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Agenda items: Africa

This page contains case studies on each of the agenda items relating to Africa which the Council has considered at its formal meetings. Each case study includes chronological summaries of the discussions and documents considered at the meetings as well as the full text (1946-1999) or summaries (2000-present) of all resolutions, presidential statements or other decisions taken by the Council on that agenda item.

Below are the links to the case studies, there is a short description of each agenda item prepared on the basis of the content of the Repertoire.  The topics have been listed by the region/area that they primarily relate to and then organized chronologically in the order of its inclusion on the Security Council’s agenda. Under each agenda item, related Subsidiary Organs of the Security Council featured in the Repertoire are also listed. 

Content

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Africa - General

Consideration of questions relating to Africa with which the Security Council is currently seized and the implementation of the Council’s relevant resolutions.

During Council meetings held in Addis Ababa in February 1972, the Organization of African Unity (OAU) requested the Security Council to take action to implement its relevant resolutions as well as General Assembly resolution 1514 (XV) on the right to self-determination with regards to the situations in Namibia, Southern Rhodesia, the question of the apartheid in South Africa, and the territories under Portuguese administration.

The situation in Africa

On 25 September 1997, the Council held its first ministerial meeting on the situation in Africa, organized by the United States to consider the need for a concerted international effort to promote peace and security in Africa. The Council continued to discuss security issues relevant to Africa as a whole under this agenda item, until it was subsumed under “Peace and security in Africa” on 25 September 2007.

Items relating to peace and security in Africa

Africa's food crisis as a threat to peace and security

Peace and security in Africa

Since the introduction of the item in 2007, the Security Council discussed a variety of topics under it such as (i) the linkage between natural resources and conflict, (ii) the role of the Security Council in conflict prevention and resolution, in particular in Africa, (iii) cooperation between the United Nations and regional organizations, specially the African Union, with a focus on peacekeeping, (iv) drug trafficking, and (v) resurgence of unconstitutional changes of government in Africa. The Council also considered country-specific situations in Kenya, Djibouti/Eritrea, Zimbabwe, Mauritania and Libya (until the introduction of a designated agenda item entitled "The situation in Libya".

Subsidiary Organs:
Ad Hoc Working Group on Conflict Prevention and Resolution in Africa
Ad Hoc Working Group on Africa

African Union

Items relating to the African Union

Institutional relationship with the African Union

Briefing by the Chairman of the African Union

Since 1994, the Council has strengthened its relationship with the African Union through a series of briefings and meetings, as well as holding a joint meeting in Nairobi on 18 and 19 November 2004.

Angola

Situation in Angola

The issue of Angola’s struggle for independence from Portugal was placed on the Council’s agenda in 1961 following accusations of large scale killings committed by Portugal. The subsequent Angolan Colonial War lasted until 1975.

Complaint by Angola against South Africa

See also item descriptions under South Africa

The agenda item was introduced after Angola requested a meeting to consider the military invasion of Southern Angola, by South Africa, from neighbouring Namibia on 5 May 1978. This complaint was continuously brought to the Council’s attention until South Africa ceased all military attacks against Angola in 1987.

Letter dated 17 December 1988 from the Permanent Representative of Angola to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General

Letter dated 17 December 1988 from the Permanent Representative of Cuba to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General

In 1988, Angola, Cuba and South Africa signed the Three Powers Accord, arranging for the withdrawal of South African troops from Angola and Namibia, the independence of Namibia and the withdrawal of Cuban troops from Angola. Following a request from the Secretary-General on behalf of Angola and Cuba, the Council decided to establish a United Nations Verification Mission to assist with the implementation of the Accord.

Items relating to the situation in Angola

Following independence from Portugal in 1975, there was a long-running civil war in Angola between the Government of Angola, initially supported by the Soviet Union, and the União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola (UNITA) initially supported by the United States. The war was waged in three periods of major fighting: 1975-1991, 1992-1994 and 1998-2002.  Throughout the cycle of war and peace, the Security Council was involved and established several missions to assist in the peace process.

