General Peace Agreement
Setting up of monitoring mechanism
Establishment of ONUMOZ
Two major agreements signed
Serious problems remain
On the eve of the elections
Elections were "free and fair"
General Peace Agreement
A few years after Mozambique gained independence from Portugal in 1975, the impoverished country was plunged into a long and debilitating civil war between the Government and the Resistência Nacional Moçambicana (RENAMO), supported by South Africa’s apartheid regime. On 4 October 1992, after 14 years of devastating civil war, Mr. Joaquim Alberto Chissano, President of the Republic of Mozambique, and Mr. Afonso Dhlakama, President of RENAMO, signed in Rome a General Peace Agreement establishing the principles and modalities for the achievement of peace in Mozambique. The Agreement called for United Nations participation in monitoring the implementation of the Agreement, in providing technical assistance for the general elections and in monitoring those elections.
Under the Agreement, negotiated with the help of a number of mediators and observers including United Nations representatives, a ceasefire was to come into effect not later than 15 October 1992, referred to as E-Day. The Agreement itself and its seven protocols called for the ceasefire to be followed rapidly by the separation of the two sides' forces and their concentration in certain assembly areas. Demobilization was to begin immediately thereafter of those troops who would not serve in the new Mozambican Defence Force (FADM). Demobilization would have to be completed six months after E-Day. Meanwhile, new political parties would be formed and preparations would be made for elections, scheduled to take place not later than 15 October 1993. A 16 July 1992 Declaration by the Government of Mozambique and RENAMO on guiding principles for humanitarian assistance, a Joint Declaration signed in Rome on 7 August 1992, as well as a Joint Communiqué‚ of 10 July 1990 and an Agreement of 1 December 1990, form integral parts of the General Peace Agreement.
The United Nations was requested to undertake a major role in monitoring the implementation of the Agreement and was asked to perform specific functions in relation to the ceasefire, the elections and humanitarian assistance. The implementation of the Agreement was to be supervised by a Supervisory and Monitoring Commission chaired by the United Nations.
On 9 October 1992, the United Nations Secretary-General submitted to the Security Council a report on the proposed United Nations role in Mozambique, in which he recommended an immediate plan of action and stated his intention, subject to the Council's approval, to appoint an interim Special Representative to oversee United Nations activities in that country.
On 13 October, the Security Council adopted resolution 782 (1992), by which it welcomed the signature of the General Peace Agreement between the Mozambican Government and RENAMO and approved the appointment by the Secretary-General of an interim Special Representative and the dispatch to Mozambique of a team of up to 25 military observers.
On the same day, the Secretary-General appointed Mr. Aldo Ajello as his interim Special Representative for Mozambique [subsequently, in March 1993, Mr. Aldo Ajello was appointed Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Mozambique], and asked him to proceed to Mozambique to assist the parties in setting up the joint monitoring machinery, in finalizing the modalities and conditions for the military arrangements and in carrying out the various other actions that were required of them at the very beginning of the peace process.
The interim Special Representative and the team of 21 military observers, drawn from existing United Nations peacekeeping missions, arrived in Mozambique on 15 October 1992, the day the General Peace Agreement entered into force. On 20 October, two teams of military observers were also deployed to the provincial capitals of Nampula and Beira. Later, two additional outposts were established to verify the withdrawal of foreign troops from Mozambique, which was an important element of the General Peace Agreement. [As the civil war intensified, Malawi and Zimbabwe, with the agreement of the Government of Mozambique, deployed troops in the transport corridors to assist the Government's forces in keeping them open. These corridors, which run across Mozambique from the Indian Ocean to land-locked countries to the north and west, were of critical importance for southern Africa.]
Both Mozambican parties committed themselves to undertake, immediately after, and in some instances before, the entry into effect of the Agreement, specific action to set in motion the joint mechanisms to monitor and verify its implementation. However, no such action had been initiated at the time the interim Special Representative arrived in Mozambique. Upon arrival, he started extensive discussions with the parties concerned in an effort to ensure the early start of implementation of the Agreement.
Meanwhile, major violations of the ceasefire were reported in various areas of the country, and the parties resented official complaints to the interim Special Representative. He urged the two parties to refrain from any type of military operation and to discuss and settle all disputes through negotiations.
The Secretary-General reported on the situation to the President of the Security Council on 23 October. The President, in a statement dated 27 October, expressed the Council's deep concern about the reports of major violations of the ceasefire, called upon the parties to halt such violations immediately and urged them to cooperate fully with the interim Special Representative.
Setting up of monitoring mechanism
In an attempt to avoid further escalation of hostilities, the interim Special Representative called for an early informal meeting of the Government and RENAMO. The initiative was successful, and both parties sent high-level delegations to attend their first meeting in Maputo, the capital of Mozambique. Thereafter, the two delegations met on numerous occasions, both bilaterally and together with the interim Special Representative.
On 4 November 1992, the interim Special Representative appointed the Supervisory and Monitoring Commission (CSC). CSC was to guarantee the implementation of the Agreement, assume responsibility for authentic interpretation of it, settle any disputes that might arise between the parties and guide and coordinate the activities of the other Commissions. It was chaired by the United Nations and was initially composed of Government and RENAMO delegations, with representatives of Italy (the mediator State), France, Portugal, the United Kingdom, the United States (observer States at the Rome talks) and the Organization of African Unity (OAU). In December 1992, Germany also became a member of CSC.
CSC held its first meeting on 4 November 1992 and appointed the main subsidiary commissions: the Ceasefire Commission (CCF), the Commission for the Reintegration of Demobilized Military Personnel (CORE), as well as the Joint Commission for the Formation of the Mozambican Defence Forces (CCFADM).
