- Type(s)of Assistance:
- Expertise, Training, Financial
- Legal, Implementation
- MPC&A, Physical Protection, Export Controls, Border Controls, Dismantlement, Enforcement
The United States actively supports further implementation and welcomes the opportunity to review assistance requests as submitted to relevant U.S. 1540 Points of Contacts as listed on the 1540 Committee website.
- a) Type(s) of Assistance: Support for UNSCR 1540
- b) Scope: Through various U.S. assistance programs, the United States works with countries globally to develop legal and regulatory infrastructure, implementation experience, and/or resources to fulfill the provisions outlined in the resolution through bilateral programs and as an active participant in multilateral programs.
- c) Region(s): All
- d) Subject(s): The list below shows the many programs that the United States is engaged in that support implementation of UNSCR 1540. It provides concrete examples of the areas in which the United States has experience and expertise; the United States welcomes and is prepared to consider additional requests from UN Member States for assistance in these areas.
Financial Crimes/Money Laundering
-- The U.S. Department of Justice plays a major role in assisting states in developing legislation and regulations to criminalize the financing of terrorism and terrorist acts, which can include the acquisition and use of weapons of mass destruction. Justice also responds to states’ requests for expertise and training to help develop their professional skills and ability to implement these laws and to prosecute and adjudicate such crimes.
-- The Department of Justice provides technical assistance and training to prosecutors, other law enforcement officials, and criminal justice organizations focused on the development of sustainable skills and institutions that enable participating countries to combat more effectively complex and transnational crime, and build a basis upon which they can address WMD threats as well. This assistance is provided by the Department’s Criminal Division (primarily through the Overseas Prosecutorial Development, Assistance, and Training (OPDAT) and the International Criminal Investigative Training and Assistance Program (ICITAP)).
-- The U.S. Department of the Treasury provides extensive outreach to support the global fight against the financing of terrorism and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, including encouraging nations to remove the legal or other barriers that might hinder cooperative efforts. In particular, the Department of the Treasury encourages countries to develop and implement targeted financial sanctions - to be applied to multiple international security threats and the support networks that facilitate such activity – be it associated with terrorism or WMD proliferation. These include the strengthening of systems to block terrorist and proliferators’ assets and transactions, cut off terrorist and proliferator funds, and prevent fund-raising activities that benefit terrorists and WMD proliferators. In its outreach - both bilaterally and multilaterally - Treasury works with states to identify entities engaged in such activities and develop national authorities - similar to the U.S.’s E.O. 13224 for terrorist financing and E.O. 13382 for WMD proliferation. These measures are intended to multilateralize efforts to financially and commercially isolate these actors and the support networks that facilitate such activity. Treasury is working to develop technical assistance delivery specifically in this area, in keeping with the international standards regarding asset blocking and international obligations regarding financial enforcement with respect to entities engaged in WMD proliferation and terrorism. In addition, Treasury works with its international partners to strengthen global Anti-money Laundering/Counter-terrorist Financing (AML/CFT) regimes, including controls in the financial sector to deny proliferation networks access to financial services.
-- The United States also sponsors the International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs) in Botswana, El Salvador, Hungary, Thailand and an advanced academy in Roswell, New Mexico, USA. The Department of State is currently exploring a venue for a potential ILEA in Latin America. Senior representatives from the Departments of State, Treasury, Justice, and Homeland Security comprise the ILEA Policy Board, which performs monitoring activities and provides overall guidance and oversight of the training program to ensure that it is consistent with foreign policy and law enforcement goals. An Interagency Steering Group provides operational guidance. The Department of State maintains a website for ILEA relative to their Academies:http://www.state.gov/j/inl/c/crime/ilea/.
WMD Materials Security & Control
-- The Departments of Defense, Energy, Justice, Treasury, Homeland Security, and State work bilaterally and multilaterally with many countries worldwide to detect, prevent, and reverse the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.
-- The Science Centers Program, coordinated by the Department of State, provides weapons scientists from 11 former Soviet republics, including Russia and Ukraine, with opportunities to redirect their talents to peaceful civilian sustainable research, thus helping to prevent the potential misuse of their expertise.