Subsidiary Organs:
United Nations Mission in Angola (UNMA)
United Nations Office in Angola (UNOA)
The United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA)
United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM III)
United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM II)
United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM I)
Committee established pursuant to resolution 864 (1993) concerning the situation in Angola
Security Council Commission of Investigation established in pursuance of resolution 571 (1985)

Aouzou Strip

Complaint by Chad

Letter dated 2 August 1983 from the Permanent Representative of Chad to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council

Letter dated 28 January 1985 from the Charge d'affaires a.i. of the Permanent Mission of Chad to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council

Letter dated 16 March 1983 from the Permanent Representative of Chad to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council

Agreement signed on 4 April 1994 between the Governments of Chad and the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya concerning the practical modalities for the implementation of the Judgment delivered by the International Court of Justice on 3 February 1994

These agenda items refer to sporadic incidents between Chad and the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya from 1978 to 1987 over the control of the Aouzou Strip, a strip of land at the border between the two countries. In 1994 the International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled that the Aouzou Strip belonged to Chad, and subsequently the Security Council established the United Nations Aouzou Strip Observer Group in Resolution 915 (1994) to monitor the withdrawal of Libyan troops.

Subsidiary Organs:
United Nations Aouzou Strip Observer Group (UNASOG)

Benin

Complaint by Benin

Benin complained to the Security Council that a commando of mercenaries had attacked the airport and the city of Cotonou on 16 January 1977, and requested an urgent meeting of the Council.

Subsidiary Organs:
Special Mission to the People’s Republic of Benin established under Security Council Resolution 404 (1977)

Botswana

Letter dated 17 June 1985 from the Permanent Representative of Botswana to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council

Letter dated 26 September 1985 from the Permanent Representative of Botswana to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council

Botswana called for the Council to consider South Africa’s military attack on Gaborone, on 14 June 1985. South Africa had accused Botswana of permitting its territory to be used by the African National Congress (ANC), which was fighting against the apartheid regime of South Africa.

Statement by the President of the Security Council [in connection with the incident of 20 June 1988]

Following attacks by South Africa against its territory on 20 June 1988, Botswana referred the situation to the Security Council. The Council strongly condemned these aggressive acts perpetrated against Botswana.

Subsidiary Organs:
Mission of the Secretary-General to Botswana under resolution 568 (1985)
Mission to Botswana under Security Council resolution 403 (1977)

Burundi

The situation in Burundi

The Security Council addressed the situation in Burundi following the 1993 coup d’etat and the 1994 assassination of the first democratically elected president, which led to large scale killings between the Hutus and Tutsis. Following the signing of the Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement in 2000 and the Comprehensive Ceasefire Agreement in 2006, the Security Council continued to support peacebuilding efforts in the country.

Subsidiary Organs:
United Nations Integrated Office in Burundi (BINUB)
United Nations Operation in Burundi (ONUB)
United Nations Office in Burundi (UNOB)
International Commission of Inquiry established under resolution 1012 (1995) concerning Burundi

Central African region

Strengthening cooperation between the United Nations system and the Central African region in the maintenance of peace and security

On 22 October 2002, the Security Council held a thematic debate aimed at promoting and strengthening the partnership between the United Nations system and Central Africa in relation to the maintenance of peace and security.  

Letter dated 29 November 2002 from the Permanent Representative of Chad to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council

In 2002, Chad asked to address the Council to discuss its position on the “Central African crisis”.

Central African region

On 24 November 2003, the Council held a meeting to discuss the report of the United Nations multidisciplinary assessment mission to the Central African region, which had been authorized by the Secretary-General pursuant to a Security Council decision of 31 October 2002.

Central African Republic

The situation in the Central African Republic

In 1996, the Security Council became involved after the Central African Republic experienced a politico-military crisis, punctuated by several army rebellions. As the situation in the country remained volatile, the Security Council remained involved in peacebuilding efforts in the country.

Subsidiary Organs:

United Nations Integrated Peacebuilding Office in the Central African Republic (BINUCA)
United Nations Peacebuilding Support Office in the Central African Republic (BONUCA)
United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic (MINURCA)

Central African Republic/Chad

The situation in Chad, the Central African Republic and the subregion

This item deals with the massive influx of Sudanese refugees into eastern Chad and the north-eastern Central African Republic (CAR). With a view to help create the security conditions conducive to a secure and sustainable return of refugees and displaced persons, the Council established a multidimensional presence.

Subsidiary Organs:
United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT)

Chad

Letter dated 31 March 1982 from the President of the Republic of Kenya to the President of the Security Council enclosing the letter dated 18 March 1982 from the President of the Republic of Chad to the President of the Council

Following several years of internal armed conflict, the Organization of African Unity (OAU) in 1982 suggested the establishment of a Pan-African peace-keeping force for the maintenance of peace and security in Chad, and requested the Council’s financial and technical assistance.

