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Judicial archives of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR)

Dr. Alison Des Forges testimony

Dr. Alison Des Forges was an academic historian specializing in African history. She dedicated her life to working on Rwanda, and was a leading expert on the 1994 Rwanda genocide and its aftermath. She was a senior adviser to Human Rights Watch's Africa division for almost two decades. She published numerous scholarly papers and reports in the field of Rwandan history and the conflicts in Africa’s Great Lakes region. Dr. Des Forges testified in ten cases before the ICTR, spending a total of over one hundred days on the stand. Her eloquent testimony provides valuable insight into the causes of the Rwandan genocide of 1994.

Note: the testimony is a clear and comprehensive source of information about the conditions which led to the genocide in Rwanda.

Listen to 11 February 1997: Dr. Alison Des Forges testimony

Listen to 12 February 1997 (am session): Dr. Alison Des Forges testimony

Listen to 12 February 1997 (pm session): Dr. Alison Des Forges testimony

Listen to 13 February 1997 (am session): Dr. Alison Des Forges testimony

Listen to 13 February 1997 (pm session): Dr. Alison Des Forges testimony

Listen to 18 February 1997 (am session): Dr. Alison Des Forges testimony

Listen to 18 February 1997 (pm session): Dr. Alison Des Forges testimony

Judgement and Witnesses' testimonies in the indictment against Jean Paul Akayesu which included rape and sexual violence as crimes against humanity

The indictment against Jean Paul Akayesu, bourgmestre (mayor) of the Taba commune, was amended to include rape and sexual violence as crimes against humanity. The courageous testimonies of witnesses provided the evidence required for the ICTR's Trial Chamber to find Akayesu guilty of rape. By finding that rape can constitute genocide, the ICTR's Trial Chamber set an important precedent in international criminal law. Judge Navanethem Pillay made the following statement after the delivery of the judgement: "From time immemorial, rape has been regarded as spoils of war. Now it will be considered a war crime. We want to send out a strong message that rape is no longer a trophy of war."

Listen to 02 October 1998: Judgement of Jean Paul Akayesu

Please, note that this is HIGHLY DISTURBING AUDIO MATERIAL

Listen to 27 January 1997: Witness "J"

Listen to 23 October 1997 (am session): Witness "JJ"

Listen to 23 October 1997 (pm session): Witness "JJ"

Listen to 24 October 1997: Witness "JJ"

Listen to 27 October 1997: Witness "OO"

Listen to 31 October 1997 (am session): Witness "KK"

Listen to 31 October 1997 (pm session): Witness "KK"

Listen to 03 November 1997 (am session): Witness "NN"

Listen to 03 November 1997 (pm session): Witness "NN"

Listen to 04 November 1997 (am session): Witness "PP"

Listen to 04 November 1997 (pm session): Witness "PP"

Major-General Roméo Dallaire's testimony

Major-General Roméo Dallaire was the Force Commander for the UNAMIR (the UN Assistance Mission in Rwanda) in 1994. His testimony in the Akayesu case describes the challenges faced by the mission in its attempts to fulfil its mandate of implementing the Arusha peace accords and maintaining peace in Rwanda.

Listen to 25 February 1998 (am session)

Listen to 25 February 1998 (pm session)

Appearance and Judgment of Jean Kambanda (1 May and 4 September 1998)

Appearance and Judgment of Jean Kambanda, Prime Minister of the interim government of the Republic of Rwanda on 9 April 1994. Despite his guilty plea and initial willingness to cooperate with the prosecution, he was sentenced to life imprisonment.

Listen to 01 May 1998

Listen to 04 September 1998

Appearance and plea of André Rwamakuba (8 April 1999)

André Rwamakuba was the Minister of Primary and Secondary Education in Rwanda during the genocide. In the judgement delivered on 20 September 2006, he was acquitted of all charges.

Listen to 08 April 1999. This file provides the floor audio, the best way to hear the accused's emotional response while entering his pleas.

Listen to 08 April 1999

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