-- The WMD Proliferation Prevention Initiative Program (WMD-PPI), working in close coordination with other Departments of the USG in non-Russian states of the former Soviet Union, currently assists Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Azerbaijan develop and sustain capabilities to prevent the proliferation of WMD-related materials, components, and technologies across their borders.
-- The Department of Energy helps develop national and regional resources in the Russian Federation to support effective operation of upgraded nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC&A) systems.
-- The Global Nuclear Material Threat Reduction Program removes vulnerable nuclear material; reduces; and, to the extent possible, eliminates highly enriched uranium from civil applications worldwide.
-- Under the Global Radiological Threat Reduction Program the United States will conduct multiyear initiatives to improve security at 299 sites worldwide containing high risk radiological sources; recover and dispose of sources from 800 radioisotope thermal electric generators (RTGs); and recover over 20,000 at-risk radiological sources within the United States within the next decade.
-- The Nonproliferation and International Security Program is intended to prevent, detect, and reverse proliferation of WMD material and technology as well as strengthen the nonproliferation regime.
-- The Russian Transition Initiative prevents the migration of WMD expertise from the former Soviet weapons industry through cooperative programs and job creation.
-- The Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA), through its International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program, assists states in developing and maintaining measures to account for and secure nuclear materials, consistent with states’ obligations under the NPT and provisions of UNSCR 1540. The program strengthens the nonproliferation regime by helping states to put in place effective measures to control nuclear materials and to detect and deter illegal acquisition of such. Additionally, the program assists states to establish effective infrastructure for responsible nuclear material stewardship.
-- DOE/NNSA’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program reduces the risk of terrorists acquiring the nuclear and radiological materials for a weapon of mass destruction by working at civilian sites worldwide to convert reactors from the use of highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium, remove or dispose of excess WMD-usable nuclear and radiological materials, and protect at-risk WMD-usable nuclear and radiological materials from theft and sabotage until a more permanent threat reduction solution can be implemented.
-- The Department of Homeland Security’s Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO), through its Nuclear Assessment Program (NAP), provides training sessions six times a year at the International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) in Hungary. These seminars instruct mid-level law enforcement officials from the former Soviet Union with training in illicit nuclear material smuggling, nuclear crimes, and radioactive/nuclear detection challenges.
-- DOE/NNSA’s International Material Protection and Cooperation Program improves the security of weapons-usable nuclear material and enhances detection and interdiction infrastructure at international borders.
-- The Weapons of Mass Destruction Infrastructure Elimination (WMDIE) Program in Ukraine assists with the elimination of nuclear weapon storage sites with signatures similar to operating sites in Russia.
-- The Nuclear Weapons Storage Security (NWSS) Program in Russia enhances the security, safety, and control of nuclear weapons during storage.
-- The Nuclear Weapons Transportation Security (NWTS) Program in Russia supports proliferation prevention objectives by enhancing the security, safety, and control of nuclear weapons during shipment to dismantlement and secure storage.
-- The Fissile Material Storage Facility (FMSF) Program in Russia provided a centralized, safe, secure, and ecologically sound storage for weapons-grade fissile material.
-- As part of the United States’ efforts to dispose of surplus weapons-grade fissile materials, the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) will design, build, and operate facilities to dispose of 34 metric tons of surplus U.S. weapons-grade plutonium as well as work with Russia to dispose of similar quantities of surplus Russian weapons-grade plutonium. The NNSA is also overseeing the disposition of 174 metric tons of U.S. surplus highly enriched uranium.
-- The Department of Energy, through its program on ending weapons-grade plutonium production (EWGPP) in the Russian Federation, will provide assistance for the construction or refurbishment of fossil fuel plants to replace the last three aging plutonium production reactors still operating in Russia.
-- The United States has strong outreach programs that provide information and assistance to states on joining and implementing the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC). The United States also provides assistance, upon request, to existing BWC States Parties on issues relating to the completion of implementation requirements, and strengthening biosafety and pathogen security legislation and policies.