Chad/Sudan

The situation in Chad and the Sudan

This agenda item deals with the instability along the border between Chad and the Sudan due to spill-over effects from the situation in Darfur, in particular with Sudanese Janjaweed militias attacking border towns in Chad in 2006.

Comoros

The situation in the Comoros

Comoros complained to the Council regarding France’s intention to organize a referendum on the island of Mayotte, which the Government argued was an integral part of Comorian territory.

Côte d'Ivoire

The situation in Côte d'Ivoire

Following a dispute between the two main contenders of the 2000 presidential elections, internal fighting erupted in 2002 that led to mass killings and serious violations of human rights. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) asked for the assistance of the Security Council in addressing the situation.

Subsidiary Organs:
Committee established pursuant to resolution 1572 (2004) concerning Côte d'Ivoire
United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire (UNOCI)
United Nations Mission in Côte d’Ivoire (MINUCI)

Decolonization of Portuguese Territories

Situation in territories in Africa under Portuguese administration

Question concerning the situation in the Territories under Portuguese administration

See also agenda item descriptions under: Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Angola and Mozambique

Portugal’s armed repression of nationalist movements in its African colonies (Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde) in the so called 1961-1974 Portuguese colonial war led to complaints by African governments. They requested the Council to take action to ensure Portugal’s compliance with General Assembly resolutions on the Portuguese administered territories and on the right of the African peoples to self determination.

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Situation in the Republic of the Congo

Situation in the Democratic Republic of Congo

After gaining independence from Belgium in 1960, the Congolese Government requested the Security Council assistance to protect its national territory against Belgian aggression.

Subsidiary Organs:
United Nations Force in the Congo (ONUC)

Complaint by the Democratic Republic of the Congo

In 1966, the Democratic Republic of the Congo complained to the Security Council that Portugal was using its African Territories (Angola) as a base of operations for mercenaries with the aim of overthrowing Congolese authorities.

Items relating to the Democratic Republic of the Congo

The situation concerning the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Letter dated 29 June 1998 from the Secretary -General to the President of the Security Council

Letter dated 25 June 1998 from the Permanent Representative of the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General

Letter dated 25 June 1998 from the Permanent Representative of Rwanda to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General

Following the overthrow of the Government of Zaire in 1997, the country was renamed the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Security Council became involved in efforts to bring peace to the country. Large scale fighting continued until 1999, when the Lusaka Ceasefire Agreement was signed by the Governments of Angola, the Democratic Republic of the CongoNamibiaRwandaUgandaZambia, and Zimbabwe after which the Security Council continued to support efforts for holding elections and ending the remaining internal conflicts.

Subsidiary Organs:

United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO)
United Nations Observer Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC)
Committee established pursuant to resolution 1533 (2004)
Panel of Experts on the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources and Other Forms of Wealth of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Djibouti

Communications from France and Somalia concerning the incident of 4 February 1976

This agenda item refers to a 1976 border incident that had occurred in Loyada, a post situated on the frontier between Somalia and the French Territory of the Afars and the Issas (present-day Djibouti).

Ethiopia/Eritrea

The situation between Eritrea and Ethiopia

The Security Council became involved following an outbreak of hostilities between Eritrea and Ethiopia over a border dispute. Following the signing of a cessation of hostilities agreement in June 2000, the Security Council continued to support efforts to demarcate the border and monitor the ceasefire until 30 July 2008 when the mandate of the United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea was terminated.

Subsidiary Organs:
United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE)
Committee established pursuant to resolution 1298 (2000) concerning the situation between Eritrea and Ethiopia

Great Lakes

The situation in the Great Lakes region

See also agenda item descriptions under: Democratic Republic of the Congo

In early 1996, the Zaire Government (later the Democratic Republic of the Congo) took away Zairian nationality from the Banyamulenge minority, including Hutus and Tutsis, and pressured them to relocate in Rwanda. Hostilities between the Zairian armed forces and Tutsi groups led to a large scale conflict which lasted from November 1996 to May 1997, and caused large displacements of refugees. Consideration of the war that followed the overthrow of the Zairian Government and subsequent events continued under the agenda item “the situation concerning the Democratic Republic of the Congo”, while this agenda item was used to discuss security issues in the broader Great Lakes region, including Rwanda and Burundi. In December 2008, a Special Envoy of the Secretary-General for the Great Lakes region was appointed to assist the Governments of the sub-region to address the challenges to peace and security posed by the continued presence and activities of armed groups in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. Under the auspices of the Special Envoy, a peace agreement between the Government and the Congrés National pour la Defense du Peuple (CNDP) was signed on 23 March 2009 in Goma.