Establishment of ONUMOZ
On 3 December 1992, the Secretary-General submitted to the Security Council his further report, in which he presented a detailed operational plan for the United Nations Operation in Mozambique (ONUMOZ). Describing the difficulties of the operation, he referred to the size of the country, the devastated state of its infrastructure, the disruption of its economy by war and drought, the limited capacity of the Government to cope with the new tasks arising from the General Peace Agreement and the complexity of the processes envisaged in the Agreement. He also referred to the breadth of responsibilities entrusted to the United Nations under the Agreement.
The Secretary-General expressed his conviction that it would not be possible to create the conditions for successful elections in Mozambique unless the military situation had been brought fully under control, and that the Agreement would not be implemented unless the Mozambican parties made a determined effort in good faith to honour their commitments.
In recommending to the Security Council the establishment and deployment of ONUMOZ, the Secretary-General stated that "in the light of recent experiences elsewhere, the recommendations in the present report may be thought to invite the international community to take a risk. I believe that the risk is worth taking; but I cannot disguise that it exists."
On 16 December 1992, the Security Council, by its resolution 797 (1992), approved the Secretary-General's report and decided to establish ONUMOZ until 31 October 1993. The Council endorsed the Secretary-General's recommendation that the elections not take place until the military aspects of the General Peace Agreement had been fully implemented. It called upon the Mozambican Government and RENAMO to cooperate fully with the United Nations and to respect scrupulously the ceasefire and their obligations under the Agreement.
In accordance with the General Peace Agreement, the mandate of ONUMOZ included four important elements: political, military, electoral and humanitarian. In his 3 December 1992 report, the Secretary-General stressed that the operational concept of ONUMOZ was based on the strong interrelationship between those four components, requiring a fully integrated approach and coordination by the interim Special Representative. Without sufficient humanitarian aid, and especially food supplies, the security situation in the country might deteriorate and the demobilization process might stall. Without adequate military protection, the humanitarian aid would not reach its destination. Without sufficient progress in the political area, the confidence required for the disarmament and rehabilitation process would not exist. The electoral process, in turn, required prompt demobilization and formation of the new armed forces, without which the conditions would not exist for successful elections.
The Office of the Special Representative was to provide overall direction of United Nations activities in Mozambique and would be responsible for political guidance of the peace process, including facilitating the implementation of the General Peace Agreement, in particular by chairing the Supervisory and Monitoring Commission and its subsidiary joint commissions.
ONUMOZ was to monitor and verify the ceasefire, the separation and concentration of forces of the two parties, their demobilization and the collection, storage and destruction of weapons; monitor and verify the complete withdrawal of foreign forces, and provide security in the four transport corridors; monitor and verify the disbanding of private and irregular armed groups; authorize security arrangements for vital infrastructures; and provide security for United Nations and other international activities in support of the peace process.
ONUMOZ's verification of the arrangements for the ceasefire and other military aspects of the peace process in Mozambique was to be carried out mainly by teams of United Nations military observers at the 49 assembly areas in three military regions and elsewhere in the field. Teams were also to be deployed at airports, ports and other critical areas, including RENAMO headquarters.
The military aspects of the United Nations operation in Mozambique was to be closely linked with the humanitarian effort. The approximately 100,000 soldiers who were to come to the assembly areas were to be disarmed, demobilized and reintegrated into civil society. They would need food and other support as soon as the assembly areas were established. An ONUMOZ technical unit, staffed by civilian personnel, was to assist in implementing the demobilization programme and to collaborate closely with the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Assistance (UNOHAC) on the programme's humanitarian aspects.
The General Peace Agreement provided for the withdrawal of foreign troops to be initiated following the entry into force of the ceasefire. Simultaneously, the Supervisory and Monitoring Commission, through the Ceasefire Commission, was to assume immediate responsibility "for verifying and ensuring security of strategic and trading routes", of which the most important were the four transport corridors. ONUMOZ was to assume transitional responsibility for the security of the corridors in order to protect humanitarian convoys using them, pending the formation of the new unified armed forces. Bearing this in mind, ONUMOZ infantry battalions were to be deployed in the corridors.
While the Agreement did not provide a specific role for United Nations civilian police in monitoring the neutrality of the Mozambican police, the Secretary-General proposed to leave open the possibility of introducing a police component into ONUMOZ, should both Mozambican parties so request.
Monitoring of Electoral ProcessUnder the terms of the Agreement, legislative and presidential elections were to be held simultaneously one year after the date of signature of the Agreement. This period might be extended if warranted by the prevailing circumstances.
ONUMOZ's Electoral Division was to monitor and verify all aspects and stages of the electoral process which would be organized by the National Elections Commission. The Division was to provide overall direction and maintain contacts with the Government of Mozambique, RENAMO, the National Elections Commission and the main political parties.
In addition, the Secretary-General's Special Representative was to coordinate technical assistance to the whole electoral process in Mozambique, which was to be provided through the United Nations Development Programme, other existing mechanisms of the United Nations system and the bilateral channels.
The 1992 peace accord set out two objectives for international humanitarian assistance to Mozambique: to serve as an instrument of reconciliation, and to assist the return of people displaced by war and hunger, whether they had taken refuge in neighbouring countries or in provincial and district centres within Mozambique. ONUMOZ's integral component for humanitarian operations - UNOHAC - was to be established in Maputo, with suboffices at the regional and provincial levels. It was to replace the office of the United Nations Special Coordinator for Emergency Relief Operations, which had been responsible for humanitarian assistance programmes in Mozambique. Headed by the Humanitarian Affairs Coordinator, and under the overall authority of the Special Representative, it was to function as an integrated component of ONUMOZ. Operational agencies and the non-governmental aid community were asked to provide representatives to work within UNOHAC.
