Studies By Agenda: Europe
This page contains case studies on each of the agenda items relating to Europe which the Council has considered at its formal meetings. Each case study includes chronological summaries of the discussions and documents considered at the meetings as well as the full text (1946-1999) or summaries (2000-present) of all resolutions, presidential statements or other decisions taken by the Council on that agenda item.
Below are the links to the case studies, there is a short description of each agenda item prepared on the basis of the content of the Repertoire. The topics have been listed by the region/area that they primarily relate to and then organized chronologically in the order of its inclusion on the Security Council’s agenda. Under each agenda item, related subsidiary organs of the Security Council featured in the Repertoire are also listed.
The situation in Albania
In 1997 Albania and Italy reported to the Security Council the deteriorating security situation and disorder in Albania following the collapse of a pyramid investment scheme.
See the section “Relating to Bosnia and Herzegovina” under “Former Yugoslavia”
The Corfu channel question
In January 1947, the United Kingdom made a complaint to the Council against Albania regarding a 1946 incident in the Corfu Channel in which two British warships were mined.
See the section “Relating to Croatia” under “Former Yugoslavia”
Complaint by the Government of Cyprus
Cyprus requested the assistance of the Security Council following the outbreak of clashes between the Greek-Cypriots and the Turkish-Cypriots after independence in 1960, and military intervention by Greece and Turkey subsequently.
The situation in Cyprus
Subsequent to a coup d'état in Cyprus on 15 July 1974 by Greek Cypriot and Greek elements favoring union with Greece, military intervention by Turkey that established Turkish Cypriot control over the northern part of the island, and conclusion of a de facto ceasefire on 16 August 1974, the Security Council has continued to monitor the situation on the island, including the progress of good offices of the Secretary-General. In 2008, the Security Council welcomed the agreement reached on 21 March 2008 and the launch of fully-fledged negotiations between the leaders of the Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots aimed at the reunification of Cyprus, as well as the appointment of a Special Adviser to the Secretary-General for Cyprus.
The Czechoslovak question
Following the “Prague coup” by the Communist Party in February 1948 and establishment of a Communist government in Czechoslovakia allegedly with Soviet backing, Chile requested the Security Council to consider the events that might have violated the political independence of Czechoslovakia.
Situation in Czechoslovakia
On 21 August 1968, following the invasion of Czechoslovakia by troops from the USSR, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria and the German Democratic Republic, a meeting of the Security Council was requested to consider the situation.
Relating to the Former Yugoslavia
Items relating to the situation in the former Yugoslavia
Under this heading, the Repertoire groups together a series of agenda items under which the Council considered the violent conflicts and related developments that followed the dissolution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and declaration of independence by the republics that comprised it - Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro, and Slovenia.
United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR)
Commission of Experts established pursuant to resolution 780 (1992) to examine reported violations of international humanitarian law in the former Yugoslavia
Committee established pursuant to resolution 724 (1991) concerning Yugoslavia
Navigation on the Danube river
In the context of the embargo imposed on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), the Council met to discuss issues related to the Danube River, including alleged violations of the embargo and blockade of legitimate commerce by actors in the former Yugoslavia.
United Nations Protection Force
The Council discussed issues relating to the United Nations Protection Force and related challenges in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Participation of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) in the work of the Economic and Social Council
In 1993, the Council met to discuss whether or not the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) could continue to participate in the work of the Economic and Social Council. Following the dissolution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) argued that it could automatically continue its membership in the United Nations, while the Security Council had decided that it needed to reapply for membership.
Applications made under Article 50 of the Charter of the United Nations as a consequence of the implementation of measures imposed against the former Yugoslavia
In the context of the sanctions imposed on the former Yugoslavia, the Council considered the special economic problems of neighboring States that had been affected by the measures.
Follow-up to resolution 817 (1993): Letter dated 26 May 1993 from the Secretary-General addressed to the President of the Security Council
After the adoption of resolution 817 (1993), by which the Security Council recommended the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia for membership in the United Nations, follow-up discussions concerned objections raised by Greece regarding admission under the provisional name of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) missions in Kosovo, Sandzak and Vojvodina, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)
In August 1993, the Security Council met to discuss the decision of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) to no longer allow the Council for Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) missions in Kosovo, Sandzak and Vojvodina to continue operating.
