governmental forces and the Committee were terminated by resolution 1823 (2008) of 10 July 2008.

Sierra Leone

Committee established pursuant to resolution 1132 (1997) concerning Sierra Leone

By resolution 1132 (1997) of 8 October 1997, the Security Council established a Committee to monitor the measures concerning the petroleum and arms embargo and travel restrictions against Sierra Leone following the military coup of 25 May 1997. By resolution 1171 (1998) of 5 June 1998, the Council lifted the sanctions on the Government and reimposed the arms embargo and travel ban on leading members of the Revolutionary United Front and of the former military junta. By resolution 1306 (2000) of 5 July 2000, the Committee’s mandate was expanded to include monitoring of the diamond ban imposed by the same resolution.

Panel of Experts: 2000-2003

Somalia

Committee established pursuant to resolutions 751 (1992) and 1907 (2009) concerning Somalia and Eritrea

By resolution 751 (1992) of 24 April 1992, the Security Council established a Committee to oversee the general and complete arms embargo imposed on Somalia by resolution 733 (1992) of 23 January 1992, as a result of the ongoing Somali Civil War. By resolution 1844 (2008) of 20 November 2008, the Council decided to impose individual targeted sanctions (including an arms embargo, a travel ban on individuals and an assets freeze on individuals and entities, as designated by the Committee), and also expanded the mandate of the Committee to monitor the implementation of these measures. Subsequently, the Committee was tasked to monitor newly imposed sanctions against Eritrea by resolution 1907 (2009) of 23 December 2009, which included an arms embargo as well as a travel ban and an assets freeze on the political and military leaders of Eritrea. By resolution 1519 (2003) of 16 December 2003, the Council also established a monitoring group to assist the Committee.

Panel of Experts: 2000-2003

Monitoring group: 2000-2003 2004-2007 2008-2009 2010-2011

South Africa

Committee established under resolution 421 (1977) relating to South Africa

The Committee was established on 9 November 1977 to implement and oversee the arms embargo against the apartheid regime in South Africa. On 25 May 1994, the Council terminated the arms embargo and dissolved the Committee.

Southern Rhodesia

Committee established in pursuance of resolution 253 (1968) of 29 May 1968 concerning the question of Southern Rhodesia

The Committee was established on 29 May 1968 to examine reports on the implementation of trade sanctions against the illegal regime of Southern Rhodesia. On 21 December 1979, the sanctions were terminated and the Committee was dissolved.

Sudan

Committee established pursuant to resolution 1591 (2005) concerning the Sudan

By resolution 1591 (2005) of 29 March 2005, the Security Council established a Committee to oversee the arms embargo, the assets freeze and travel ban imposed in relation to the Darfur region of the Sudan. Simultaneously, the Council established a Panel of Experts to assist the Committee’s work.

Panel of Experts: 2004-2007 2008-2009 2010-2011

 

Americas

Haiti

Committee established pursuant to resolution 841 (1993) concerning Haiti

The Committee, established on 16 June 1993, monitored the arms embargo and financial and petroleum sanctions targeting the “de facto authorities” in Haiti until 29 September 1994 when the Council terminated the sanctions.

 

Asia

Afghanistan

Committee established pursuant to resolution 1988 (2011)

By resolution 1988 (2011) of 17 June 2011, the Security Council decided to split the Al-Qaida and Taliban sanctions regime and established a separate Committee to oversee sanctions measures in connection with any individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with the Taliban in constituting a threat to the peace, stability and security of Afghanistan as designated by the Committee on the List established pursuant to the same resolution.

Committee pursuant to resolutions 1267 (1999) and 1989 (2011) concerning Al-Qaida and associated individuals and entities

By resolution 1267 (1999) of 15 October 1999, the Security Council established a Committee to oversee the implementation of targeted sanctions measures against designated individuals, entities and aircraft that were owned, controlled, leased or operated by the Taliban. The measures were subsequently modified, particularly by resolutions 1333 (2000) and 1390 (2002), to include an assets freeze, travel ban and an arms embargo affecting designated individuals and entities associated with Usama bin Laden, Al-Qaida and the Taliban wherever they are located. By resolutions 1988 (2011) and 1989 (2011) of 17 June 2011, the Security Council decided to split the Al-Qaida and Taliban sanctions regime. Resolution 1989 (2011) stipulates that the sanctions list maintained by the Committee established pursuant to resolution 1267 (1999) will henceforth be known as the “Al-Qaida Sanctions List” and include only names of those individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with Al-Qaida. By resolution 1526 (2004) of 30 January 2004, the Council also established an Analytical Support and Sanctions Monitoring Team with the mandate to, inter alia, assess and make recommendations on the implementation of the measures, pursue case studies and explore other matters as directed by the Committee. By resolution 1904 (2009) of 17 December 2009, the Security Council introduced measures to increase the fairness and transparency of the sanctions regime imposed on Al-Qaida and created the Office of the Ombudsperson to which individuals, groups, undertakings or entities seeking to be removed from the Al-Qaida Sanctions Committee List could submit their request for delisting.