UNOHAC was also to make available food and other relief for distribution by a technical unit of ONUMOZ to the soldiers in the assembly areas. In order to achieve the successful reintegration of demobilized soldiers, UNOHAC proposed a three-pronged strategy centred on identification of training and employment opportunities, a vocational kits and credit scheme, and a counselling and referral service.
From the outset of ONUMOZ operations in Mozambique, various delays and difficulties of a political, administrative, as well as of a logistical nature seriously impeded the implementation of the General Peace Agreement. In his 2 April 1993 report to the Security Council, the Secretary-General stated that although the ceasefire had largely held, many of the timetables established in the Agreement "proved to be unrealistic". Continuing deep mistrust had resulted in reluctance to begin assembly and demobilization of troops, and contributed to the delay in the deployment of United Nations military observers.
Another complication was RENAMO's insistence that 65 per cent of ONUMOZ troops be deployed before the assembly process began. There were administrative delays in the deployment of ONUMOZ formed military units. A number of logistical and legal problems arose from the absence of a status-of-forces agreement with the Mozambican Government.
As to the elections, the Secretary-General stressed that the military situation in Mozambique must be fully under control for conditions to be created in which a successful election could take place. Having found it evident that the elections could not be held in October 1993 as originally scheduled, he indicated that he would continue discussions with the parties on new dates.
On 14 April, the Security Council, by adopting resolution 818 (1993), stressed its concern about delays and difficulties impeding the peace process in Mozambique, and strongly urged the country's Government and RENAMO to finalize the precise timetable for the full implementation of the provisions of the General Peace Agreement, including the separation, concentration and demobilization of forces, as well as for the elections. The Council also urged both sides urgently to comply with their commitments under the Agreement and to cooperate with the Secretary-General and his Special Representative in the full and timely implementation of the mandate of ONUMOZ.
In the following weeks, due to determined efforts undertaken by the United Nations, many of the difficulties were overcome and, by the beginning of May 1993, ONUMOZ was fully deployed and its military infrastructure established in all three operational regions.
On 30 June, the Secretary-General reported about this and a number of other positive developments which had resulted in forward movement of the peace process in Mozambique. Those included the establishment of the voluntary trust fund to assist RENAMO, the resumption of the work of the Joint Commissions, massive international effort in the humanitarian field, with a sharp increase in the return of refugees and displaced persons. The withdrawal of Zimbabwean and Malawian troops, as provided for in the General Peace Agreement, was successfully completed. Also, a status-of-forces agreement was signed between the Government and the United Nations, which facilitated the entire range of work of ONUMOZ.
However, the establishment of the National Elections Commission and the Commission of State Administration was still pending, cantonment and demobilization of troops as well as the formation of the new army had not commenced. The Secretary-General stated that unless the major provisions of the General Peace Agreement were implemented, the future stability of the country would remain uncertain. There should be no further delay in finalizing a new and realistic timetable for the implementation of the Agreement. The cantonment and demobilization of troops should start soon and be completed early in 1994, and the training of a new Mozambican army should be initiated as soon as possible. To assist in that process, the Secretary-General was willing to grant the request that ONUMOZ, with the consent of the Security Council, assume chairmanship of the Joint Commission for the Formation of the Mozambican Defence Force on the understanding that it would not entail any obligation on the part of the United Nations for training or establishing new armed forces.
The revised timetable, presented by the Secretary-General at that time, took as its point of departure the resumption of the work of the Joint Commissions beginning on 3 June 1993 and concluding 16 months later with the holding of elections in October 1994. The concentration and demobilization of Government and RENAMO troops, to be carried out in stages, was expected to take eight or nine months. The concentration of troops was scheduled to begin in September 1993 and would be followed a month later by the beginning of demobilization. It was expected that 50 per cent of the soldiers should have been demobilized by January 1994, and the demobilization of troops should be completed by May 1994.
It was expected that approximately 30,000 soldiers would be absorbed into the new army and the rest were to return to civilian life. Half the new army was to be operational by May 1994 and formation of the new army was to be completed by September 1994. Home transportation of soldiers who would not be part of the new army was to start in October 1993, after demobilization began, and was to be concluded by April 1994 in order to enable the demobilized soldiers to register for the elections. Voter registration was expected to take three months and was scheduled to be carried out from April to June 1994. The repatriation of refugees and displaced persons was expected to be largely completed by April 1994 so that the resettled population might register in time for the elections.
he Secretary-General stated that although the general parameters of the new timetable were thoroughly discussed, he was still awaiting final agreement from both parties.
By adopting resolution 850 (1993) of 9 July, the Security Council welcomed the progress made in the implementation of the General Peace Agreement but expressed concern over continuing delays, particularly in the assembly and demobilization of forces, the formation of the new unified armed forces, and the finalizing of election arrangements. It approved the Secretary-General's recommendation that ONUMOZ should chair the Joint Commission for the Formation of the Mozambican Defence Force. Further, the Council invited the Government of Mozambique and RENAMO to agree without delay to the revised timetable to implement the provisions of the General Peace Agreement based on the general parameters described by the Secretary-General.
Two major agreements signed
In his progress report presented to the Security Council on 30 August 1993, the Secretary-General stated that the "recent developments in the Mozambican peace process have been encouraging". The most significant development was the "long overdue" start of direct talks between the President of Mozambique, Joaquim Chissano, and the President of RENAMO, Afonso Dhlakama.
The talks had begun on 23 August in Maputo. The Secretary-General strongly urged the parties to turn their dialogue into an ongoing and action-oriented process aimed at bringing the peace process to a successful conclusion. As to the revised timetable, the Secretary-General indicated that although it had not yet been formally approved by the Supervisory and Monitoring Commission, important progress had been made in key areas. The Government explicitly agreed to the October 1994 deadline for the holding of the elections, while RENAMO also expressed its implicit agreement. The Secretary-General reported that he had instructed his Special Representative to follow as closely as possible the revised timetable for assembly and demobilization of forces and the formation of the unified armed forces.
