UNITED NATIONS PREVENTIVE
Prepared by the Peace and Security Section
UNPREDEP MISSION PROFILE
Former Yugoslav Republic
| DURATION |
March 1995 to
28 February 1999
is under way]
Established on 31 March 1995 to replace UNPROFOR in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. The mandate of UNPREDEP remained essentially the same: to monitor and report any developments in the border areas which could undermine confidence and stability in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and threaten its territory. Effective 1 February 1996, following the termination of the mandates of UNCRO and UNPROFOR , UNPREDEP became an independent mission, reporting directly to United Nations Headquarters in New York. Despite its new status, the operation maintained basically the same mandate, strength and composition of troops. In conjunction with its major tasks of monitoring and reporting on the situation along the borders with the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Albania, the military component of UNPREDEP cooperated with civilian agencies and offered ad hoc community services and humanitarian assistance to the local population. By the end of 1995, UNPREDEP operated 24 permanent observation posts along a 420-kilometre stretch on the Macedonian side of the border with the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Albania. It also operated 33 temporary observation posts. Close to 40 border and community patrols were conducted daily, and United Nations military observers (UNMO's) complemented the work of the battalions.
Adopting resolution 1082(1996) on 27 November 1996, the Security Council extended the mandate of UNPREDEP for a six-month period through 31 May 1997. In view of the crisis in neighbouring Albania, the Council, in resolution 1105(1997) of 9 April 1997, decided on suspending the previously planned reduction of UNPREDEP's military component. By adopting resolution 1110(1997) of 28 May 1997, the Security Council extended the mandate of UNPREDEP for six months through 30 November 1997 and decided to start, after 1 October 1997 and pending prevailing conditions, a two-month phased reduction of the military component by 300 all ranks. The Council again extended the Force mandate in resolution 1140(1997) of 28 November 1997 through 4 December 1997 and; again; on 4 December 1997, in resolution 1140(1997) 1142 (1997), until 31 August 1998.
By adopting resolution 1186/1998 on 21 July 1998, the Security Council reaffirmed its commitment to the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and decided to authorize an increase in the troop strength of UNPREDEP up to 1,050 and to extend the mandate of UNPREDEP for a period of six months until 28 February 1999, to continue deterring threats and preventing clashes, to monitor the border areas, and to report to the Secretary-General any developments which could pose a threat to the host country. The Force was also charged with monitoring and reporting on illicit arms flows and other activities that were prohibited under the Council's 4 December 1997 resolution 1160(1998) .
UNPREDEP maintained close cooperation with the OSCE Spillover Monitor Mission to Skopje and the European Commission Monitoring Mission in FYROM. It also established a working relationship with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Kosovo Verification Coordination Centre and the NATO Extraction Force deployed in the host country (S/1999/161) . The functions of the Force came to an end on 28 February 1999, when the Security Council, on 25 February 1999 (Press Release SC/6648) , did not adopt draft resolution S/1999/201 [S/PV.3982], thereby not renewing the mandate of UNPREDEP due to the veto of China, a permanent Member of the Council .
| SPECIAL REPRESENTATIVE OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL |
Mr. Fernando Valenzuela-Marzo (Spain), appointed 18 December 1998
(S/1998/1191; S/1998/1192); he was preceded by Mr. Henryk J. Sokalski (Poland),
who served in the mandate area from 5 July 1995 to 18 September 1998]
| FORCE COMMANDER
Ove Johnny Stromberg (Norway)
[at end of mandate, 28 February 1999]
| SENIOR POLICE MONITOR |
Hans-Peter Tanner (Switzerland)
[at end of mandate, 28 February 1999]
| STRENGTH |
As of February 1999: Mission total 1,110 uniformed personnel, comprised of 1,049 troops, 35 military observers and 26 civilian police. The UNPREDEP military component consisted of two mechanized infantry battalions - a Nordic composite battalion and a United States Army task force, with some 650 and 350 personnel respectively, supported by a 50-strong heavy engineering platoon from Indonesia, in addition to the military observers and civilian police monitors. UNPREDEP military and police were supported by 203 international and local civilian staff. The international civilian and military personnel were drawn from 50 different nationalities (S/1999/161)
CONTRIBUTORS OF MILITARY PERSONNEL
As of February 1999: (T=Troops; MO=Military Observers; CP=Civilian Police)
Argentina [1MO]; Bangladesh [2 MO]; Belgium [1MO] ; Brazil [1MO]; Canada [2MO]; Czech Republic [1MO]; Denmark [87T, 1MO]; Egypt [1MO], Finland [199T, 1MO, 6CP]; Ghana [1MO]; Indonesia [51T, 2MO]; Ireland [2MO]; Jordan [1MO, 2CP]; Kenya [2MO]; Nepal [1MO]; New Zealand [1M0]; Nigeria [1MO, 4CP]; Norway [152T, 2CP]; Pakistan [2MO]; Poland [2MO]; Portugal [1MO]; Russian Federation [3MO, 2CP]; Sweden [198T, 1MO] Switzerland [1MO, 4CP]; Turkey [4CP]; Ukraine [1MO, 4CP]; United States [362T] (S/1999/161)
| FATALITIES |
As of 31 December 1998: UNPEDEP suffered a total of four fatalities.