Guinea

Complaint by Guinea

Against the backdrop of the Portuguese colonial war, Guinea, a former French colony, accused Portuguese forces based in Guinea-Bissau of aggression against its territory.

The situation in Guinea following recent attacks along its borders with Liberia and Sierra Leone

See also agenda item descriptions under West Africa

A cross-border conflict between Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, including incursions into Guinea by rebel groups coming from Liberia and Sierra Leone, was brought to the Security Council by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) in 2000.

Subsidiary Organs:
Special Mission to the Republic of Guinea

Guinea-Bissau

The situation in Guinea-Bissau

The Security Council became involved following the signing of a Peace Agreement on 1 November 1998 between the Government of Guinea-Bissau and the Self-Proclaimed Military Junta that led to the deployment of the Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group (ECOMOG), to guarantee security on the border with Senegal. The Security Council continued to provide support for peacebuilding in the country.

Subsidiary Organs:
United Nations Integrated Peacebuilding Support Office in Guinea-Bissau (UNIOGBIS)
United Nations Peacebuilding Support Office in Guinea-Bissau (UNOGBIS)

Lesotho

Complaint by Lesotho against South Africa

In 1976, Lesotho called the Security Council’s attention the closure of the border (between Lesotho and South Africa) by South Africa, aimed at coercing Lesotho into according recognition to Transkei, a territory within South Africa. The South Africa-Lesotho dispute continued into the early 1980’s, with the South African Defence Force (SADF) accusing the Government of Lesotho of harbouring members of the anti-Apartheid African National Congress of South Africa (ANC).

Subsidiary Organs:
Mission of the Secretary-General under Security Council resolution 527 (1982)

Liberia

The situation in Liberia

In an effort to end the civil war that had erupted in Liberia in late1989, the Security Council supported the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) initiative in establishing a peace-keeping force, known as ECOMOG (ECOWAS Monitoring Group) in 1990. The Security Council remained involved in efforts to establish peace after the civil war resumed in 1999 and the subsequent signing of a Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2003. In 2007, the Security Council commenced a drawdown process of its involvement in Liberia.

Subsidiary Organs:
United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL)
United Nations Peacebuilding Support Office in Liberia (UNOL)
United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia (UNOMIL)
Committee established pursuant to resolution 1521 (2003) concerning Liberia
Committee established pursuant to resolution 1343 (2001) concerning Liberia
Committee established pursuant to resolution 985 (1995) concerning Liberia

Libya

Letter dated 19 February 1983 from the Permanent Representative of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council

Letter dated 8 August 1983 from the Charge d'affaires a.i. of the Permanent Mission of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council

Letter dated 22 March 1984 from the Charge d'affaires a.i. of the Permanent Mission of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council

In 1983, the Libyan government complained about provocative military action by the United States in the Gulf of Sidra, close to the Libyan coast. In the following months, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya continued to accuse the United States of acts of military aggression, and urged the Security Council to take action.

Letter dated 18 March 1984 from the Permanent Representative of the Sudan to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council

On 18 March 1984, charging that a Libyan bomber had carried out an air raid against the Sudanese town of Omdurman,  the Sudan  requested a meeting of the Security Council to consider the alleged aggression.

Letter dated 25 March 1986 from the Permanent Representative of Malta to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council.

Letter dated 25 March 1986 from the Permanent Representative of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council;

Letter dated 26 March 1986 from the Permanent Representative of Iraq to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council

Letter dated 12 April 1986 from the Charge d'affaires a.i. of the Permanent Mission of Malta to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council

Letter dated 15 April 1986 from the Chargé d'affaires a.i. of the Permanent Mission of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council

Letter dated 15 April 1986 from the Chargé d'affaires a.i. of the Permanent Mission of Burkina Faso to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council

Letter dated 15 April 1986 from the Chargé d'affaires a.i. of the Permanent Mission of the Syrian Arab Republic to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council

Letter dated 15 April 1986 from the Permanent Representative of Oman to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council

In 1986, the Security Council received complaints that the naval deployment by the United States in the Gulf of Sidra posed a threat to regional peace and security. Malta called on the Security Council to halt what it perceived to be further aggression and use of force in the Central Mediterranean.