Committee of Experts: 2000-2003

Monitoring Group: 2000-2003

Monitoring Team: 2004-2007 2008-2009 2010-2011

Office of the Ombudsperson: 2008-2009 2010-2011

 

Democratic People’s Republic of Korea

Committee established pursuant to resolution 1718 (2006)

By resolution 1718 (2006) of 14 October 2006, the Security Council established a Committee to oversee a number of measures that had been imposed against the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea following its nuclear tests on 9 October 2006 and 25 May 2009, including an arms embargo, an embargo on items that could contribute to its nuclear and related weapons programmes, a ban on luxury goods, and a travel ban and an assets freeze on selected individuals. By resolution 1874 (2009) of 12 June 2009, the Council also established a Panel of Experts to assist the Committee in its work.

Panel of Experts: 2008-2009 2010-2011

 

Europe

Former Yugoslavia

Committee established pursuant to resolution 1160 (1998)

The Committee was established on 31 March 1998 to monitor and implement the arms embargo on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, including Kosovo seeking to contribute to fostering peace and stability in Kosovo. On 10 September 2001, the sanctions were lifted and the Committee dissolved.

Committee established pursuant to resolution 724 (1991) concerning Yugoslavia

The Committee was established on 15 December 1991 to monitor the implementation of the arms embargo against Yugoslavia in light of the fighting in Yugoslavia resulting from the collapse of the country. Subsequently the Committee oversaw trade restrictions and travel ban as well. The Committee was dissolved on 1 October 1996.

 

Middle East

Iran

Committee established pursuant to resolution 1737 (2006)

By resolution 1737 (2006) of 23 December 2006, the Security Council established a Committee to oversee and monitor the implementation of the assets freeze, financial services restrictions, travel restrictions, and the embargo against the Islamic Republic of Iran’s proliferation sensitive nuclear and ballistic missile programmes. The mandate of the Committee has since been expanded to apply also to the measures imposed in resolutions 1747 (2007) of 24 March 2007 and 1803 (2008) of 3 March 2008. By resolution 1929 (2010) of 9 June 2010, the Council also established a Panel of Experts to assist the Committee in its work.

 

Panel of Experts:2010-2011

Iraq/Kuwait

Committee established pursuant to resolution 1518 (2003)

By resolution 1518 (2003) of 24 November 2003, the Security Council established a Committee to succeed the Committee established pursuant to resolution 661 (1990) concerning Iraq and Kuwait. The Committee’s tasks were to continue to identify, in accordance with resolution 1483 (2003) of 22 May 2003, individuals and entities whose funds, other financial assets and economic resources should be frozen and transferred to the Development Fund for Iraq.

Committee established pursuant to resolution 661 (1990) concerning the situation between Iraq and Kuwait

The Committee was established on 6 August 1990 to oversee and implement comprehensive sanctions including travel bans, financial asset freezes and an arms embargo imposed against Iraq following the Iraqi military action against Kuwait. The Committee was also tasked to supervise the “Oil-for-Food” Programme and determining humanitarian aid needs. The Committee was terminated on 21 November 2003.

Panel of Experts: 1996-1999

Lebanon

Committee established pursuant to resolution 1636 (2005)

By resolution 1636 (2005) of 31 October 2005, the Security Council established a Committee to oversee a travel ban and assets freeze on individuals designated by the International Independent Investigation Commission or the Government of Lebanon as suspected of involvement in the 14 February 2005 terrorist bombing in Beirut, Lebanon.

 

Other Committees Supporting Mandatory Measures

Committee established pursuant to resolution 1540 (2004)

By resolution 1540 (2004) of 28 April 2004, the Security Council established, for an initial period of two years, a Committee to oversee the implementation of the resolution, which obligated States to establish domestic controls to prevent the proliferation of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, and their means of delivery, including by establishing appropriate controls over related materials.

Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate (CTED)

The Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate (CTED) was established in 2004 to carry out the policy decisions of the CTC, conduct expert assessments of each Member State and facilitate counter-terrorism technical assistance to countries.

Counter Terrorism Committee (CTC) established pursuant to Security Council resolution 1373 (2001)

By resolution 1373 (2001) of 28 September 2001, the Security Council established the Counter-Terrorism Committee to monitor the implementation of the resolution, which requested countries to implement a wide range of counter-terrorism measures following the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 in the United States. In addition, the Council also established, by resolution 1535 (2004) of 30 January 2004, a Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate (CTED) to carry out the policy decisions of the CTC, conduct expert assessments of each Member State and facilitate counter-terrorism technical assistance to countries.

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