On 10 September 1993, the Secretary-General informed the Security Council that two major agreements had been signed between the Government of Mozambique and RENAMO on 3 September - the outcome of the first meeting between the President of Mozambique and the President of RENAMO after the signing of the General Peace Agreement in October 1992.
By the first agreement, the Government and RENAMO agreed to integrate into the state administration all areas that had been under RENAMO control. That agreement, the Secretary-General believed, would contribute to stability in the country and promote national reconciliation.
By the second agreement, concerning the impartiality of the national police, the parties agreed to request the United Nations to monitor all police activities in the country, public or private, to monitor the rights and liberties of citizens and to provide technical support to the Police Commission (COMPOL) established under the Rome Agreement. The proposed United Nations police contingent would be responsible for verifying that all police activities in the country were consistent with the General Peace Agreement. The Secretary-General planned to send to Mozambique a small survey team of experts and, based on their findings, make recommendations concerning the size of the police component; while awaiting those recommendations, preparations would commence to deploy the 128 ONUMOZ police observers already authorized by resolution 797 (1992) of 16 December 1992.
On 13 September 1993, the Security Council, by resolution 863 (1993), strongly urged the Government of Mozambique and RENAMO "to apply, without further postponement" the revised timetable for implementing the General Peace Agreement, and encouraged the President of Mozambique and the President of RENAMO to continue their direct talks. Further, it urged RENAMO to join the Government in authorizing immediate assembly of forces, and urged both parties to begin demobilizing troops, in accordance with the revised timetable and without preconditions.
Deploring the lack of progress in the multiparty consultative conference, the Security Council urged RENAMO and other political parties to join with the Mozambican Government in quickly agreeing on an electoral law, which should include provision for an effective National Election Commission. The Council called on the Government and RENAMO to make operational, without further delay, the National Commission for Administration, the National Information Commission and the Police Affairs Commission. The Council requested the Secretary-General to examine expeditiously the proposal of the Government of Mozambique and RENAMO for United Nations monitoring of police activities in the country, and welcomed his intention to send a survey team of experts in that connection.
In an attempt to break the stalemate in the peace process, the Secretary-General visited Mozambique from 17 to 20 October 1993. He met with President Chissano and Mr. Dhlakama as well as with leaders of other political parties and representatives of the international community.
On 20 October, the Secretary-General announced a breakthrough in the peace process. Major agreements had been reached between the Government and RENAMO on, among other things, the assembly and demobilization of RENAMO and Government troops as well as the simultaneous disarmament of paramilitary forces, militia and irregular troops; the composition of the National Elections Commission and the system and timetable for finalizing the Electoral Law; and the creation of local National Police Affairs Commission subcommittees to monitor the activities of the Mozambican Police. Following those and other agreements, the revised timetable for the implementation of the Peace Agreement was approved by the Supervisory and Monitoring Commission on 22 October 1993.
On 29 October 1993, the Security Council, by its resolution 879 (1993), decided to extend ONUMOZ's mandate for an interim period terminating on 5 November 1993, pending examination of the Secretary-General's report due under resolution 863 (1993).
The Secretary-General submitted his further periodic report on 1 November 1993. On 5 November, the Security Council, by resolution 882 (1993), decided, inter alia, to renew ONUMOZ's mandate for a period of six months, subject to a proviso that the Council would review the status of the mandate within 90 days based on the further report of the Secretary-General. The Council requested the Secretary-General to report by 31 January 1994 and every three months thereafter on whether the parties had made "sufficient and tangible progress" towards implementing the General Peace Agreement and meeting the timetable.
Deployment of the military component
ONUMOZ carried out extensive operational activities throughout Mozambique. The security of corridors and main roads was ensured by regular road and aerial patrol as well as by vehicle and train escorts provided by United Nations forces. They also provided security to oil-pumping stations, airports, United Nations warehouses, ONUMOZ headquarters and to temporary and permanent arms depots collected from the troops of the both parties. ONUMOZ's military component also contributed to humanitarian activities in the country by providing engineering and medical assistance.
The military observers conducted inspections into allegations of ceasefire violations and assisted in the establishment and preparation of assembly areas. The observers supervised the process of cantonment of troops since its inception.
Assembly and demobilization of troops
Security Council resolution 882 (1993) urged the parties to commence assembly of troops in November 1993 and to initiate demobilization by January 1994 with a view to ensure the completion of the demobilization process by May 1994, in accordance with the timetable signed by the two parties in October 1993.
On 30 November 1993, following a series of lengthy negotiations, troop cantonment formally commenced. The initial 20 of the total 49 assembly areas were opened (12 for the Government and 8 for RENAMO), and the assembly of troops started. Fifteen additional assembly areas were opened on 20 December. During the initial stages of cantonment, government troops assembled in much larger numbers than RENAMO forces. This trend, however, was reversed by mid-December 1993.
There were delays in the dismantling of government paramilitary forces and militia, which was scheduled to begin simultaneously with the assembly and demobilization of regular troops. After several attempts to set a deadline for the beginning of this process, the dismantling of the troops of the paramilitary groups was initiated on 12 January 1994.
Notifications of alleged ceasefire violations were being dealt with by the Ceasefire Commission with the active participation of ONUMOZ. On the whole, formally confirmed ceasefire violations were relatively few and presented no serious threat to the peace process. Basically, they fell into three categories: illegal detention of individuals, alleged movement of troops and occupation of new positions.