[figures provided by the fatality database of the United Nations
Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) ]
| FINANCIAL ASPECTS
On 29 April 1998 (A/51/508/Add.3), the Secretary-General submitted to the General Assembly the budget for the maintenance of UNPREDEP from 1 July 1997 to 30 June 1998, amounting to $49,4 million gross ($47,9 million net). Expenditures for UNPREDEP covering the period 1 July 1996 through 30 June 1997 amounted to $50,4 million gross ($49,5 million net) [A/52/768].
On 26 June 1998, the Assembly appropriated $21.1 million to maintain the Force from 1 July 1998 to 30 June 1999 (Press Release GA/9425) . The Assembly, in resolution 53/20 of 2 November 1998, appropriated an amount of $29 million (gross) for the maintenance of UNPREDEP for the period from 1 July 1998 to 30 June 1999, in addition to the amount of $21 million (gross) already appropriated for this period under its resolution 52/245 of 26 June 1998. The assessment of $16,6 million (gross) for the period from 1 March to 30 June 1999 at a monthly rate of $4,1 million (gross) was subject to the decision of the Security Council to extend the mandate of the Force. The Council, on 25 February 1999, however, did not extend UNPREDEP beyond 28 February 1999 (SC/6648) . As at 31 January 1999, unpaid assessed contributions to the UNPREDEP special account amounted to $20.3 million.
| RECENT DEVELOPMENTS
25 February 1999: UNPREDEP's mandate not renewed beyond 28 February 1999
as Council does not adopt draft on six-month extension due to veto by China
China, on 25 February 1999, used its veto in the Security Council to prevent a renewal of UNPREDEP in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (Press Release SC/6648) . By a vote of 13 in favour, to one against (China), with one abstention (Russian Federation), the Council failed to adopt the eight-nation draft resolution (S/1999/201), sponsored by Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Slovenia, United Kingdom and the United States that would have extended UNPREDEP's mandate for another six months. Speaking after the vote, the Chinese delegate said his Government had always maintained that UN peacekeeping operations, including preventive deployment missions should not be open- ended. The situation in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia had apparently stabilized in the past few years and its relations with neighbouring countries had improved. Several United Nations member States addressed the Council expressing regret at China's veto. They argued that there could be a spill-over of the tensions from Kosovo across the border with the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
Secretary-General Kofi Annan said in a statement after the Council vote that a new approach would have to be adopted by the Government of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and its neighbours, in consultation with regional organizations. In his latest report before the Council vote, the Secretary-General had recommended that UNPREDEP be extended for another six-month period - through 31 August - as taken up in draft resolution S/1999/201 considered on 25 February 1999. The Force's extension was likewise requested by FYROM in letter S/1999/108 of 29 January 1999 addressed to the Secretary-General based on concern over the danger of a spill-over of the Kosovo conflict, increased tensions on the Albanian-Yugoslav border, the unstable situation in Albania itself- which burdened FYROM's efforts to prevent arms trafficking to Kosovo - and the lack of progress in the demarcation of the country's border with the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
12 February 1999: As peace and security in UNPREDEP mandate area
UNPREDEP contributed successfully to preventing the spill-over of conflicts elsewhere in the region to the former Yugoslavia Republic of Macedonia. By promoting dialogue among the various political forces and ethnic communities in the country, the mission had a stabilizing effect in the terrain. The confidence inspired by its presence has defused tensions that could have arisen as a result of the continued crisis in Kosovo. The increase in UNPREDEP's military component by 300 all ranks, authorized by Security Council resolution 1186/1998 , was completed by the beginning of January, thus bringing its strength to 1,050 troops. Pursuant to resolution 1160(1998), UNPREDEP undertook the new tasks of monitoring and reporting on illicit arms flows and other activities prohibited by that Council decision. Newly set up UNPREDEPmobile reaction teams responded to sighted smuggling activities by moving quickly to continue observation and provided more accurate information on whether arms, ammunition or explosives were involved. On average, UNPREDEP military personnel conducted some 400 patrols per week, including 300 border and community patrols, established 80 temporary observation posts (from 3 to 24 hours), and conducted 15 helicopter patrols. The civilian police monitors, in addition, conducted approximately 100 patrols per week.