-- The Bioindustry Initiative focuses on the redirection of former biological weapons (BW) production facilities toward peaceful uses and accelerated drug and vaccine development, particularly for highly infectious diseases while destroying dual use equipment.
-- The BioSecurity Engagement (BEP) Program was launched in 2006 to address the emerging global biological threats posed by terrorist threats outside traditional state-sponsored WMD programs, such as those in the former Soviet Union. Working with multiple offices in the Department of State and other U.S. government agencies, BEP has begun engagement of priority countries in Southeast Asia, funding threat assessments, trainings, and outreach that strengthen global pathogen security and laboratory biosafety. The Department of State is spearheading a pathogen security working group which will coordinate the U.S. government approach to global pathogen security.
-- The Department of Justice (primarily through the Office of Overseas Prosecutorial Development, Assistance and Training) provides assistance in the formulation and drafting of appropriate legislative and regulatory measures to address bioterrorist activity and helps build the legislative and regulatory infrastructure to address threats posed by proliferators (specifically bioterrorist threats).
-- The Biological Threat Reduction (BTR) Program partners with former Soviet Union states to combat bioterrorism and prevent proliferation of biological weapons related technology, pathogens, and expertise through consolidating and securing dangerous pathogen collections, improving biosafety and biosecurity, enhancing former Soviet Union states’ ability to detect, diagnose, and respond to threat agent disease outbreaks, and dismantling former biological weapons infrastructure.
-- The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Human Health Services (HHS) Federal Select Agent Program oversees the possession, use, and transfer of select agents and toxins that pose a serious threat to public, animal or plant health, or to animal or plant products in accordance with the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002. The USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and the HHS, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) register all entities, such as private, State, and Federal research laboratories; universities; and vaccine companies that possess, use, or transfer select agents or toxins. The Federal Select Agent Program maintains a website at http://www.selectagents.gov..
-- The United States has strong outreach programs on universality and national implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) by providing information and technical assistance to Member States on joining and meeting national implementation obligations. The United States conducts technical assistance visits, upon request, with Ministry officials in capitals that are directly responsible for implementation. These visits provide advice and support tailored to the specific needs of each Member State to ensure full implementation of the CWC (e.g., domestic efforts to draft and enact implementing legislation, establish a national focal point for liaising with the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in The Hague and other Member States, declaration preparation, and adopting chemical industry-related implementation measures).
-- The Chemical Weapons Destruction (CWD) Program assists the Russian Federation in the destruction of its nerve agent stockpile and in the demilitarization of former chemical weapon production facilities.
-- The Bio-Chem Redirection Program engages former Soviet biological and chemical weapons scientists in those dual-use areas to combat biological and chemical terrorism and proliferation, supporting transition of those scientists to global public health, crop, and livestock health, and environmental monitoring and remediation.
Means of Delivery
-- The Strategic Offensive Arms Elimination (SOAE) Program in the Russian Federation provides equipment and services to destroy or dismantle ICBMs, ICBM silo launchers, road and rail mobile ICBM launchers, SLBMs, SLBM launchers and associated SSBNs, and related infrastructure in accordance with the START Treaty. The program also supports the disposition of spent naval reactor fuel from dismantled SSBNs.
-- The Strategic Nuclear Arms Elimination (SNAE) Program is assisting Ukraine to safely store and eliminate its 163 SS-24 loaded motor cases.
Export Control & Border Security
-- A key tool in stemming the proliferation of WMD, their delivery systems, and related weapons and technologies is effective export and border controls. To meet this objective, the United States works to ensure that potential suppliers have proper controls on the export of munitions and dual-use goods and related technologies, and that transit/transshipment countries have the tools to interdict illicit shipments crossing their territories and implement controls to prevent diversions. The Department of State’s Export Control and Related Border Security (EXBS) program provides training, technical consultation, and equipment to establish and implement effective export and border controls that meet international standards. Drawing on the expertise from the Departments of State, Homeland Security, Commerce, and Energy, as well as the private sector, the EXBS program has worked with countries around the world to enhance their ability to prevent and interdict shipments of dangerous items and technology. The EXBS program assists governments in strengthening their export controls by improving their legal and regulatory frameworks, licensing processes, border control and investigative capabilities, outreach to industry, and interagency coordination.