Items relating to the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

Letter dated 4 January 1989 from the Chargé d’affaires a.i. of the Permanent Mission of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council

Letter dated 4 January 1989 from the Chargé d’affaires a.i. of the Permanent Mission of Bahrain to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council

In 1989, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya accused the United States of deliberate aggression by shooting down, without any justification, two unarmed Libyan reconnaissance aircraft near the Libyan coast.

Letters dated 20 and 23 December 1991 from France, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America

In 1992, the Security Council imposed sanctions against the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya for not complying with its requests to cooperate with international investigations into the 1988 destruction of the Pan Am Flight 103 and the 1989 destruction of the UTA Flight 772.

Decision of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya to abandon its weapons of mass destruction programmes

The Council held a meeting in April 2004 to welcome the decision by the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya to abandon its programmes for developing weapons of mass destruction.

Subsidiary Organs:
Committee established pursuant to resolution 748 (1992) concerning the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 

The situation in Libya

Following the outbreak of conflict between the Government of Libya and the National Transitional Council in February 2011, the situation in Libya was featured on the agenda of the Council in March 2011. The Council imposed sanctions on Libya in February 2011 and established a mission (UNSMIL) with a mandate to protect civilians and help the people of Libya construct a peaceful and democratic future.

United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL)
Committee established pursuant to resolution 1970 (2011) concerning Libya

Mozambique

The situation in Mozambique

In 1992, the Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO) and the Front for Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO) signed a General Peace Agreement to end the civil war that began in 1977. The Council responded by establishing a peacekeeping force to monitor and guarantee the implementation of the Agreement.

Subsidiary Organs:
United Nations Operation in Mozambique (ONUMOZ)

Namibia

The question of South West Africa

The situation in Namibia

In 1966, the General Assembly declared South Africa’s mandate of 1919 over South West Africa terminated on the basis of people’s right to self-determination, and changed its name to Namibia. Despite the 1971 ruling of the International Court of Justice declaring South Africa’s presence in Namibia to be illegal, South Africa continued to occupy Namibia. In 1978, the Council put forward proposals for a cease-fire and United Nations supervised elections in South African-controlled South West Africa which ultimately led to the independence of Namibia in 1989.

Subsidiary Organs:
United Nations Transition Assistance Group (UNTAG)
Ad Hoc Sub-Committee on Namibia
Ad Hoc Sub-Committee established in pursuance of Security Council resolution 276 (1970)
Representative of the Secretary-General under Security Council Resolution 319 (1972)
Group of the Security Council established under resolution 309 (1972)
Mission of the Secretary-General under Security Council resolution 309 (1972)
Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Namibia under resolution 431 (1978)

Republic of the Congo

The situation in the Republic of the Congo

In 1997, clashes between the two major Congolese political parties led to fighting in the capital Brazzaville, resulting in heavy civilian casualties. Gabon, as chair of the International Mediation Committee, requested the deployment of an appropriate force to manage the situation.

Rwanda

The situation concerning Rwanda

The Security Council became involved in the situation in Rwanda in response to fighting between the Armed Forces of Government of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front (RPF) that had broken out across the border between Rwanda and Uganda. Despite the peace agreement that was signed on 4 August 1993 and the deployment of the United Nations Assistance Mission to Rwanda, the assassination of both the Presidents of Rwanda and Burundi in 1994 sparked an outbreak of violence and the massacre of about 800,000 people. In response, the Security Council imposed an arms embargo against Rwanda, called for urgent international action and authorized a French-led multi-national humanitarian "Operation Turquoise.” Subsequently, the Security Council continued to be involved in supporting peace and reconstruction efforts in Rwanda. In 2000, the Council considered a "Report of the Secretary-General on the Independent Inquiry into the actions of the United Nations during the 1994 genocide in Rwanda", which examined the circumstances surrounding the failure of the international community to prevent the genocide. In 2008, the Council terminated the remaining arms embargo against the governmental forces and concluded the consideration of the agenda item.

Subsidiary Organs
United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR)
United Nations Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda (UNOMUR)
Commission of Experts established pursuant to resolution 935 (1994) concerning Rwanda
Committee established pursuant to resolution 918 (1994) concerning Rwanda
International Commission of Inquiry established under resolution 1013 (1995) concerning Rwanda

International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of Rwanda and Rwandan Citizens Responsible for Such Violations Committed in the Territory of Neighbouring States

Establishment of the list of candidates for Judges of the International Tribunal for Rwanda

In 1994, the Security Council established the International Tribunal for Rwanda for the purpose of prosecuting persons responsible for genocide and other serious violations of international humanitarian law committed in Rwanda between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 1994. Located in Arusha, Tanzania, the Tribunal issued the first indictments in 1995 and held the first trials in 1997.