18 December 1998: Fernando Valenzuela-Marzo of Spain new Special Representative
24 October 1998: Security Council demands full compliance by Belgrade
The United Nations Preventive Deployment Force - UNPREDEP - came into existence in March 1995 when the Security Council set up successor missions for the United Nations Protection Force UNPROFOR in the territories of the former Yugoslavia, including in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM). UNPROFOR was established by the Security Council by resolution 743(1992) of 21 February 1992 to create conditions of peace and security required for the negotiation of an overall settlement of the Yugoslav crisis. The mandate of the Force was extended by subsequent Council resolutions and, on 31 March 1995, by its resolution 981(1995), 982(1995) and 983(1995), the Council established the United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation in Croatia UNCRO , extended the mandate of UNPROFOR in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and decided that UNPROFOR in FYROM would be known as UNPREDEP . The administrative and logistic responsibilities of all three operations were coordinated at the United Nations Peace Force Headquarters UNPF in Zagreb, Croatia.
During the latter part of 1995, the Council terminated the mandates of UNCRO and UNPROFOR and established two new operations; namely the United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina UNMIBH ; and the United Nations Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium: UNTAES . Additionally, the Council extended the mandate of UNPREDEP. In Eastern Croatia, UNTAES came to an end on 15 January 1998 and was succeeded, from 16 January 1998 on, by the United Nations Civilian Police Support Group . The Police Support Group continued monitoring the performance of the Croatian police in the Danube region, particularly with respect to the return of displaced persons, for a single nine-month period ending on 15 October 1998. On 16 October 1998, UNPSG was taken over by a monitoring mission of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe; OSCE.
By adopting resolution 1082(1996) on 26 November 1996, the Security Council extended the mandate of UNPREDEP for a six-month period through 31 May 1997 and due to the crisis in neighbouring Albania, suspended the reduction of the Force's military component through resolution 1105(1997) of 9 April 1997. By adopting resolution 1110 (1997) of 28 May 1997, the Security Council extended the mandate of UNPREDEP for six months through 30 November 1997. The Council later on extended the mission's mandate in resolution 1140 (1997) of 28 November 1997 through 4 December 1997 and; again; on 4 December 1997, in resolution 1142 (1997), until 31 August 1998. Council resolution 1186/1998 of 21 July 1998 decided on an increase in the troop strength of UNPREDEP up to 1,050; and on its mandate extension the mandate of UNPREDEP for a period of six months until 28 February 1999. The mandate included to deter threats and prevent clashes, to monitor the border areas, and to report to the Secretary-General any developments which could pose a threat to the host nation, including the tasks of monitoring and reporting on illicit arms flows and other activities that were prohibited under resolution 1160/1998 of 31 March1998.
The Security Council called on 24 August 1998, by Presidential Statement S/PRST/1998/25 for an immediate ceasefire in Kosovo, emphasizing the need for the achievement of a political solution to the conflict by the authorities of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Kosovo Albanians. The Council reiterated the importance of the implementation of its 31 March 1998 resolution 1160(1998) , by which it banned the sale or supply to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, including Kosovo, of arms and related materiel of all types. By that resolution, it also decided that States should prevent arming and training for terrorist activities in Kosovo. The Council reaffirmed the commitment of all Member States to the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
On 24 August, the Council also considered the 5 August report of the Secretary-General on the Kosovo situation S/1998/712 , which stated that, while all organizations contacted had stated readiness to contribute actively to the monitoring of the prohibitions imposed by resolution 1160(1998) , the overall resources pledged by them would not allow for the establishment of a comprehensive monitoring regime as envisaged in the resolution. Nonetheless, their proposed contributions, coupled with that of the United Nations Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP), would provide a useful framework for reporting on violations of the prohibitions and for assisting the Committee established pursuant to Security Council resolution 1160(1998) in discharging its mandate. The Committee, consisting of all Council members, was established to facilitate implementation of the arms embargo. .
On 14 July 1998, the Secretary-General submitted to the Council follow-up report S/1998/644 on UNPREDEP. Since the start of the Kosovo crisis, the Force had intensified its patrols along the borders with Albania and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and also established temporary observation posts for 24-hour monitoring. The imposition of these additional tasks came when the fulfilment of UNPREDEP's existing responsibilities had already stretched the reduced strength of the operation to the limit. Taking this into account, the Secretary General's report contained the recommendation for the Security Council to extend UNPREDEP for a further period of six months, until 28 February 1999, and to increase UNPREDEP's troop level by 350 all ranks.
Adopting resolution 1186/1998 of 21 July 1998, the Security Council reaffirmed its commitment to the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and decided to authorize an increase in the troop strength of UNPREDEP up to 1,050 and to extend the mandate of UNPREDEP for a period of six months until 28 February 1999.
UN PEACEKEEPING LINKS
Current Missions | Completed Missions | Map of all Missions |
UN DOCUMENTS AND
News - Spokesman's Office Briefings -
United Nations Security Council Documents