Formation of Moazambican defence force
On 22 July 1993, the Joint Commission for the Formation of the Mozambican Defence Force, under United Nations chairmanship, approved the Lisbon Declaration by which France, Portugal and the United Kingdom set out a programme aimed at assisting in the formation of the new unified army. The Commission decided to initiate the training of instructors for the new Mozambican army by sending 540 officers from the Government and RENAMO to a training facility at Nyanga (Zimbabwe). The training of the instructors was completed by 20 December 1993, and these officers were then transported by ONUMOZ to Mozambique on 12 January 1994 to help in training infantry soldiers at the three Mozambican Defence Force training centres.
Meanwhile, the Joint Commission approved a total of 19 documents relating to the organization, operating procedures, uniforms, ranking symbols and training of the unified armed forces and other matters.
On 26 March 1993, the Government of Mozambique prepared and distributed a draft electoral law to RENAMO and other political parties. A multiparty consultative conference to discuss this document was convened on 27 April 1993. However, RENAMO initially refused to attend the meeting on the grounds that it had not had sufficient time to study the text. Smaller parties did attend, but walked out after having presented a declaration demanding material and financial support and alleging that there had been insufficient time for them to analyze the draft.
Although the conference resumed its work on 2 August 1993, with the presence of all political parties, including RENAMO, it reached a deadlock over an article on the composition of the National Electoral Commission, meant to be the representative and impartial body responsible for organizing the parliamentary and presidential elections. This led to a breakdown of discussions.
The deadlock was broken during the Secretary-General's visit to Mozambique from 17 to 20 October 1993 when agreements were reached between the Government and RENAMO on the issues of composition and chairmanship of the National Electoral Commission. Subsequent discussions, however, reached an impasse over four other questions: (a) voting rights for expatriate Mozambicans; (b) composition of the provincial and district elections commissions; (c) composition of the Technical Secretariat for Electoral Administration; and (d) establishment and composition of an electoral tribunal.
On 26 November 1993, a consensus on those questions was finally reached after a number of meetings were held between President Chissano and Mr. Dhlakama in consultation with the Secretary-General's Special Representative.
Following these agreements, the Electoral Law was approved by the Mozambican National Assembly on 9 December 1993, nine days later than envisaged in the agreed timetable. It was promulgated by President Chissano shortly thereafter and entered into force on 12 January 1994. The members of the National Elections Commission were appointed on 21 January 1994.
A major goal of the ONUMOZ humanitarian assistance programme was to respond effectively to the reintegration needs of all Mozambicans, particularly those returning to resettle in their original communities. It had been projected that approximately 6 million Mozambicans would resettle during the following two years, including about 4.0 to 4.5 million internally displaced persons, 1.5 million refugees and 370,000 demobilized soldiers and their dependants. This situation necessitated the programme's shift in emphasis from emergency humanitarian relief towards reintegration and rehabilitation.
Providing humanitarian assistance in the environment created by the General Peace Agreement promoted communication needed to solidify the peace. Humanitarian assistance committees convened by UNOHAC's Field Officers in the provinces expanded contacts among all concerned parties. Support for the repatriation process, the demobilization of armed forces, emergency relief and the restoration of essential services, and mine clearance were the main components of the consolidated humanitarian assistance programme for 1993-1994. The implementation of this programme required some $616 million for the twelve-month period May 1993 - April 1994.
Donor response to the updated humanitarian programme for 1993-1994 resulted in firm donor commitments of more than $536 million towards the target of $616 million. A consolidated humanitarian programme prepared by UNOHAC covering the period May-December 1994 summarized the outstanding resources needed for emergency relief aid, assistance to internal migration and demobilization of former combatants. The humanitarian assistance programme for the last eight months of 1994 was intended to serve as a bridge from the emergency phase to longer-term, post-war reconstruction.
By the end of 1993, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees estimated that more than half of Mozambique's 1.5 million refugees had returned to the country. A further 350,000 were expected to return by the end of 1994, with the remaining 375,000 expected to repatriate during 1995. By October 1994, the international humanitarian assistance programme had also aided the resettlement and reintegration of some 3 million internally displaced persons and 200,000 former combatants and their dependants.
With the demobilization process well under way, UNOHAC focused particular attention on its programme for the reintegration of former combatants into civilian life. Through informal tripartite discussions within the Commission for Reintegration, it was to secure agreement on a three-pronged strategy to address the needs of ex-soldiers.
Although mine clearance programmes were slow to reach the implementation stage, major hurdles were overcome and a National Mine Clearance Plan began coordinating efforts to clear 4,000 km of roads in the initial phase, to develop mine awareness programmes and train Mozambican nationals in mine clearance and related technologies. In May 1994, UNOHAC assumed responsibility for assuring that the objectives of the ONUMOZ mandate for mine clearance were achieved expeditiously. The accelerated programme was aimed at creating and fostering a national capacity for mine clearance. It was hoped that by the end of 1994, 450 Mozambican demining technicians and supervisors would complete training.
Serious problems remain
In his report to the Security Council dated 28 January 1994, the Secretary-General noted that despite significant progress made in the implementation of the General Peace Agreement, several serious problems still remained to be resolved. These included the opening of the 14 remaining assembly sites, initiation and subsequent completion of the actual demobilization, transfer of weapons from assembly areas to regional warehouses, dismantling of the paramilitary forces, provision of financial support for the transformation of RENAMO from a military movement into a political party, and formation of a well-functioning national defence force.
The Secretary-General stated that it was the Mozambicans themselves who bore the main responsibility for success in the implementation of the peace agreement. It was imperative that the two parties honour their commitments and cooperate closely with the United Nations in overcoming existing obstacles.
Large police component authorized
In his 28 January 1994 report, the Secretary-General also stated that recent political developments in Mozambique had evolved in such a way as to allow an increasing shift of focus from monitoring ceasefire arrangements to general verification of police activities in the country and the respect of civil rights.