Subsidiary Organs
International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Genocide and Other Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of Rwanda and Rwandan Citizens Responsible for Genocide and Other Such Violations Committed in the Territory of Neighbouring States, between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 1994 (ICTR)

Senegal

Complaint by Senegal


See also description of agenda items under Decolonization

Following a series of complaints by Senegal regarding the shelling of a Senegalese village from a Portuguese base in north eastern Guinea-Bissau, the Council condemned the action and called upon Portugal to desist from violating the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Senegal.

Subsidiary Organs:
Special Mission of the Security Council established in accordance with resolution 294 (1971) of 15 July 1971

Seychelles

Complaint by Seychelles

See also agenda item description under South Africa

In November 1981, Seychelles complained to the Council of a mercenary invasion, and accused South Africa of being involved in the incident with the aim of overthrowing the Seychelles government.

Subsidiary Organs:
Commission of Inquiry under resolution 496 (1981)in connection with the Republic of the Seychelles
Ad Hoc Committee established under resolution 507 (1982) concerning the Seychelles

Sierra Leone

The situation in Sierra Leone

In November 1994, Sierra Leone requested the Secretary-General to provide his good offices to facilitate negotiations between the Government and the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) which had been engaged in a civil war since 1991.  Following the RUF’s violation of the 1999 Lomé Peace Agreement, the Security Council imposed sanctions measures and took other steps to end the conflict. Since the end of the conflict in 2002, the Security Council has continued to support peacebuilding efforts in the country.

Subsidiary Organs:
United Nations Integrated Peacebuilding Office in Sierra Leone (UNIPSIL)
United Nations Integrated Office in Sierra Leone (UNIOSIL)
United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL)
The United Nations Observer Mission in Sierra Leone (UNOMSIL)
Committee established pursuant to resolution 1132 (1997) concerning Sierra Leone

Somalia

The situation in Somalia

Beginning in 1993, the Security Council became involved in Somalia by leading peace talks between the parties to the Somali civil war that had started in 1991 and establishing a peacekeeping operation that withdrew in 1995. As violence increased, a two-year peace process under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) concluded with the creation of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) in 2004. However, the crisis continued to worsen and the Council authorized an African Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) in 2007.

Subsidiary Organs:
The United Nations Political Office for Somalia (UNPOS)
United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM II)
United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM I)
Commission of Inquiry established pursuant to resolution 885 (1993) concerning Somalia
Committee established pursuant to resolution 751 (1992) concerning Somalia
Ad Hoc Commission of the Security Council established pursuant to resolution 794 (1992) concerning Somalia

South Africa

Complaint concerning South Africa (letter of 25 March 1960)

The question of race conflict in South Africa

The Question of race conflict in South Africa resulting from the policies of Apartheid of the government of the Republic of South Africa

The question of South Africa

See also agenda items descriptions for: Africa, Angola, Botswana,
Lesotho, Seychelles

Opposition to the apartheidregime of racial discrimination and segregation in South Africa between 1948 and 1994 was severely repressed by the South African Government and often led to violence. This issue was regularly referred to the Security Council, which condemned the policy of apartheid and recognized the legitimacy of the struggle of the people of South Africa.

Relationship between the United Nations and South Africa

In 1974, the Chairman of the African Group called on the Security Council, as stipulated under General Assembly resolution 3207 of 30 September 1974, to review the relationship between the United Nations and South Africa in the light of the constant violation by South Africa of the principles of the United Nations Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Situation in South Africa: killings and violence by the apartheid regime in South Africa in Soweto and other areas

On 16 June 1976, mass civilian protests erupted in Soweto, South Africa, over the apartheid regime’s education policy. The so called “Soweto Uprising” was suppressed violently by the South African forces and led to the death of several hundred people, which led to the involvement of the Security Council.

Complaint by Kenya, on behalf of the African Group of States at the United Nations, concerning the act of aggression committed by South Africa against the People's Republic of Angola

See also agenda item descriptions under Angola

Following Angola’s independence from Portugal in 1975, the three main Angolan liberation movements competed for dominance in what became the Angolan civil war. On 10 March 1976, the African Group referred South Africa’s military intervention in this conflict, conducted from neighbouring Namibia, to the Security Council.