-- Via a customized software program called TRACKER, the United States helps other countries’ export control officials network via a standardized database with licensing officials in other countries.
-- The International Nonproliferation Export Control Program (INECP) of the Department of Energy, which is coordinated with the Department of State’s EXBS program, directly engages counterpart government officials and technical experts involved in export controls. INECP works with these counterparts to cultivate a detailed understanding of the items on the control lists of the international export control regimes, and to promote an in-depth grasp of the technical aspects of export control implementation. The goal is to create a group of export control experts who support development and implementation of their respective countries’ export and strategic trade control systems though the provision of technical analysis, training, and other support.
-- Through its Second Line of Defense (SLD) Program, the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration works with foreign partners to strengthen the nonproliferation regime by enhancing host government capabilities to detect, deter, and interdict illicit trafficking in special nuclear and other radiological materials. Through this program, DOE/NNSA provides radiation detection equipment at international land border crossings, airports, and seaports, along with training on the use of the equipment and technical support to help ensure its long-term sustainability.
-- The Department of Defense International Counterproliferation Program (ICP) provides training, equipment, and technical assistance, and is designed to enhance the detection, investigation, and interdiction capabilities of border, customs, and law enforcement officials in the countries of the former Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and the Baltic states.
-- The Container Security Initiative (CSI) implemented by the Department of Homeland Security is designed to protect the global trading system and trade lanes by enhancing cooperation at seaports worldwide to identify and examine high-risk containers and ensure their in-transit integrity.
Note Verbale from the United States dated 14 July 2010 on CARICOM’s assistance request:
The United States has committed to continue funding the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) for its regional coordinator for implementation of resolution 1540. We are working with the CARICOM Secretariat to establish more long-term administrative support for this position that will complement the ongoing funding support. We welcome further donor coordination.
Note Verbale from the United States dated 14 July 2010 on Iraq’s assistance request:
In 2009 and again on June 16, 2010 the Permanent Mission of Iraq conveyed a request from the Ministry of Science and Technology to the Committee. The request includes equipment and training for bio-risk management and export control. The United States is also working with Iraq bilaterally to assist its government to secure its borders. In bio-risk management, Iraq is requesting support for developing the capabilities of the National Authority, establishing a safe bio-toxins laboratory that meets international standards, training for laboratory managers, and obtaining personal protection equipment, and portable detectors. To control imports and exports for dual-use goods, Iraq is requesting border-control equipment, enhancement of harbor security, and improvement of licensing systems.
Note Verbale from the United States dated 14 July 2010 on Serbia’s assistance request:
In April, Serbia requested gas chromatographs and training for two operators. The request remains under consideration in Washington.
Reply from the United States dated 13 August 2013 on CARICOM's assistance request:
The funding for the CARICOM 1540 Regional Coordinator position will conclude on 31 May 2014.
Assistance through international organizations
In addition to providing funding to support the IAEA in carrying out activities that support implementation of UNSCR 1540, the United States provides training and assistance to IAEA Member States jointly with the IAEA. This assistance includes:
-- Training courses on the physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities, organized on both an international and a regional basis.
-- Training courses on state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials, organized on both an international and a regional basis.
-- Training courses on nuclear security and the prevention of acts of nuclear terrorism, organized on both an international and a regional basis.
-- Provision of technical and legal experts to participate in various types of IAEA assessment and advisory missions at the request of IAEA Member States.
-- Provision of technical and legal experts to participate in various consultancies to prepare guidance and recommendations to IAEA Members States on nuclear security-related matters, including implementation of the universal counter-terrorism instruments aimed at protecting nuclear material, radioactive sources and other radioactive material and associated facilities from terrorist attack.
Points of Contact
- Mr. Richard T. Cupitt, Ph.D.
- U.S. 1540 Coordinator
- Tel: 202-736-4275
- Mr. Thomas E. Brown
- Assistant U.S. 1540 Coordinator
- Tel: 202-736-7075
- Mr. Michael Aho
- Point of Contact at the United States Mission to the United Nations
- Tel: 212-415-4228