Security sector reform
It is essential that reform of a country's security sector takes place once a conflict has come to an end. It is vital for sustainable peace and development that people feel safe and secure, and have confidence in their State.
UN Photo/Fred Noy
The United Nations supports security sector reform (SSR) to ensure the development of effective, efficient, affordable and accountable security institutions.
SSR aims to enhance effective and accountable security for the State and its peoples. SSR transforms institutions to make them more professional and more accountable. It is a process led by national authorities and the reform should be undertaken without discrimination and with full respect for human rights and the rule of law.
What are security sectors?
No single model of a security sector exists. However, the UN considers that security sectors usually include structures, institutions and personnel responsible for the management, provision and oversight of security. These could include defence, law enforcement, corrections, intelligence services and institutions responsible for border management, customs and civil emergencies. In some cases, elements of the judicial sector responsible for cases of alleged criminal conduct and misuse of force are included. The security sector should also include management and oversight bodies and, in some instances, may involve informal or traditional security providers.
The reform of a country's security sector is essential in post-conflict contexts. In those settings, making people feel safe and secure and (re)-building confidence between the State and its peoples is vital for sustainable peace and development. In other contexts, SSR can even prevent conflicts or crises from emerging or resurging and it is also a process that many States undertake on a regular basis to respond to emerging threats or potential internal or external pressures.
How does UN Peacekeeping help?
The Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) has been assisting in the reform of individual components of the security sector, such as police services, for decades. However, it is only recently that DPKO has started supporting those efforts at the strategic level and in a holistic way, across all components.
The SSR Unit in DPKO serves as the focal point and technical resource capacity on SSR for the United Nations system and national and international partners. Specifically, the SSR Unit supports the rapidly expanding range of field Missions involved in assisting national and regional SSR efforts, primarily at the sector-wide level of SSR.
- United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA)
- United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA)
- United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH)
- United Nations Office in Burundi (BNUB)
- United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO)
- United Nations Integrated Peace-building Office in Guinea-Bissau (UNIOGBIS)
- United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL)
- United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS)
- United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL)
- United Nations Office to the African Union (UNOAU)
- United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire (UNOCI)
- United Nations Office for West Africa (UNOWA)
- United Nations Assistance Mission in Somalia (UNSOM)
In the field, our teams support national authorities to:
- facilitate national SSR dialogues
- develop national security policies, strategies and plans
- strengthen oversight, management and coordination capacities
- articulate security sector legislation
- mobilize resources for SSR-related projects
- harmonize international support to SSR
- education, training and institutional building
- monitor and evaluate programmes and results
- undertake defence sector reform
Delivering as one UN
The Secretary-General established an Inter-Agency SSR Task Force that is co-chaired by DPKO and UNDP with representation from 14 UN entities engaged in SSR. The goal of the Task Force is to enhance the UN capacity to deliver more efficient and more effective support to national SSR efforts, as one.
- Rule of Law, Peace and Security
- Security Council Resolution 2151 (2014) - The maintenance of international peace and security: Security sector reform: challenges and opportunities
- Report of the Secretary-General - Securing States and societies: strengthening the United Nations comprehensive support to security sector reform (A/67/970–S/2013/480)
- Report of the Secretary-General - Securing peace and development: the role of the United Nations in supporting security sector reform (A/62/659–S/2008/39)
Securing States and Societes through Security Sector Reform