The situation prevailing in and around the safe area of Bihac
In November 1994, the Security Council met to discuss the attacks on the safe area at Bihac on the border between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia.
Letter dated 14 December 1994 from the Chairman of the Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 724 (1991) concerning Yugoslavia addressed to the President of the Security Council
In December 1994, the Security Council met to consider a special authorization to allow the export of diphtheria antiserum to combat an outbreak of diphtheria in Eastern Europe and Central Asia as a special humanitarian measure.
The situation in the former Yugoslavia
The Security Council created this agenda item in October 1995 at the conclusion of the Yugoslav conflicts to consider issues pertaining generally to all of the countries in the region and to resolve outstanding issues, such as the lifting of sanctions.
Briefing by Mr. Carl Bildt, Special Envoy of the Secretary-General for the Balkans
In 2000, the Security Council heard a series of briefings by the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General for the Balkans, with a focus on how to prevent future conflicts in the region as a whole and move the region towards self-sustainability.
Establishment of an international tribunal for the prosecution of persons responsible for serious violations of international humanitarian law committed in the territory of the former Yugoslavia
International Criminal Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia
Following the report of a Commission of Experts established by the Security Council in 1992, the Council in 1993 established the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) for persons responsible for war crimes and other serious violations of international humanitarian law on the territory of the Former Yugoslavia and discussed the work of ICTY.
Relating to Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina saw an intense conflict between Bosnian Muslims, Croats and Serbs following its declaration of independence in 1992, which continued until 11 October 1995. The Council continued to be involved in promoting a peaceful solution, monitoring the peace process and re-establishing the rule of law in the country. (For information on the Council’s involvement in Bosnia and Herzegovina before 1993, see “Items relating to the situation in the former Yugoslavia”).
The situation in Croatia
After Croatia’s declaration of independence in 1991 and rejection of the authority of the newly proclaimed Croatian State by the sizeable ethnic Serb minority in Croatia, a civil war broke out. . Following conclusion of the “Basic Agreement on the Region of Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium” between the Government of the Republic of Croatia and the local Croatian Serb authorities in 1995, the Council continued to be involved in reintegrating the break away regions peacefully into Croatia’s legal and constitutional system, resolving territorial disputes in Prevlaka and supporting the peace process. (The Council’s involvement during 1989-1992 is covered under “Items relating to the situation in the former Yugoslavia”.)
United Nations Civilian Police Support Group (UNPSG)
United Nation Mission of Observers in Prevlaka (UNMOP)
United Nations Transitional Administration in Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium (UNTAES)
United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation (UNCRO)
United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR)
The situation prevailing in and adjacent to the United Nations Protected Areas in Croatia
In 1993, the Council met to discuss the situation in the United Nations Protected Areas including attacks on the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR).
Items relating to the situation in Kosovo
The Security Council became involved in the conflict in Kosovo in 1998 when violence increased between the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), which demanded full independence for Kosovo, and the Government of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). In June 1999, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) began a military intervention, following which Serbia agreed to withdraw its troops. The Security Council has remained involved in the situation by establishing an interim administration in Kosovo and, inter alia, supporting capacity-building efforts and final status negotiations.
The situation in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
The southernmost republic of the Yugoslav Federation, Macedonia, peacefully separated and declared independence in 1991. However, following a request from the Government, the Security Council worked to actively prevent a spill-over of regional conflicts into the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, including by providing monitors and a preventive force.
Letter dated 4 March 2001 from the Permanent Representative of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council
In March 2001, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia requested a meeting of the Council to discuss a situation threatening the stability on its border with the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Kosovo section) and to consider plans for ensuring stability on that border.
See the section “Relating to the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia” under “Former Yugoslavia”
The situation in Georgia
The Security Council became involved in Georgia in response to the conflict in the region of Abkhazia, which declared its independence in 1992. Despite a ceasefire agreement reached in September 1992 in Moscow by the Republic of Georgia, the leadership of Abkhazia and the Russian Federation and the establishment of the United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG) in 1993, the conflict remained unresolved and the Council continued to be involved in efforts to find a political solution. Subsequent to its consideration of the hostilities in South Ossetia in August 2008, the Council last met to discuss the item on 15 June 2009 when it failed to renew the mandate of UNOMIG.