Therefore, the Secretary-General, in an addendum to his report, recommended the establishment of a 1,114-strong ONUMOZ civilian police component - inclusive of the 128 already authorized by the Council. Being aware of the additional costs associated with the establishment of a sizeable United Nations police presence in the country, he intended, following the expected completion of the demobilization of troops in May 1994, to begin a gradual cut-back of the Mission's military elements.
The ONUMOZ civilian police component (CIVPOL) would be mandated to monitor all police activities in the country and verify that their actions were consistent with the General Peace Agreement; monitor respect of citizens' rights and civil liberties; provide technical support to the National Police Commission; verify that the activities of private protection and security agencies did not violate the General Peace Agreement; verify the strength and location of the government police forces and their materiel; and monitor and verify the process of reorganization and retraining of the quick reaction police, including its activities, weapons and equipment. In addition, CIVPOL, together with other ONUMOZ components, would monitor the proper conduct of the electoral campaign and verify that political rights of individuals, groups and political organizations were respected.
CIVPOL would be a separate component of ONUMOZ under the command of a Chief Police Observer, who would report directly to the Special Representative of the Secretary-General. It would also work closely with the existing electoral, military, humanitarian and administrative components of ONUMOZ. Appropriate liaison arrangements would be established with the national police at all levels, and CIVPOL would establish itself at all strategic locations throughout the country. It would have unrestricted access to the general public, conduct all its own investigations and, when necessary, recommend corrective action.
The Secretary-General recommended that CIVPOL be deployed progressively. The initial phase, during which the central headquarters and regional and provincial capitals teams would be fully established, was to be completed by mid-March 1994. The second phase would coincide with the voter registration process from April to June, during which up to 70 per cent of CIVPOL posts and stations throughout the countryside would become operational. The remainder of the component would be deployed by no later than one month before the beginning of the electoral campaign, which was scheduled to begin on 1 September 1994.
On 23 February 1994, the Security Council, by its resolution 898 (1994), authorized the establishment of the police component, as recommended by the Secretary-General. At the same time, concerned with cost implications, it requested him to prepare immediately specific proposals for the drawdown of military personnel so as to ensure that there be no increase in the operation's costs. He was also requested to prepare a timetable for the completion of the ONUMOZ mandate, including withdrawal of its personnel by the end of November 1994 when the elected government should assume office.
Expressing concern at the continuing delays in the implementation of major aspects of the General Peace Agreement, the Council called upon both parties to comply fully with all the provisions of the Agreement, in particular those concerning the ceasefire and the cantonment and demobilization of troops, as well as with the decisions of the Monitoring and Supervision Commission. It reiterated the vital importance of holding the general elections no later than October 1994 and urged parties to agree promptly on a specific election date.Further developments
In the course of March and April 1994, a number of important developments took place in Mozambique. During that period, there were no military activities in the country that posed a serious threat to the ceasefire or to the peace process as a whole. With the beginning of the demobilization on 10 March, the implementation of the General Peace Agreement entered into another critical phase. The total planned number of 49 assembly areas were open and operational by 21 February.
By mid-April, 55 per cent of Government and 81 per cent of RENAMO soldiers were cantoned. As of 18 April, a total of 12,756 troops (12,195 Government and 561 RENAMO) were demobilized and transported to the districts of their choice. This corresponded to 20 per cent of Government and 3 per cent of RENAMO soldiers. The training programme for the new Mozambican Armed Forces (FADM), inaugurated in March, provided training for some 2,000 soldiers. The leaders of the FADM, Generals Lagos Lidimo of the Government and Mateus Ngonhamo of RENAMO, were sworn into office on 6 April as joint commanders of the new army.
On 11 April, the President of Mozambique announced that the general elections would take place on 27 and 28 October 1994. The National Elections Commission had been inaugurated in February 1994, and its 10 provincial offices established by the end of March. The Technical Secretariat for Elections Administration had initiated its activities on 11 February. The Government decree that officially established the Secretariat promulgated on 13 April.
As of 18 April, 278 members of the ONUMOZ police component, authorized by Security Council resolution 898 (1994) of 23 February, had already arrived in Mozambique and had been deployed throughout the country.
Considerable progress was made in resettling internally displaced persons and Mozambican refugees returning from neighbouring countries. The United Nations, in collaboration with other organizations concerned and bilateral donors, was pursuing programmes to assist the remaining 1 million internally displaced persons and 800,000 refugees to be resettled.
However, in his 28 April 1994 progress report to the Security Council, the Secretary-General stated that in spite of those positive developments, some serious difficulties continued to hinder the timely completion of the peace process. Especially worrying were the delays in the assembly of Government troops, the demobilization of RENAMO troops and the training of the FADM. In addition, the National Elections Commission might face potential practical difficulties in the complex process of voter registration. A number of problems also persisted in the areas of logistics, finance, the identification of party representatives and free access by the political parties to all districts of Mozambique.
At the same time, the Secretary-General believed that the "major political conditions for the timely completion of this Mission are in place". Having said that ONUMOZ continued to play a vital role in the peace process, he recommended to the Security Council that it extend the existing mandate of ONUMOZ until 31 October 1994. He expected that liquidation of the Mission would be completed by 31 January 1995.
The Secretary-General was making every effort to ensure that the deployment of the civilian police component would not entail an overall increase in the costs of the Mission. As requested by Security Council resolution 898 (1994) of 23 February, he outlined his plans for the reduction of the military elements of ONUMOZ. Some redeployment of the military units was also recommended.
