Having determined that the situation faced by South Sudan continues to constitute a threat to international peace and security in the region and acting under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, the Security Council by its resolution 1996 (2011) of 8 July 2011 established the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) for an initial period of one year from 9 July 2011 with the intention to renew for further periods as may be required.
UNMISS will consist of up to 7,000 military personnel, including military liaison officers and staff officers, up to 900 civilian police personnel, including as appropriate formed units, and an appropriate civilian component, including technical human rights investigation expertise. The Council decided to review in three and six months whether the conditions on the ground could allow a reduction of military personnel to a level of 6,000.
The mandate of UNMISS is as follows:
Support for peace consolidation and thereby fostering longer-term statebuilding and economic development
- To provide good offices, advice, and support to the Government of South Sudan on political transition, governance, and establishment of state authority, including formulation of national policies in this regard;
- To promote popular participation in political processes, including through advising and supporting the Government of South Sudan on an inclusive constitutional process; the holding of elections in accordance with the constitution; to promote the establishment of an independent media; and ensure the participation of women in decision-making forums.
Support the Government of South Sudan in exercising its responsibilities for conflict prevention, mitigation, and resolution and protect civilians
- To exercise good offices, confidence-building, and facilitation at the national, state, and county levels within capabilities to anticipate, prevent, mitigate, and resolve conflict;
- Establish and implement a mission-wide early warning capacity, with an integrated approach to information gathering, monitoring, verification, early warning and dissemination, and follow-up mechanisms;
- Monitor, investigate, verify, and report regularly on human rights and potential threats against the civilian population as well as actual and potential violations of international humanitarian and human rights law, working as appropriate with the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, bringing these to the attention of the authorities as necessary, and immediately reporting gross violations of human rights to the UN Security Council;
- Advise and assist the Government of South Sudan, including military and police at national and local levels as appropriate, in fulfilling its responsibility to protect civilians, in compliance with international humanitarian, human rights, and refugee law;
- Deter violence including through proactive deployment and patrols in areas at high risk of conflict, within its capabilities and in its areas of deployment, protecting civilians under imminent threat of physical violence, in particular when the Government of South Sudan is not providing such security;
- Provide security for United Nations and humanitarian personnel, installations and equipment necessary for implementation of mandated tasks, bearing in mind the importance of mission mobility, and contributing to the creation of security conditions conducive to safe, timely, and unimpeded humanitarian assistance.
Support the Government of South Sudan in developing its capacity to provide security, to establish rule of law, and to strengthen the security and justice sectors
- Support the development of strategies for security sector reform, rule of law, and justice sector development, including human rights capacities and institutions;
- Support the Government of South Sudan in developing and implementing a national disarmament, demobilization and reintegration strategy, in cooperation with international partners with particular attention to the special needs of women and child combatants;
- Strengthen the capacity of South Sudan Police Services through advice on policy, planning, and legislative development, as well as training and mentoring in key areas;
- Support the Government of South Sudan in developing a military justice system that is complementary to the civil justice system;
- Facilitate a protective environment for children affected by armed conflict, through implementation of a monitoring and reporting mechanism;
- Support the Government of South Sudan in conducting de-mining activities within available resources and strengthening the capacity of South Sudan Demining Authority to conduct mine action in accordance with International Mine Action Standards.