Identical notifications dated 29 September 1948 from the Governments of the French Republic, the United Kingdom and the United States of America
After the imposition of a total blockade over the Western sectors of Berlin by the USSR on 24 June 1948, France, the United Kingdom and the United States complained to the Council that the restrictions on transport and communications by the USSR were a threat to international peace.
The Greek question: USSR communication dated 21 January 1946
The Greek question: Ukrainian SSR communication dated 24 August 1946
In January 1946, the USSR requested the Security Council to discuss interference by the United Kingdom in the internal affairs of Greece. In August 1946, Ukraine, backed by the USSR, also complained to the Council that the deployment of British troops in Greece was the principal cause of the deteriorating security situation in Greece.
The Greek frontier incidents question
In December 1946, Greece informed the Security Council of a situation of friction with its neighbours (Albania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia) as a result of their support to violent guerrilla groups in northern Greece.
Question of relations between Greece and Turkey
In 1964, both Greece and Turkey requested the involvement of the Council due to increased tensions between them over the situation in Cyprus.
Complaint by Greece against Turkey
In the 1970s, tensions increased between Greece and Turkey over issues of sovereignty rights in the Aegean Sea. In particular, in August 1976 Greece complained about repeated Turkish violations of Greece’s sovereign rights in the Aegean following the dispatch of a Turkish research ship in areas of the continental shelf which Greece considered its own.
The situation in Hungary
France, the United Kingdom and the United States requested the Security Council to discuss the situation in Hungary following the Soviet armed intervention in the country to repress a national uprising against Soviet rule.
Letter dated 12 December 1975 from the Permanent Representative of Iceland to the United Nations
In 1975, Iceland accused the United Kingdom of an attack on an Icelandic coastguard vessel. Iceland claimed that the aim was to prevent the Government of Iceland from exercising its sovereign rights over marine resources in the fisheries zone off the Icelandic coast.
Situation in Northern Ireland
In August 1969, Northern Ireland was destabilized by intense political and sectarian rioting which led to the intervention of British troops in support of the police force for Northern Ireland – Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUS). Ireland referred the issue to the Security Council and requested the dispatch of an impartial United Nations peace-keeping force in lieu of the British military troops.
Letter dated 1 September 1980 from the Permanent Representative of Malta
In September 1980, Malta requested a meeting of the Security Council to discuss alleged illegal actions taken by the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya which had sent naval forces to stop the Maltese drilling operations in the Mediterranean.
The situation relating to Nagorny-Karabakh
Briefing by the Chairman -in -Office of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe
Starting in 2004, the Chairman-in-Office of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) provided annual briefings to the Security Council on its activities in early-warning, conflict prevention, crisis management and post-conflict rehabilitation.
The Spanish question
After the end of World War II, Poland referred the authoritarian dictatorship regime of Francisco Franco in Spain to the Council as a potential threat to international peace and security.
The question of the Statute of the Free Territory of Trieste
Appointment of a Governor for the Free Territory of Trieste
The question of the Free Territory of Trieste
In the aftermath of World War II, the Free Territory of Trieste was established by the Security Council as a neutral city-state in order to resolve territorial claims between Italy and Yugoslavia.
Complaint by Ukraine regarding the Decree of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation concerning Sevastopol
On 9 July 1993 the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation adopted a decree confirming the Russian federal status for the city of Sevastopol. Ukraine called on the Security Council to invalidate the decree arguing that it constituted an open interference in the internal affairs of Ukraine, and an infringement of its territorial integrity and of the inviolability of its borders.
Complaint by the USSR (U-2 Incident)
The USSR requested an urgent meeting of the Security Council to discuss repeated violations of Soviet airspace by the United States. This complaint was presented on 1 May 1960 when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over USSR airspace (so called “U-2 incident”).
Complaint by the USSR (RB-47 Incident)
The USSR reported to the Security Council aggressive acts by the United States Air Force against the Soviet Union, following the July 1960 incident when the USSR had to shoot down an American RB-47 airplane which allegedly had violated the Soviet Sea frontier.