VII. Peace Operations facts and figures
Excerpts from speeches by Under-Secretary-General Jean-Marie Guéhenno:
Statement to the UN General Assembly's
Fourth (Special Political and Decolonization)
25 October 2004
Peacekeeping is again at a
crossroads. In August 2005,
it will be five years since the
Brahimi process was
launched. That milestone
leads all of us to reflect on
some fairly fundamental
questions. To what degree
has the world of peacekeeping
changed since then?
What will the next five
years hold for UN peacekeeping
and what might
that imply for the types of
capacities the UN system
should begin to build now
in order to be prepared?
These are the big questions that we in the Secretariat need
to begin discussing with Member States, and they with one
another…. The report of the High-level Panel on Threats,
Challenges and Change will certainly contribute significantly
to that discussion. I would like to inject a few personal
reflections on certain trends and realities that appear to be
dominating the peacekeeping terrain.
First, the peacekeeping demands throughout the world
today exceed what the UN or any other regional or subregional
organization, by itself, can meet. From the UN’s perspective
it is very welcome that a growing number of international
organizations and actors are engaging in post-conflict
work. Regional and sub-regional organizations should
equally welcome continued investment in the UN’s capacity
for peacekeeping. After all, the fact that DPKO has reached
a total of 17 operations now, with more potentially on the
horizon, is ample confirmation of the fact that the UN
peacekeeping remains indispensable. The universality of
the UN continues to offer UN peacekeepers a unique legitimacy.
And UN peacekeeping has built up – over decades of
hard-won experience – a formidable degree of expertise
and some unique capabilities.
Second, if the current demand for UN peacekeeping will
remain roughly constant over the next five years, concurrent
with the demand for non-UN run operations, then we
are going to face a serious deficit in the field.There is a need
to take a very serious look at the total pool of financial resources – military, civilians, and police – available for postconflict
work; and, to agree on reliable bases for their allocation
to UN and other operations.
Third, that there will be demands for peacekeeping is one
of the few things in this business that is predictable. As for
the rest, we should be prepared to expect the unexpected.
We need to equip ourselves for nimble, competent, quick
and flexible response.…Moreover, though we are learning
lessons and codifying best practices, we must also recognize
that all the operations we mount face unique political,
economic, social and security challenges, with different
mandates and a different array of partners and spoilers…
Fourth, the complexity of post-conflict transitions means
that our operations must advance concurrently on many
tracks – political, humanitarian, development, human rights
and security – often in high risk environments. Many of
their tasks are peace building, as much as peacekeeping,
and so our integrated peace operations must be linked to
longer term peace-building and development approaches.
These realities present us with some difficult dilemmas.
Should UN peace operations work at the scale that is currently
demanded? Are the resources available? What more
is needed to strengthen them? Or should UN peace operations
focus on a more limited number of niche tasks?
And if that, how else do we meet the whole range of
needs on the ground?
At least two areas are crying out to be addressed as a priority
in the coming year. The first concerns the processes
by which we get the right capabilities – troops, the specialized
components, the police, the civilians – on the
ground in time to implement the mandates of peace operations.
The second relates to how these capabilities are
best organized and deployed; how we integrate and
rationalize the joint efforts of the UN system and the rest
of the international community to assist the consolidation
of a sustainable peace.
Statement to the Security Council,
28 October 2004
To stop these [sexual exploitation and abuse] abhorrent
acts, the UN system needs to work hand-in-hand with
Member States...Disciplinary directives for civilian, military
and civilian police personnel have been compiled [by
DPKO]. Training materials on the prevention of sexual
abuse and exploitation have been designed. And, Focal
Points on this issue have been created in several peacekeeping
missions. This issue is being taken seriously in the
Department, but it must and will be given even greater priority
in the coming year. Our work cannot be considered
complete on this front for as long as sexual exploitation or
abuse is being committed by a single peacekeeper or
humanitarian worker. Even one incident is unacceptable.