On 5 May 1994, the Security Council, by its resolution 916 (1994), renewed the mandate of ONUMOZ at a reduced strength for a final period until 15 November 1994, subject to the proviso that it would review the mandate by 15 July and 5 September based on progress reports by the Secretary-General.Progress reported
As requested, the Secretary-General reported to the Security Council on 7 July 1994. He stated that while significant progress had been made in many areas of the Mozambican peace process, and especially in the electoral sphere, serious problems still remained because of delays in the completion of the assembly and demobilization of troops belonging to the Government and to RENAMO, and in the formation of the FADM. The Secretary-General stressed that it was imperative that the assembly and demobilization of troops be accelerated dramatically if the established deadline was to be met. Referring to the problems encountered in the selection of the agreed number of 30,000 soldiers for the FADM, and the unlikelihood that all would be trained by October, he suggested that it would be preferable for 15,000 to be trained after the elections.
In a statement by its President issued on 19 July, the Security Council, while welcoming progress achieved, expressed concern at continuing delays in the implementation of the General Peace Agreement and decided to send a mission to Mozambique to discuss with the parties how best to ensure its full and timely implementation.
After visiting Mozambique from 7 to 13 August 1994, the nine-member Security Council mission concluded that despite the delays and difficulties experienced up to that point, the elections would be held on the dates agreed and under the conditions set out in the Agreement.
In his further progress report submitted to the Security Council on 26 August, the Secretary-General stated that several of the difficulties cited in his previous reports had been overcome. The process of assembly of Government and RENAMO soldiers was concluded and the demobilization of those soldiers was almost complete. A number of decisions had been taken with regard to formation of a new army. The Secretary-General noted further that the ceasefire was remarkably well respected. ONUMOZ military personnel continued to verify the demobilization process and monitor security along the corridors and main routes of the country. CIVPOL established itself in major cities and towns and in 44 field posts.
The electoral process was progressing well. Voter registration for elections began on 1 June and was extended until 2 September. As of 22 August, more than three quarters of the estimated eligible voter population of 7,894,850 were already registered. The electoral campaign was scheduled to begin on 22 September. The trust fund was fully established in order to assist the political parties to organize and prepare themselves for active participation in the forthcoming elections.
The Secretary-General also pointed to the considerable progress made in implementing humanitarian programmes in Mozambique, contributing to the overall efforts to achieve national reconciliation. About 75 per cent of those who were internally displaced at the time of signature of the General Peace Agreement had been resettled. There were still an estimated 342,000 refugees in neighbouring countries who were expected to return to Mozambique by the end of 1994. Some progress was also made in the de-mining programme.
The Secretary-General concluded that by all indications, the necessary conditions for holding the elections on 27 and 28 October, as scheduled, were in place. At the same time, the Secretary-General was concerned about the deteriorating security situation in Mozambique. Rioting among soldiers, both inside and outside assembly areas, continued to escalate until early August, when most soldiers had been or were in the process of being demobilized. In addition, the crime level rose dramatically in both rural and urban areas. The increasing security problems necessitated ONUMOZ to step up its patrolling of the major routes and to reinforce guarding of United Nations properties and key locations.
The Secretary-General stated that ONUMOZ had an important role to play in assisting the Government in providing security to various activities in support of the peace process. He considered it important to step up all ONUMOZ operations aimed at maintaining security and public order, particularly in the crucial period surrounding the elections.
"As the peace process approaches its final leg, it will be incumbent upon all concerned in Mozambique to double their efforts to ensure that the elections are conducted in a free and fair manner and that the transitional period promotes national reconciliation and stability", the Secretary-General said in conclusion. He also reminded all parties of their obligation to respect the results of the elections.
On 7 September, the Security Council, through a statement by its President, expressed satisfaction with the pace of the peace process and a cautious optimism that Mozambicans would be able to fulfil the goals of the peace process, achieving democracy, lasting peace, and a responsible, representative government in their country. The Council restated its intention to endorse the results of the elections provided the United Nations declared them as free and fair. It encouraged the parties to continue their efforts in good faith to ensure post-electoral harmony.On the eve of the elections
In his 21 October report to the Security Council, the Secretary-General stated that essential conditions existed for holding free and fair elections. There had been no violation of the ceasefire for many months; voter registration had concluded in an orderly manner; and the electoral campaign was in its active phase. More than 76,000 soldiers had been demobilized and a unified army comprising approximately 10,000 soldiers had been formed. The number of incidents of violent rioting in the country significantly decreased and the political situation was relatively calm.
On the negative side, the Secretary-General noted that the atmosphere during the electoral campaign was tense and armed banditry had become widespread. This situation was exacerbated by the continuing proliferation of weapons despite the fact that 111,539 weapons had been collected from troops of the two parties and 43,491 from the paramilitary forces. He also referred to some public pronouncements made by certain candidates which could cast doubt on their commitments to accept the results of the elections.
The Secretary-General further stated that there was an obvious risk that political temperatures would rise before and immediately after the poll and that particular caution and statesmanship would be required at that time. The future of Mozambique, he concluded, lay in the hands of its people and their leaders.
The Security Council, in a statement issued on 21 October, also expressed its belief that the necessary conditions had been established for holding free and fair elections on 27 and 28 October under effective national and international monitoring. The Council appealed to all concerned to ensure that the election campaign and subsequent voting be calmly and responsibly conducted and that the elections be held freely and fairly. It also appealed that those in authority act with complete impartiality and that there be no violence or threat of violence during the election days and their aftermath. The Council reminded the parties of their obligation, under the General Peace Agreement, fully to abide by the results.Elections
On the eve of the elections, the international community deployed approximately 2,300 electoral observers, including some 900 from the United Nations, to observe and verify the polling and the counting of votes in all provinces of the country. Several organizations, including OAU, the European Union and the Association of European Parliamentarians for Southern Africa, sent teams of their own electoral observers.
As scheduled, the election polls opened on 27 October. However, the peace process was immediately threatened when the President of RENAMO, Mr. Afonso Dhlakama, after alleging that there had been certain irregularities in the election process, announced his decision to withdraw from the elections.