Complaint by Zambia against South Africa

See also agenda item descriptions under Zambia

Zambia called for the Council to consider “repeated acts of aggression by South Africa”, in particular the attack in July 1976 at the Sialola village

Subsidiary Organs
United Nations Observer Mission in South Africa (UNOMSA)
Security Council Commission of Investigation established in pursuance of resolution 571 (1985)
Mission of the Secretary-General to Botswana under Security Council resolution 568 (1985)
Mission of the Secretary-General under Security Council resolution 527 (1982)
Committee established under resolution 421 (1977) relating to South Africa
Special Mission Established under Resolution 326 (1973)
Mission of the Secretary-General under Security Council resolution 309 (1972)
Representative of the Secretary-General under Security Council Resolution 319 (1972)
Group of Experts on South Africa
Expert Committee of the Security Council on Measures Concerning the Question of Race Conflict in South Africa

Southern Rhodesia

Situation in Southern Rhodesia

British refusal to grant independence to the territory of Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) despite General Assembly resolutions was referred to the Council by a number of countries for the first time in 1963. In 1964, Southern Rhodesia declared itself unilaterally independent from the United Kingdom and established a regime based on racial discrimination. The Security Council imposed economic sanctions against this regime in 1966. Southern Rhodesia subsequently gained international recognition of its independence in April 1980, when it became Zimbabwe.

Subsidiary Organs:

Committee established in pursuance of resolution 253 (1968) of 29 May 1968 concerning the question of Southern Rhodesia
Representative of the Secretary-General under Security Council resolution 415 (1977)

Request by Mozambique under Article 50 of the Charter of the United Nations in relation to the situation which has arisen as a result of its decision to impose sanctions against Southern Rhodesia in full implementation of the relevant decisions of the Security Council

In 1976, newly independent Mozambique called for assistance in implementing the economic sanctions against Southern Rhodesia.

Complaint by Mozambique

See also agenda item descriptions under Mozambique

In 1977, Mozambique complained to the Council about attacks against its territory by Southern Rhodesia, and stated that his country had become the target of aggression because of its support to the liberation of the people of Southern Rhodesia.

Complaint of the Government of Botswana against the illegal regime in Southern Rhodesia concerning violations of its territorial sovereignty, as contained in the letter dated 22 December 1976 from the Permanent Representative of Botswana to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council

In 1976 Botswana accused Southern Rhodesia of acts of aggression under the pretext that Botswana was supporting and harbouring freedom fighters from Southern Rhodesia liberation movement. Botswana also requested assistance from the Security Council in dealing with a flow of refugees from Southern Rhodesia.

Sudan

Letter dated 20 February 1958 from the representative of the Sudan addressed to the Secretary-General

A border dispute with Egypt arose after the Sudan gained its independence from the Egyptian-British condominium in 1956. In 1958, Sudan called on the Security Council to use its good offices to prevent an aggression by Egypt.

Letter dated 9 January 1996 from the permanent representative of Ethiopia to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council concerning the extradition of the suspects wanted in the assassination attempt on the life of the President of the Arab Republic of Egypt in Addis Ababa on 26 June 1996

Security Council resolution 1054 (1996) of 26 April 1996


After an assassination attempt on Egyptian President Mubarak in Ethiopia in June 1995, Ethiopia requested the extradition of the alleged terrorists from the Sudan and requested that the Security Council intervene. The Security Council resolution 1054 (1996) demanded that the Sudan extradite the suspects and desist from supporting terrorist activities, and imposed sanctions on the Sudan, which were lifted in 2001.

Letter dated 2 October 2003 from the Permanent Representative of the Sudan to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council

Following years of civil conflict, in 2003, the Government and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A), the main rebel movement in the south, signed the Framework Agreement on Security Arrangements, which was welcomed by the Security Council.

Letter dated 25 May 2004 from the Permanent Representative of the Sudan to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council

Reports of the Secretary -General on the Sudan


In view of continuing large-scale violations of human rights and international humanitarian law committed by the Government of the Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A), the main rebel movement in the South, this agenda item was taken up in 2004, to support the 2002 Sudan peace process. Following the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005, the Council continues to support intensive diplomatic and political efforts to bring the non-signatories of the Agreement into the peace process. Since 2011, the Security Council has discussed a variety of topics under this agenda item, such as (i) Report of the Secretary-General on South Sudan, (ii) Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations-African Union Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID), and (iii) Report of the Secretary-General on the situation in Abyei.

Subsidiary Organs:

United Nations Advance Mission in the Sudan (UNAMIS)
United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS)
African Union / United Nations Hybrid operation in Darfur (UNAMID)
Committee established pursuant to resolution 1591 (2005) concerning the Sudan
International Commission of Inquiry for Darfur

Tunisia

The Tunisian question

After gaining independence from France in 1956, Tunisia accused France of armed aggression through the bombardment on 8 February 1958 of the village of Sakiet-Sidi-Youssef near the Algerian border and requested the involvement of the Security Council.

Complaint by Tunisia

Tunisia complained to the Security Council regarding a dispute over the French naval base in the Tunisian city of Bizerta that had led to a three day battle between French and Tunisian troops in 1961.

Letter dated 1 October 1985 from the Permanent Representative of Tunisia to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council

Tunisia requested a meeting of the Security Council to respond to an incident on 1 October 1985, when Israel dropped five bombs on the locality of Borj-Cedria, known as Hammam-Plage, in the suburbs of Tunis. Israel claimed that the attack had been aimed at the headquarters of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO).

Letter dated 19 April 1988 from the Permanent Representative of Tunisia to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council

Tunisia accused Israel of attacking a residential area in Tunis and killing several people, including the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) executive committee member Khalil al-Wazir “Abu Jihad” on 19 April 1988.

Uganda

Complaint by the Prime Minister of Mauritius, current Chairman of the Organization of African Unity, of the "act of aggression" by Israel against the Republic of Uganda

In June 1976, a group of Palestinian terrorists hijacked a plane on its way to Paris and redirected it to Entebbe, Uganda. A few days later, Israel conducted a hostage-rescue mission at the Entebbe airport without the consent of the Ugandan authorities. This led to a complaint by the Organization of African Unity (OAU) to the Council.

Briefings by the Minister for Foreign Affairs and the Minister of Defence of Uganda

On 19 April 2006, the Council heard a briefing on the threat posed to Uganda and the region by the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), an armed militia based in northern Uganda.

West Africa

Cross-border issues in West Africa

In 2004, the Security Council held a series of meetings to consider a subregional approach to the conflicts in West Africa resulting from interlinked cross-border issues, such as the proliferation of small arms, the illegal exploitation of natural resources and the use of child soldiers and mercenaries.

Peace consolidation in West Africa

In 2006, the Security Council held a debate on peace consolidation in West Africa given the transition from war to democratic rule in Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea-Bissau, and efforts aimed at free and fair elections in Côte d’Ivoire. In 2008, the Security Council focused on the challenges facing the sub-region, including the impact of drug trafficking and challenges posed to governance, as well as the role of the United Nations Office for West Africa (UNOWA) in addressing these issues.

Letter dated 30 April 2001 from the Secretary-General addressed to the President of the Security Council (UNOWA)

Following an Inter-Agency Mission which visited 11 West African countries in March 2001, the Security Council approved the establishment of a United Nations office for West Africa (UNOWA), in order to enhance the United Nations capacity and collaboration in the sub-region, including the Mano River Union and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).

Subsidiary Organs:
United Nations Office for West Africa (UNOWA)

Western Sahara

The situation concerning Western Sahara

Following the end of Spanish administration over Western Sahara in 1975, fighting erupted between Morocco, claiming sovereignty over the territory, and the Frente POLISARIO, seeking a referendum for self-determination of the people of Western Sahara. Although settlement proposals were accepted by the parties in 1991, a United Nations organized referendum on the territory's final status has been repeatedly postponed. The Council continued to meet to discuss a possible settlement of the situation.

Subsidiary Organs:
United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO)
Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Western Sahara under Security Council resolution 621 (1988)
Mission of the Secretary-General under Security Council resolution 377 (1975)

Letters dated 13 June 1979 and 15 June 1979 from the Permanent Representative of Morocco to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council

In 1979, Morocco accused Algeria of attacking the Moroccan army close to the border with Western Sahara. Algeria claimed that the attack was perpetrated by the Frente POLISARIO.

Zambia

Complaint by Zambia

See also agenda item descriptions under South Rhodesia and South Africa

In 1969, Zambia complained about the violation of its territorial integrity by Portugal. In 1973 and 1978, Zambia also referred to the Council acts of subversion and sabotage against Zambia by Southern Rhodesia, as well as by South Africa.

Subsidiary Organs:
Ad Hoc Committee established under resolution 455 (1979)
Special Mission established under resolution 326 (1973)

 

 

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