On the same day, the Security Council, through its President, sent a message to Mr. Dhlakama appealing to him to reconsider his decision and saying that appropriate procedures were in place through the National Elections Commission whereby any concern RENAMO might have could be addressed. The Secretary-General also issued a statement stating that the parties must fully honour their commitments and the elections must go ahead as planned and agreed by the parties.
Meanwhile, the Secretary-General's Special Representative was engaged in an intensive effort to resolve the situation and was in contact with Mr. Dhlakama. His efforts were fully supported by the ambassadors of States members of the Supervision and Control Commission and other ambassadors in Maputo. In addition, the Presidents of South Africa, Zimbabwe and several other countries of the region were active in assisting to resolve the situation.
Despite Mr. Dhlakama's call to boycott the elections, United Nations monitors reported large turnouts and no major irregularities at polling stations; more than half of the registered voters cast their ballots on the first day. RENAMO monitors were present at many stations, although some were said to have withdrawn.
On 28 October, Mr. Dhlakama reversed his position and decided to vote. The voting period was extended by one day to 29 October to allow a high turnout and the resolution of difficulties before the polls closed. Meanwhile, the National Elections Commission in close cooperation with ONUMOZ undertook to make every effort to ensure that the complaints about irregularities submitted by RENAMO and certain other opposition parties were fully investigated.
When the polls closed on 29 October, in some provinces more than 90 percent of the registered electorate had voted. According to a preliminary statement by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General, the elections were conducted peacefully, in a well-organized manner, and without any major irregularities or incidents. He stressed that United Nations observation could not support any claim of fraud or intimidation, or any other pattern of incidents that could affect the credibility of the elections. He said that the counting of ballots was under way, and that ONUMOZ would maintain its vigilance. Once the count was completed, he would be in a position to make an official pronouncement on the freedom and fairness of the entire electoral process.Elections were "free and fair"
In a letter dated 9 November to the President of the Security Council, the Secretary-General recalled that in his 26 August 1994 report, he had indicated that the withdrawal of ONUMOZ would begin after the elections and would be concluded by the end of January 1995. In that report, the Secretary-General mentioned that the presence of the United Nations in Mozambique would be required until such time as the new Government took office.
In the letter, the Secretary-General informed the Council that the installation of the new Government in Mozambique was expected to take place by 15 December 1994, following the publication of the final electoral results. He therefore recommended that the mandate of ONUMOZ be extended accordingly. During that period, ONUMOZ would continue its functions of good offices, as well as its verification and monitoring activities, as mandated by the relevant Security Council resolutions.
On 15 November, the Security Council, by its resolution 957 (1994), decided to extend the existing mandate of ONUMOZ until the new Government took office, but no later than 15 December, and authorized it to complete residual operations prior to its withdrawal on or before 31 January 1995.
The Council welcomed the elections held in Mozambique from 27 to 29 October. It reiterated its intention to endorse the results, should the United Nations declare the elections free and fair, and called on the parties to accept and fully abide by them.
In accordance with the Electoral Law, the results of the national count were to be announced within 15 days of the close of the polls. However, the counting process took longer than initially foreseen. This was mainly due to the need to ensure absolute accuracy and transparency under the scrutiny of political party monitors and United Nations observers. In addition, mathematical errors complicated the computerization of the data at the provincial level.
The results of the first multiparty elections in Mozambique were announced by the National Elections Commission on 19 November 1994. The incumbent President, Mr. Chissano, won the presidential election with 2,633,740 votes, amounting to 53.3 per cent of those cast in the election. The leader of RENAMO, Mr. Dhlakama, received 1,666,965 votes, or 33.7 per cent. The candidate receiving the third largest number of votes (2.9 per cent) was Mr. Wehia Ripua of the Partido Democr tico de Mo‡ambique (PADEMO). A total of 5,402,940 persons, representing 87.9 per cent of all registered voters, participated in the presidential election. Blank votes amounted to 5.8 per cent, while 2.8 per cent were considered invalid by the National Elections Commission. In the legislative election, the Mozambique Liberation Front (FRELIMO) received the largest share of the votes with 2,115,793 (44.3 per cent), followed by RENAMO with 1,803,506 votes (37.8 per cent) and the Uniao Democratica (UD) with 245,793 votes (5.2 per cent). Those three parties would have the following share of the new Parliament's 250 seats: FRELIMO - 129, RENAMO - 109 and UD - 12.
On the same day, the Secretary-General's Special Representative stated that the electoral process was characterized by the impartiality, the dedication and the high degree of professionalism displayed by the electoral authorities. It was distinguished by the strong commitment of the political players to let the principles of democracy prevail, and it confirmed the will of Mozambican people to live in peace and harmony.
The Special Representative noted that although problems occurred, irregularities were recorded and disruption did take place, there was no event or series of events, throughout the entire process, which could affect the overall credibility of the elections.
On behalf of the United Nations, the Special Representative declared that the elections held in Mozambique from 27 to 29 October 1994 were free and fair. The Secretary-General also issued a statement, in which he congratulated the people and the leaders of Mozambique on the successful outcome of the elections, and called on all Mozambicans to pursue the task of national reconciliation and to ensure that peace and stability prevailed in their country and region.
On 21 November, the Security Council, by its resolution 960 (1994), endorsed the results of the Mozambican elections, and called on all parties to stand by their obligation to accept and fully abide by the results. It also called on them to continue the process of national reconciliation based on a system of multi-party democracy and the observance of democratic principles.ONUMOZ terminated
Mozambique's new Parliament was installed in Maputo on 8 December 1994, and Mr. Chissano was inaugurated as President of Mozambique on 9 December 1994. Thus, the mandate of ONUMOZ formally came to an end at midnight on 9 December. However, ONUMOZ continued to carry out residual functions until the Mission was fully liquidated at the end of January 1995.